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Full text of "Indiana's roll of honor"

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INDIANA'S 






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BY DAVID STEVENSON, 



LIBRARIAN OF INDIANA. 



VOLUME I. 



INDIANAPOLIS: 

PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHOR 
1864. 



Entered according to act of Congress, in the year 1864, by 

DAVID STEVENSON", 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, for 

the District of Indiana. 

J. C. Buttre, New York, Engraver; H. H. Dodd & Co., Stereotypers, 
Printers and Binders, Indianapolis. 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER I. 

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT. 

Growth of Indiana — Comparison of Her Military Resources with those 
of Great Britain — Materiel of War — Purchase of Arms — The 
State Arsenal — Quartermaster's and Commissary's Departments — 
The Soldiers' Home — Organization of Troops — Care of Soldiers 
— Sanitary Commission — Surgeons — City Hospital, 13-32 

CHAPTER II. 

THREE MONTHS' CAMPAIGN IN WESTERN VIRGINIA. 

The Situation — Diversity of Sentiment — Secession of Virginia — Wes- 
tern Virginia refuses to Secede, and Establishes a Provisional 
Government — Gen. McClellan Assigned to Command of Depart- 
ment — Visits Indianapolis and Reviews Troops — Gen. T. A. 
Morris — Federal Troops Sent to Western Virginia — Gen. 
McClellan's Address to the Union Citizens — Battles of Philippi, 
Laurel Hill, Rich Mountain, and Carrick's Ford — Death of Gen. 
Garnett — Return of Three Months' Volunteers, 33—64 

CHAPTER III. 

HISTORY OF REGIMENTS. 

History of the Organization of the Sixth, Seventh, Eighth, Ninth, 
Tenth and Eleventh Regiments for the Three Months' Service, 

65-116 

CHAPTER IV. 

FIRST POTOMAC CAMPAIGN. 

Early Operations on the Potomac — Eleventh Indiana Ordered to 
Cumberland, Maryland — Destruction of Harper's Ferry — 

ni 



IV CONTENTS. 

Destruction of G-osport Navy Yard — Attack on Massachusetts 
Troops while Passing through Baltimore — Landing of Federal 
Troops at Alexandria — Battle of Bethel — Ambuscade at Vienna 
— Gen. Patterson's Corps — Battles of Bull Bun and Manassas, 

117-134 

CHAPTER V. 

KANAWHA CAMPAIGN. 

Appointment of Gen. Rosecrans — Guerrilla Warfare — Situation of 
Union Forces — Gen. Lee — Position of Rebel Army — Designs 
of Confederate Leaders — The Kanawha — Gen. Cox's March to 
Charleston — The Policy with Prisoners — Gen. Rosecrans' 
Address — The Gauley — Battle of Cross Lanes — March to the 
Grauley — Battle of Carnifax Ferry — Retreat of Gen. Floyd, 

135-152 

CHAPTER VI. 

CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 

Gen. Reynolds Assumes Command — Disposition of Troops — Descrip- 
tion of Camps — Camp at the Summit — The Pass — Elk Water — 
Scouting — Incidents — The Advance and Repulse of Gen. Lee — 
Scouting Again — Battle of Greenbrier — Evacuation of Camp 
Bartow — Battle of Allegheny — Huntersville, 153-204 

CHAPTER VII. 

REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

History of the Organization and Services of the Thirteenth and Four- 
teenth Regiments, with their Marches, Battles, Incidents, &c, 

205-234 

CHAPTER VIII. 

ARMY OP THE POTOMAC. 

Gen. McClellan Organizes the Army — Extent of its Lines — Affair at 
Lewinsville — Battle of Ball's Bluff — Death of Col. Baker — 
Retirement of Gen. Scott — Appointment of Gen. McClellan as 
Commander-in-Chief — Battle of Drainsville — Division of the 
Army into Corps — Advance on Manassas — Advance on Winches- 
ter — Advance on Fredericksburgh — Address of Gen. McClellan 
to the Army, . 235-244 



COXTENTo. V 

CHAPTER IX. 

ARMY OF THE POTOMAC — PENINSULA CAMPAIGN. 

Arrival at Fortress Monroe — March up the Peninsula — Seige of 
Yorktown — Battles of Williamsburgh and West Point — Capture 
of Norfolk — Situation before Richmond — Battle of Fair Oaks — 
Stuart's Cavalry Raid — The Situation — Battle of Orchards — 
Incidents — Further Movements — Battle of Gaines' Mills — The 
Retreat — Battles of Peach Orchard and Savage Station — The 
Rout — Battles of White Oak Swamp and Glendale — The Situa- 
tion — Battle of Malvern Hill — Closing Scenes — After the Battle 
— Camp at Harrison's Landing, 245-288 

CHAPTER X. 

ARMY OF VIRGINIA. 

Gen. Pope Assigned to the Command — Battle of Cedar Mountain — 
Movements of the Enemy — March of the Army of the Potomac 
Across the Peninsula — Joins the Army of Virginia — Jackson's 
Raid on Manassas — Fight at Bull Run Bridge and Kettle Run — 
Battles at Manassas — Retreat of the Union Army — Battle of 
Chantilly — Death of Gen. Kearney— Re-appointment of Gen. 
McClellan, 289-314 

CHAPTER XI. 

MARYLAND CAMPAIGN. 

Gen. Lee Crosses the Potomac — Movements of the Army of the 
Potomac — Battles of South Mountain, Crampton's Gap, and 
Antietam — Reconnoissance — Stuart's Cavalry Raid, 315-330 

CHAPTER XII. 

burnside's campaign. 
Army re-crosses the Potomac — Gen. McClellan removed and Gen. 
Burnside appointed — Charge of Sigel's Body Guard into Frede- 
ricksburgh — Army in Camp on the north bank of the Rappa- 
hannock — The Situation — Battle of Fredericksburgh — Mud 
March — In Camp Again — General Order No. eight, 331-346 



VI CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XIII. 

REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

History of the Organization and Services of the Nineteenth and 
Twentieth Infantry Regiments, Third Cavalry and Sixteenth Bat- 
tery, with the Marches, Battles, Incidents, &c, and Biographical 
Sketches of Lieut. Col. Bachman, Capt. Drum, Col. William L. 
Brown, Col. John Wheeler, and Lt. John W. Andrew, 347-420 

CHAPTER XIV. 

SHENANDOAH VALLEY. 

Appointment of General Lander — Bloomery Gap — General Shields 
appointed — Movement on Winchester — Battle of Winchester — 
Battle of Front Royal — Retreat of General Banks — Fremont's 
Pursuit of Jackson — Battle of Cross Keys — Battle of Port 
Republic, 421-436 

CHAPTER XV. 

MISSOURI CAMPAIGN. 

Introductory — Capture of Camp Jackson — Gen. Harney's Address — 
Gen. Harney Relieved — Appointment of Gen. Lyon — Gov. Jack- 
son calls for fifty thousand men — Gen. Lyon takes the field — Bat- 
tle of Booneville — Col. Sigel — Battle of Carthage — Skirmish at 
Monroe Station — Arrival of Fremont — Skirmish at Bug Springs 
— Occupation of Bird's Point — Skirmish at Athens — Battle of 
Wilson's Creek — Death of Gen. Lyon — Disaster to Sigel's col- 
umn — More aid for Missouri — Defense of Lexington — Skir- 
mishes and Guerrilla Operations — Death of Major Tanner — 
Battle of Fredericktown — Death of Major Gavitt and Capt. 
Highman — Fremont's Pursuit of Price — Gen. Halleck's Admin- 
istration — Black Water Expedition — Battle of Silver Creek — 
Battles of Pea Ridge, Leeville and Elk Horn Tavern, 437-488 

CHAPTER XVI. 

REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

tlistory of the Organization and Services of the Twenty-Second 
Regiment, with its Marches, Battles, Incidents, &c, with Bio- 
graphical Sketches of Major Gordon Tanner and Lieut. Col. S. I. 
Keith, 489-508 



CONTENTS. VII 

CHAPTER XVII. 

INVASION OF KENTUCKY. 

Position of Kentucky — State Guard — Assembling of the Legislature 
— Gov. Magoffin to President Lincoln and Jefferson Davis — Gen. 
Polk Occupies Columbus — Excitement in Kentucky — Appoint- 
ment of Gen. Anderson — Neutrality Repudiated — Arrival of 
Troops from Indiana and Ohio — Appointment of Gen. Buell — 
Fight at Munfordsville — Defeat of Humphrey Marshall — Battle 
of Mill Springs — Evacuation of Beech Grove — Occupation of 
Bowling Green and Nashville, 509-532 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

History of the Organization and Services of the Thirty-Third Regi- 
ment, with its Marches, Battles, Incidents, &c, with an account 
of the Cumberland Gap Expedition — Characteristic Sketch of 
the Thirty-Fifth (Irish) Regiment, with its Marches, Battles, 
Characters^ Incidents, &c, and Biographical Sketches of Adju- 
tant Mullen and Captain Prosser. 533-584 



_ . - 
CHAPTER XIX. 

GRANT'S FIRST CAMPAIGN. 

Gen. Grant at Cairo — Battle of Belmont — Capture of Fort Henry — 
Fort Donelson — The Situation — The Battle — Expedition up the 
Tennessee — Pittsburgh Landing — The Situation — Battle of 
Shiloh— First Day— Arrival of Buell— Second Day, 585-610 

CHAPTER XX. 

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

Biographical Sketches of Lieut. Gwin, U. S. N., Col. Hathaway, 
Major Abbett, Major Am, Lieut. Col. Topping, Private Dodds, 
Sergeant Wylie, Col. Bass, Col. Link, Major May, Sergeant 
Kemper, Brig. Gen. Hackleman, and Private Bassett, 611-654 



TO THE MEMORY OP 

INDIANA'S PATRIOTIC DEAD, 

THIS WORK 

IS RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED 

BY THE AUTHOR. 



# 



INTRODUCTION. 



The General Assembly of the State of Indiana, at its ses- 
sion of 1862-3, unanimously passed the following resolution : 

"Resolved, That it shall be the duty of the State Librarian 
to carefully collect, and arrange, in the manner hereinafter 
prescribed, for future preservation, for the use of the State, 
the names of all the Indiana soldiery (officers and men), who 
have fallen in this struggle, or who may hereafter fall, whether 
by disease or by the violence of the enemy; the time, place, 
and cause of their death ; their names, ages, places of nativity 
and residence; place and date of enlistment, draft or ^substi- 
tution ; regiment, company, commanding officers, from Colo- 
nel to Captain inclusive; length of service; the battles, skir- 
mishes, or any other engagements with the enemy, in which 
they may have participated; and any other incidents of spe- 
cial interest connected with their history; and if officers, the 
office, date of commission, division, brigade, regiment or 
company, commanded by them, or to which they were 
attached, with the promotions, if any, and the causes for the 
same, and any and all other matters that may be interesting 
and useful in the transmission of these illustrious names, to 
the posterity of the State. That the whole be inscribed in 
a clear and legible hand, in such form as to be convenient for 
printing, in a large and suitable book or books, entitled 
< Indiana's Roll of Honor/ and the same to be placed in the 
Library of the State.' 

The above resolution suggested the idea of the present 
work. It was at first my intention to have published in con- 

IX 



X INTRODUCTION. 

nection with the "Roll" contemplated by the Legislature, a 
volume of sketches of our most distinguished dead. On 
visiting the armies much valuable information respecting the 
services of our Indiana regiments was obtained. To put 
this in proper form so that it might be preserved for the use 
of the future historian seemed an object worthy of ambition. 
Having collected the necessary materials, it soon became 
apparent that in order to make the regimental sketches 
intelligible to the reader it would be necessary to give an 
account of the various campaigns, and general descriptions 
of the several battles in which our regiments participated. 
Thus the work has grown to its present dimensions. 

The "Roll" contemplated by the resolution of the Legis- 
ture will be published in the last volume of this work. The 
second volume will be devoted chiefly to regimental histories 
and biographical sketches. 

I acknowledge my obligations to many officers and soldiers 
for valuable information furnished, without which it would 
have been impossible to have prepared reliable sketches either 
of campaigns or regiments. 

This volume is illustrated only with the portraits (the 
frontispiece excepted) of those who have sealed with their 
lives their devotion to our Government. The next volume 
will contain the portraits of the most prominent of our living 
officers. 

Never has any nation of the earth increased so rapidly as 
the United States. In 1793 the population of New York 
was thirty-three thousand, it is now over four millions. In 
1793 the entire population of the United States was a little 
over three millions, it was, in 1860, nearly thirty-two mil- 
lions. Forty-five years ago this place (Indianapolis) was a 
thick forest, now we have a population of thirty-five thousand. 
There is nothing in the history of the world that will com- 
pare with the growth of the United States. The Hebrew 
State did not reach its glory in the days of Solomon, but by 
the slow progress of five hundred years. The Assyrian 
Empire was twelve hundred years in rising to its enormous 
magnitude It took Greece ten centuries to reach her Athe- 
nian power. It took Rome seven centuries to arrive at the 



INTRODUCTION. XI 

splendor of the Augustan age, but in this land where a cen- 
tury ago its broad plains and lofty mountains were covered 
with the unbroken green of the forest, or waving grass of 
the wide prairie, we now see large and populous cities. 

It has been customary for orators in describing our national 
career, to say that we have, by a single bound, sprung from 
infancy to manhood; but the truth is, we have had no 
national infancy — we have had no barbarism to overcome. 
The first cry of this nation was for liberty, and her first 
struggle secured it. We began our national career with the 
accumulated experience of sixty centuries. The Declaration 
of Independence is a monument more enduring than marble 
or granite, of the intelligence and wisdom of its framers. 
The heroes of the revolution bequeathed to their children, 
the richest of all earthly legacies — republican institutions ! 
Whether this rich legacy will prove a blessing or a curse, 
depends, under God, on the course pursued by the present 
generation. 

Were this Government destroyed by the hands of her own 
misguided and infatuated children, it would be the deadliest 
blow that has ever been given to the cause of virtue, and the 
greatest obstruction that has ever happened to the onward 
march of civil and religious liberty. Unto America are 
turned the anxious eyes of all nations, to see the result of the 
experiment we are now making of popular self-government, 
and of the ability of a free people to sustain the Government 
of their own choice. From this land, consecrated to freedom 
by the blood of our fathers, goes forth the only ray of hope 
to cheer the fainting heart of the oppressed nations of the 
earth. Shall this ray, now so dim and flickering, be totally 
extinguished? Destroy this Government, and what becomes 
of the fair genius of liberty which has been driven out from 
older climes? Is she, broken-hearted, doomed to be an out- 
cast in the land of her adoption? 

Americans ! what will posterity say of us, as they read the 
history of these times, should they learn that we tamely and 
ignobly surrendered the most inestimable of all earthly bless- 
ings — a free Republican Government? If we have one spark 
of gratitude to the heroes of the Revolution; if we have any 



XII INTRODUCTION. 

veneration for things sacred; if we have one tender feeling 
for our children; if we would not be despised and execrated 
by all the nations of the earth, let us, with determined pur- 
pose, declare and vow that this Government must, and shall 
be, preserved. Let not our faith in freedom, in right, in God, 
waver. The darker the clouds which hover over us, let our 
faith in the success of the right be the more steadfast and 
sublime. This Government, bequeathed to us, is a reality, a 
glorious possession ; yea, it is a sacred trust, which we are 
bound to transmit to our children, and must be defended 
against all foes, whether internal or external. Let us, on all 
proper occasions, and in every proper manner, express our 
gratitude to the noble and brave sons of Indiana, who are 
lighting our battles, and let us cherish and revere the 
memory of our sacred dead, who, far removed from their 
loved ones, have slowly wasted away by disease, or suddenly 
fallen on the battle field. Indiana has many gallant dead, 
whose deeds in life, and whose heroic deaths, should be 
recorded for all coming time. Her soldiery have never yet 
turned their back on the foe. Let us honor their patriotism, 
and perpetuate their memory. 



EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT. 



CHAPTER I. 



The history of the military operations of the State of 
Indiana, during the present war, while they may be paralleled 
by a few of the other ^States of the Union during the same 
period, will, on a strict search of the records of the past, be 
found in many respects without a parallel in the history of 
the world. * 

At the commencement of this century, Indiana, then a 
wild territory, for the possession of which the white man 
contended with the Indian, had less than five thousand 
inhabitants. Ten years later she had little short of twenty- 
five thousand. In 1816 she became a State with a popula- 
tion little, if any, exceeding one hundred thousand. Less 
than half a century has since elapsed; and, in defense of that 
Union of which she is one of the younger members, she has 
already sent into the field a large army; an army equal in 
number to her entire population forty-seven years ago; an 
army larger than any which, during all that terrible struggle 
with the elder Napoleon, Great Britain — one of the first 
powers of the world — with her population of thirty millions, 
ever placed in the field ; an army outnumbering more than 
four to one the number of English soldiers who landed on 
the Crimea, and moved to attack Sebastapol; an army larger 
by one-third than the entire force — English, French, and 
Turkish — which disembarked against Russia on that occasion. 

Yet even to-day Indiana has but little over a million and 

13 



14 EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT. 

a third of population. That million and a third of people 
have already (December first, 1863,.) sent into the field, fully 
armed and equipped, upwards of a hundred and ten thousand 
men: all, with an exception almost too trivial to deserve men- 
tion, volunteers. Only four companies, numbering less than 
four hundred men, finally marched into the field as conscripts. 
Even these were in excess of her quota. 

The population of Great Britain outnumbers that of 
Indiana more than twenty to one. To match the efforts of 
Indiana in this struggle, she would have to send into the field, 
of her own subjects, at least two millions and a quarter of 
men. Yet Great Britain is deemed one among the most 
warlike and powerful of the nations of the earth. 

Still another view of this subject may be taken. Indiana's 
vote at the late general election was about two hundred and 
forty-six thousand. The last demanded quota having been 
filled, Indiana, without resort to a draft, has sent to the field 
a number of men equal to half her voters. 

And all this Indiana has done, not to repel invasion of her 
own soil, but to sustain the integrity of that Union into 
which she entered forty-seven years ago. 

MATERIELS OF WAR. 

In March, 1861, Gov. Morton, seeing that the storm was 
about to burst, repaired to Washington, where he obtained 
about five thousand second class arms. He also collected a 
few more from some of the militia regiments throughout the 
State; beyond these, when Sumter was first fired on, he had 
no means of arming the State. As the arming and equipping 
of men, in the approaching crisis, was of primary importance, 
the Governor, having called together the Legislature in extra 
session, recommended to them, in his message of April twen- 
ty-fifth, 1861, that a million of dollars be appropriated for 
.the purchase of arms and munitions of war; together with 
other provisions as to the militia system, the definition of 
treason, the issuing of State bonds, &c. The Legislature 
responded with great unanimity. They voted, and placed 
under the control of the Governor, five hundred thousand 



EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT. 15 

dollars for arms and ammunition, together with one hundred 
thousand dollars for military contingencies, they also voted a 
million of dollars for enlisting, maintaining and subsisting 
troops, and providing munitions of war. 

Having thus the control of the necessary means, the Gov- 
ernor, on the thirtieth of May, 1861, commissioned Kobert 
Dale Owen, formerly member of Congress from the First 
District, Agent to purchase arms and munitions of war for 
the State. 

At first Mr. Owen's instructions were limited to the pur- 
chase of six thousand rifle muskets, and one thousand car- 
bines. But these were gradually enlarged until the total 
amount of purchases made by him reached thirty thousand 
rifle muskets, all English Eufields of the first class ; two thou- 
sand seven hundred and thirty-one carbines; seven hundred 
and fifty-one revolvers, and seven hundred and ninety-seven 
cavalry sabres. All the other arms needed, with the excep- 
tion of a small occasional lot, were supplied directly by the 
General Government. 

Of the above thirty thousand rifles, twenty-six thousand 
were turned over to the United States, and paid for by the 
War Department ; four thousand were paid for by the State 
of Indiana. 

The average cost of these rifles was, for the first twenty 
thousand bought, nineteen dollars and fifty-nine cents, and, 
for the last ten thousand, seventeen dollars and eighty-five 
cents. They were the best class of small arms, excepting 
only the interchangeable Springfield rifle, new pattern, which 
could be purchased; and to this may, in some measure, be 
attributed the efficiency of Indiana troops during this war. 
A large portion of the arms furnished directly by the Gov- 
ernment were, unfortunately, of second rate quality, it being 
impossible to procure a full supply of first class guns. 

As to the price paid by Mr. Owen for the first twenty 
thousand rifles bought, that gentleman, in his report, 
remarks : 

"This is very considerably lower than the average price 
paid by the General Government for first class Enfield rifles 
during the period of my purchases. The later contracts for 



16 EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT. 

s 

sixteen thousand guns could, some time after they were made, 
undoubtedly have been sold at an advance, of not less than 
forty or fifty thousand dollars." 

This, however, does not include the last lot of ten thou- 
sand. As to these Mr. Owen says : 

" The difference between the price paid by me for these 
guns, certified to be of the very best quality, and that paid 
by the Government for ordinary Enfields at the time of the 
transfer, was twenty-three thousand, three hundred and eigh- 
ty-eight dollars." 

"Including these last," says Mr. Owen, "the difference 
between the contract prices and those ruling at the time the 
arms were delivered, of all the rifles bought by me, would 
fall little, if any, short of seventy thousand dollars. It was 
in consequence of the fortunate or judicious character of 
these purchases, that the State found no difficulty in pro- 
curing the assumption of most of my contracts by the Gen- 
eral Government. In this way Indiana was enabled, without 
throwing her bonds into market, or incurring losses by 
advances made, except for a few of the first rifles she bought, 
to place in the hands of a considerable portion of her troops 
arms of a quality very superior to the average of those which 
fell to the lot of other States." 

Arms thus provided, ammunition was the next want. E"ot 
a single round of cannon ammunition, scarcely a ball cart- 
ridge, was prepared. Unlike the South, Indiana had never 
looked forward to the day when treason, led by folly, would 
assault with armed hand the life of the nation itself. There- 
fore, she had laid up no military stores whatever. 

But on the twenty-seventh of April, 1861, just one fort- 
night after the telegraph had borne to Indianapolis the news 
that the Charleston batteries had opened fire upon Fort Sum- 
ter, the Governor had Capt. II. Sturm, then an artillery 
officer in an Indiana battery, detailed for the purpose of 
establishing at Indianapolis a State Arsenal. Capt. Sturm 
had been educated to this special branch of the service, in 
a European military school, and had much practical expe- 
rience in the manufacture of every species of ammuniton. 

He at once commenced the erection of suitable buildings 



EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT. 17 

and the purchase, with State funds, of sufficient materials to 
manufacture, in large quantities, ammunition for field pieces 
and small arms. 

As the demand for ammunition daily increased and the 
necessity, so far from passing away, constantly became greater, 
as fresh troops were called into the field, calls were made 
not only from Indiana's own regiments, but, also, from other 
portions of our Western armies, so that what was first 
intended as a temporary convenience became a large and per- 
manent establishment. Gens. Anderson, Sherman, Fremont, 
Buell and others were successively supplied. 

The effect of this establishment on the success of the war 
in the West was far beyond the expectations of its founders. 
On sundry emergencies the armies in the South and West 
were supplied from this source wiien they were unable to 
obtain ammunition from any other. On more than one occa- 
sion serious disasters were thereby averted. This was espe- 
cially the case at the time Cincinnati was threatened, in the 
months of July and August, 1862 ; when large and pressing 
orders were filled without a single day's delay. 

At one time the number of hands employed in the arsenal 
reached six hundred; and during the past two years and a 
half the number of men employed have averaged three hun- 
dred and fifty. Great and much needed relief was thus 
afforded to many families who were thrown out of employ- 
ment by the contingencies of the war. Preference, in every 
case, was given to those whose parents, children or near rela- 
tives had volunteered as soldiers, and who, in consequence, 
had been left more or less destitute and without the means of 
procuring employment elsewhere. 

The report of the military auditing committee, signed by 
Messrs. Paris C. Dunning, John C. 2STew, A. Kilgore and 
Samuel H. Buskirk, and made to the Governor under date 
October second, 1863, brings up the accounts of the arsenal 
till September fifteenth, 1863, and shows that, up till that time, 
the ammunition fabricated and turned over to the General 
Government amounted to the sum of six hundred and seventy- 
six thousand and ninety-one dollars and thirty-nine cents, 
($676,091.39). From the fifteenth of September till the first 
Vol. I.— 2. 



18 EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT. 

of December, 1863, an additional amount of about thirty- 
two thousand dollars has been made and delivered ; making 
the total ammunition furnished by the Indiana Arsenal to the 
General Government, from the commencement of the war 
till the first of December, 1863, upwards of seven hundred 
and eight thousand dollars, ($708,000). 

The funds for the preparation of this ammunition were all 
advanced by the State, and the ammunition was paid for, 
after actual delivery, by the General Government. Though 
the average rate of prices was lower than the cost to the 
government elsewhere, the net profit to the State by the ope- 
ration, after payment of all claims and liabilities, was, up till 
September fifteenth, 1863, as reported by the above named 
auditing committee, eighty-two thousand and sixty-two dol- 
lars and fourteen cents, ($82,062.14) : a sufficient evidence of 
the economy and good management with which the arsenal 
was conducted by its Superintendent, Captain (now Colonel) 
Sturm. To this the auditing committee aforesaid, composed 
of members taken in equal numbers from the two political 
parties of the State, testify in the following terms : 

"We can not close this report without bearing testimony 
to the ability, integrity and economy with which Col. Sturm 
has managed the affairs of the arsenal. His position has 
been a most difficult and responsible one, requiring constant 
and unremitting labor and great skill and perseverance. For- 
tunately for the State, he has shown himself equal to every 
duty that has devolved upon him; and we congratulate you 
upon the great success which has attended his and your 
efforts, as well on account of the pecuniary advantage which 
has resulted to the State from the operations of the arsenal 
as for the great service it has rendered to the government." 

It is, indeed, difficult to estimate the importance of the 
results in a national point of view, especially as regards mili- 
tary operations in Kentucky and Missouri, which have been 
obtained through the agency of the Indiana arsenal. 

Almost as important as the supply of arms and ammunition 
was the procuring of clothing and camp equipage for the 
troops as they were mustered. At first the burden of this 
fell wholly upon the State, as it was not until the month of 



EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT. 19 

August, 1861, that the Quartermaster General of the United 
States, at the instance of Governor Morton, appointed an 
Assistant United States Quartermaster for this State. 

The report of the Quartermaster General of this State, 
made to the Governor in May, 1862, shows that the State 
expended under his direction, for clothing, including blankets, 
four hundred and six thousand four hundred and eighty- 
four dollars and seventy-five cents, ($406,484.75). To this 
is to he added the amount of great coats and blankets 
bought by Mr. Owen, in !STew York, in the months of Sep- 
tember, October and November, 1861 ; as shown in his report 
of August first, 1862, to be one hundred and thirty-five 
thousand two hundred and thirty-six dollars and six cents, 
($135,236.06). This, with the amount bought by the Quarter- 
master General gives as the totarj advanced by the State, for 
clothing and blankets, the sum of five hundred and forty-one 
thousand seven hundred and twenty dollars and eighty-one 
cents, ($541,720,81). The Quartermaster General of the State 
expresses, in his report, the opinion, that the above purchases 
" will compare very favorably with those of any other State 
on the score of economy." 

For camp equipments the same report shows that he 
expended the sum of sixty-five thousand eight hundred and 
one dollars and seventy-seven cents, ($65,801.77). 

As in the Quartermaster's Department, so in that of the 
Commissary, the State government had to provide supplies 
throughout most of the year 1861, no arrangement having 
been made by the General Government to furnish these until 
the month of September, 1861. 

The report of Asahel Stone, Commissary General, shows 
that the State furnished to her soldiers seven hundred and 
twenty-eight thousand and eight (728,008) rations, at a total 
cost of ninety-four thousand one hundred and fifty-nine dol- 
lars and sixteen cents, ($94,159 16) or twelve cents and ninety- 
four hundredths of a cent per ration. This is one-third less 
than the average cost of Government army rations delivered. 
And in the above cost are included the salary of the Com- 
missary General, the wages of the men employed by him, 
and all other expenditures in his department. 



20 EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT. 

The Soldiers' Home, a building erected but not furnished 
by the General Government, and capable of lodging two 
hundred and fifty men, and of accommodating, at one time, 
in its dining room, one thousand soldiers, opened August 
first, 1862, was placed in charge of Gen. Stone. The rations 
were furnished by the Government. By a strict system of 
economy, the saving on these in the months of September, 
October, and November, 1862, was three thousand seven 
hundred and^seventy dollars ($3,770). This gentleman was 
also placed in charge of the Post Bakery, at Camp Morton. 
This bakery frequently furnished to the soldiers eleven thou- 
sand loaves per day. Its nett profits, after paying all 
expenses, amounted, for the months of September, October, 
and November, 1862, to six thousand and ninety-one dollars 
and forty cents ($6,091.40). This sum was expended in fur- 
nishing stoves and such other conveniences, and comforts 
for soldiers' quarters and regimental hospitals, as could only 
have otherwise been procured from the State, or by volun- 
tary contribution. 

In concluding the brief summary of the efforts made by 
the Executive Department of Indiana to supply the materiel 
of war, it is proper to add, that, in the case of various arti- 
cles deemed necessary to the health or comfort of the troops 
of the State, as for example India rubber blankets, these, by 
order of the Governor, have been supplied from State funds. 

ORGANIZATION OF TROOPS. 

On no State in the Union, to judge from the results, did 
the first blow struck by the rebels at Fort Sumter, produce a 
deeper impression than on Indiana. In nine days from the 
issuing of the President's proclamation calling for seventy- 
five thousand meu — so prompt was the response — there were 
in camp companies enough to organize nine regiments. 
Indiana's quota was four thousand four hundred and fifty- 
eight, rank and file. On the twenty-fifth of April, six regi- 
ments, containing more than five thousand men, were mus- 
tered into service; companies enough for three regiments 
more reluctantly returning home. 



EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT. 21 

On the sixteenth of May, 1861, the Secretary of War gave 
notice to the Governor, that, on the second call of May third, 
four regiments were assigned to Indiana, making ten in all. 
The restriction appended to this requisition is remarkable. 
Secretary Cameron adds : " It is important to reduce rather 
than enlarge this number, and in no event to exceed it. Let 
me earnestly recommend to you, therefore, to call for no more 
than ten regiments in all, including the six regiments first 
called for." The ardor and the patriotism of the people of 
Indiana had to be restrained, not excited. In advance of this 
call, and in anticipation of it, three regiments had been 
already organized under State authority. They were^at once 
turned over to the United States, and a fourth added a few 
days later, from companies waiting for acceptance. Thus, 
the second call was immediately filled. The urgency of the 
people to join the army was such, that, at the instance of the 
Governor, in advance of the July call for five hundred thou- 
sand troops, the Secretary of War allowed Indiana to send 
into the field : by order of June eleventh, 1861, six regiments ; 
by order of June nineteenth, 1861, four regiments. Each of 
these contained one thousand and forty-six men. One regi- 
ment of cavalry (the Twenty-Eighth regiment, First Indiana 
cavalry) was included. Thus, the excess beyond the call was 
ten thousand four hundred and sixty men. 

The calls upon Indiana by the General Government for 
troops in 1861 amounted to thirty-eight thousand eight 
hundred and thirty-two (38,832.) In reply, she sent, up till 
January, 1862, forty-eight regiments of infantry, three regi- 
ments of . cavalry, and seventeen batteries; in all, fifty-three 
thousand and thirty-five men; (53,035) being in excess of the 
call fourteen thousand two hundred and three men (14,203). 
In the months of July and August, 1862, the President 
called for six hundred thousand additional men ; and Indiana's 
quota was fixed at forty-two thousand five hundred (42,500.) 
By September twentieth, Indiana's quota, under all these 
calls, had been filled by volunteers, with the exception of 
six thousand and sixty. A draft was ordered; but before it 
took effect, on October sixth, the number deficient had been 
reduced to three thousand and three, for which number the 



22 EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT. 

draft was made. The drafted men were to serve nine months. 
Of these, however, all but four companies (three hundred 
and ninety-live men) volunteered to serve three years, and 
were sent on, as volunteers, to fill up old regiments. 

There is one episode connected with the response to this 
last call, which merits especial notice. It is the promptitude, 
unexampled, we believe, even among the wonders of this 
rebellion, with which regiments were poured into Kentucky, 
on the occasion of the sudden and unexpected invasion of 
that State by Gens. Morgan and Kirby Smith, when both 
Cincinnati and Louisville were seriously threatened. On the 
eighth of August, Gen. Buell telegraphed to Gov. Morton, 
that "a formidable raid threatened Kentucky," and urged 
that " troops be at once sent to Gen. Boyle." On the next 
day the Executive received an urgent appeal from the War 
Department, to which he replied, that "the quota of twenty- 
one thousand two hundred men called for in July would be 
raised in twenty days." Incredible of performance as the 
promise seemed, he kept his word. Within the space of six- 
teen days, eighteen regiments were not only raised, but also 
mastered in, armed, equipped, and dispatched by railroad to 
Kentucky's relief. Within nine weeks, in July, August, and 
September, 1862, thirty-one thousand men were recruited. 
Some of the details of this gigantic effort indicate the untir- 
ing exertions necessary to produce such results. On the six- 
teenth of August, late at night, Gen. Boyle telegraphed that 
"no time was to be lost," adding : " I hope the patriotic soldiers 
of Indiana^will not wait for bounties. Our State will be over- 
run if they do." That night one regiment went to Kentucky. 
On the next night four regiments were dispatched. The next 
day two additional regiments were sent off', and that night 
two more, which were mustered in by candlelight. Cincin- 
nati and Louisville were saved. 

It ought to be stated, that Col. (now General) Carrington, 
detailed as mustering officer for the State of Indiana, arrived 
at Indianapolis on the eighteenth of August, 1862, and greatly 
aided in the emergency of that eventful crisis; and subse- 
quently, by his prompt energy in procuring the enlistment 
and dispatch to the field of Indiana's troops. In other 



EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT. 23 

respects the Executive was equally fortunate, as well in offi- 
cers detailed by the General Government, as in those selected 
by himself. No one could have conducted the department 
of United States Quartermaster more faithfully or more effi- 
ciently, than Capt. (now Lieutenant Colonel) Ekin. 

The Governor was also most ably seconded throughout all 
his arduous duties, by his private and military secretaries, 
Colonels Holloway, Terrell and Schlater, as also by Adjutant 
General Noble. In the times of urgent emergency to which 
we have alluded, these gentlemen labored with unflagging 
zeal and distinguished ability; thus greatly contributing to 
the successful results which have followed our State efforts. 

Though Indiana was called upon, in 1862, as already stated, 
for drafted men, and actually did draft, as we have shown, 
three thousand and three, it is to be borne in mind that this 
occurred solely because — in consequence of irregularity in the 
filing in Washington of certain muster-rolls« — she had not, at, 
the time, obtained credit, as afterwards she did, for a number 
of troops exceeding this deficiency, which she] had actually 
sent into the field. She actually had then, filled all the calls 
of 1862, without draft, and had a surplus. This fact, in jus- 
tice to the efforts of her Governor and the noble response of 
her patriotic citizens, should be distinctly borne in mind. 

So, again, in the present year, 1863. Under the call of 
August (one-fifth of first class enrolled) amounting to twenty- 
six thousand eight hundred and thirty-two men, (26,832) she 
furnished the whole by volunteering, with a surplus of six- 
teen hundred and sixty-nine (1,669). Recruiting under the 
second call, of September, the quota being eighteen thousand 
nine hundred and ninety-seven, (18,997), is completed and 
volunteers for old and new organizations continue to enlist. 
Such has been the response of Indiana to the calls of the Gen- 
eral Government, not for her special defense, but for the sup- 
pression of the rebellion. 

When her own State limits were passed by a hostile band — 
when the celebrated guerrilla, Morgan, crossed the Ohio, first 
into Harrison county, passing thence through the south-east- 
ern tier of counties to Ohio — the effect was electrical, nay, 
seemed the work of magic. It was as if some modern Cad- 



24 EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT. 

mus bad sown again the fabled dragon's teetb over Indiana's 
forests and prairies ; so did tbese teem witb armed men, self- 
mar sbaled in defense of their native or adopted State. 

On Thursday, the ninth of July, 1863, news reached Indi- 
anapolis that a rebel force estimated to be six thousand strong 
had crossed the Ohio and was marching on Cory don. Where- 
upon the Governor instantly issued a call to the patriotic 
citizens of the State, to leave their various occupations and 
turn out for its defense. Incredible as it may appear, within 
forty-eight hours from the time this call was issued, sixty-five 
thousand men had tendered their services, and were on their 
way to the place of rendezvous ; while thousands more were 
preparing and had to be notified to remain at home. Within 
three days thirty thousand men, fully armed and organized, 
had taken the field at various points to meet the enemy. 

The result was, that though on the first landing of Mor- 
gan's men a handful of troops who opposed them were driven 
back, yet within twenty-four hours, when attempting first to 
penetrate into the interior of the State, afterwards to retire 
across the river, they were confronted, in both attempts, by 
bodies of armed men, and their march converted into a flight 
which in five days, carried them across our eastern border 
into Ohio. 

To provide against such incursions in the future, on the 
fifth of September, 1863, the Governor issued a proclamation 
for a more permanent organization of the militia. In the coun- 
ties which were the most exposed, to-wit : those bordering on 
the Ohio river, he ordered that places of business in towns, 
except drug stores, telegraph and post offices, be closed after 
three o'clock, so that the able-bodied citizens, after having 
formed themselves into military companies, might meet and 
drill daily for not less than two hours. In other counties they 
were required also to organize and to drill at stated periods. 

In concluding this brief sketch indicating the willingness 
and ability of Indiana to put forth, whether in immediate 
self-defense, or for the preservation of the national unity, an 
armed force with a promptitude and to an extent which to 
warlike Europe will seem incredible, we give but a faint idea 
of the enthusiasm and the determination which, for the last 



EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT. .25 

two years and a half, have been exhibted from one end of the 
State to the other. If the occasion was great, the efforts 
were commensurate. If an insurrection so gigantic in its 
proportions, so vast in its resources, so persistent in its rage, 
be unexampled in all modern history, neither can be found 
in that history, up till the date of this rebellion, an example 
of so large a proportion of any civilized nation sent to the 
field of battle, not by forced conscription, but voluntarily by 
the spontaneous zeal and patriotism of the people. 

CAKE OF SOLDIERS. 

In no State of the Union have soldiers, rushing to the 
defense of their common country, been more specially cared 
for than in Indiana. The benevolence of those who remained 
at home has kept pace with the patriotism of those who 
entered the field. 

Early in 1862 the State Sanitary Commission was organ- 
ized in accordance with the suggestions and plans of Gover- 
nor Morton, and during that year received and disbursed in 
sanitary goods and money sixty-six thousand and eighty-eight 
dollars and forty-one cents. During the year 1863 the opera- 
tions of the commission were greatly extended. 

The officers and agents of the commission have conducted 
the very large and important business entrusted to them with 
great zeal, securing thereby the confidence of our citizens at 
home and the gratitude of many of our soldiers in the field. 

In addition to the contributions which have been collected 
and distributed through the commission, probably an equal 
amount has been sent to the army through irregular channels. 

Nor have the families of our soldiers been neglected. In 
many counties a regular weekly or monthly allowance has 
been paid to them from the public funds ; hundreds of Sol- 
dier's Aid Societies have been formed, through which the 
needy have been sought out and supplied with the necessa- 
ries and comforts of life. 

A well regulated system of military agencies was devised 
for the care and relief of our sick and wounded. Offices 
were opened at the following important points : Washington 



26 EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT. 

City, Louisville, Saint Louis, Cairo, Columbus, Ky., Mem- 
phis, Nashville, New York City, Philadelphia, Keokuk, Evans- 
ville, Yicksburgh, New Orleans and Chattanooga, and placed 
in charge of well qualified business men. Regiments have 
been visited, their scattered sick and wounded collected and 
cared for, and when practicable removed to hospitals within 
the State, or furloughed to their homes. Besides, a general or 
supervising military agency was established at Indianapolisin 
connection with the State Sanitary Commission, to which regu- 
lar reports from other agencies are sent, giving the names of 
all Indiana soldiers in the various hospitals, the regiment and 
company to which each belongs, date of admission, nature of 
disease or wound, prospects of recovery, lists of deaths, casu- 
alties and discharges. . From these reports information 
respecting our wounded, sick and dead can at all times be 
obtained. The agents visit the hospitals regularly, distribute 
under-clothing and sanitary supplies, procure descriptive rolls, 
discharges, furloughs and transfers, collect pay, cause abuses 
to be corrected, and exert themselves to the utmost of their 
ability to assist and encourage our suffering men. A supply 
of sanitary goods is kept at each agency, together with under 
clothing and other needed articles for distribution. In case 
of a battle, the nearest agency at once dispatches efficient 
agents, with such stores as are likely to be needed. Indiana 
— with her surgeons and sanitary stores — is generally the 
first State represented on the battle field. The good accom- 
plished thrckigh this instrumentality is incalculable. This 
system, first inaugurated by Indiana, has been adopted by 
most of the loyal States, but by none upon a scale so exten- 
sive as our own. All business by these agencies is conducted 
with the utmost promptness and dispatch, and in every case 
without charge. The Rev. I. W. Monfort, agent at Wash- 
ington City, besides attending to the usual duties of his 
office, makes out all necessary papers for procuring pensions, 
bounty and back pay, due widows, orphans or other heirs of 
deceased or discharged Indiana soldiers, and collects and 
remits the same for which no fee is asked or received. The 
estimate placed on this feature of the agency by the officials 
in the various departments at Washington, is evident from 



EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT. 27 

the fact that they give all business presented from it prece- 
dence over that of private agents and claim brokers. 

The first decisive and important battle in the West, in 
which a very large number of Indiana troops were engaged, 
was at Fort Donelson, Tennessee. This place being on a 
navigable river, the Executive, on receiving news by tele- 
graph of the battle, immediately dispatched, by steamer, to 
that place, an efficient corps of surgeons and nurses, with a 
large supply of hospital and sanitary stores. The boat 
arrived in advance of all others sent by other States. The 
weather being cold and inclement, the relief afforded to 
many of the Indiana troops was of the greatest importance. 
Other boats were afterwards sent under the same auspices. 
A few months afterwards the battle of Shiloh took place, a 
larger number of Indiana regiments and batteries participa- 
ting in it than in any previous fight. The steamer Crawford, 
in charge of Commissary General Stone, was promptly char- 
tered, and sent forward with surgeons and nurses, and an 
ample supply of necessary stores. As at this time much sick- 
ness existed among our troops, steamers were kept con- 
stantly running from Evansville to Pittsburgh Landing, until 
all the sick and wounded Indianians in that army were 
brought to hospitals in our own State, or made comfortable 
in the field by special medical aid, and sanitary supplies and 
stores, generously contributed by our citizens. Subsequently, 
when our armies on the Mississippi, and at Nashville, Ten- 
nessee, were suffering for lack of food, especially vegetables, 
and the sick in hospitals were almost destitute of proper sup- 
plies, the Governor dispatched boat after boat, laden with 
vegetables, ffruit, underclothing, ice, and everything that 
could contribute in any way to the comfort of our brave men. 
During the seige of Vicksburgh, when hospital accommoda- 
tions were sadly deficient, the relief afforded from Indiana 
was prompt and timely. Maj. Gen. Grant, on more than one 
occasion, expressed his hearty approbation of the Governor's 
efforts in looking after the large number of Indiana troops in 
his army; and Maj. Gen. McClernand, on the arrival of one 
of the relief boats, during the time he was in command of a 
large number of our regiments, declared that the succor thus 



28 EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT. 

afforded was of more value than the reinforcement of a 
brigade of fresh troops. At the present writing, a steamer, 
sent to New Orleans with supplies, for our sick and wounded 
in the Department of the Gulf, is returning with nearly two 
hundred discharged and disabled Indiana soldiers. . 

JSTo important battle has occurred during the war, at any 
point within reach, without having on the ground at the 
earliest practicable moment efficient and energetic agents from 
Indiana. After the disastrous battle of Richmond, Kentucky, 
where our troops, although raw and untried, fought most 
gallantly, but unsuccessfully, and where many were killed 
and wounded, the Governor at once fitted out an ambulance 
train under charge of experienced surgeons, and sent it 
through the enemy's lines under a flag of truce, to relieve the 
sufferers. This humane mission was most ably and success- 
fully performed. We have not space to enter into details 
respecting the care and supervision exercised in behalf of our 
troops. The Executive, in his biennial message, bearing the 
date of January ninth, 1863, on this subject, says: 

" These agents had their instructions to follow in the track of 
our armies, to pick up the sick and wounded who might have 
fallen by the way-side, visit the hospitals, report the names of 
the sick, wounded and dead, afford relief wherever it could 
be afforded, inform the State authorities what kind of sup- 
plies were needed, and where; also to visit the troops in the 
field, ascertain their condition and wants, and aid in having 
their requisitions for their supplies promptly filled. These 
agents have generally performed their duty well; and I 
believe have been the instruments of saving the lives of hun- 
dreds of our gallant soldiers, and of relieving a vast amount 
of suffering and destitution." 

After the battle of Shiloh, and in anticipation of the con- 
flict at Corinth, the Governor applied for, and obtained, from 
the Secretary of War, permission to appoint two additional 
assistant surgeons to each Indiana regiment in the army of 
Gen. Halleck. Seventy surgeons were accordingly sent; and 
the necessity for having additional permanent medical force 
attached to the army was so completely demonstrated, that 



EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT. 29 

Congress promptly passed an act authorizing a second Assist- 
ant Surgeon to be appointed for each regiment. 

Early in 1862 arrangements were made with responsible 
agents to collect from the various Indiana regiments such 
portions of pay as the soldiers desired to transmit to their 
homes. The Congress of the United States had already 
authorized the President to appoint Allotment Commis- 
sioners for this purpose; but as there was no provision for 
paying the expenses incurred, the plan was, practically, use- 
less. The Executive of Indiana appointed a number of Pay 
Agents to visit the army from time to time for this purpose. 
Many of our brave soldiers, who would never have saved a 
cent of their pay, were induced, by the ready facilities thus 
afforded, and by the example of the more thoughtful and 
frugal, to remit portions of their pay to loved one's at home. 
It has been often estimated by commanding officers, that a 
regiment will save and send away at least five thousand dol- 
lars more on pay day by means of the allotment system, now 
adopted by most of the States, or by the regularly appointed 
State Agents, than if left to the ordinary means of transmis- 
sion. This is often money rescued from the sutler or gam- 
bler, which, instead of being uselessly spent, is sent to the 
relief of the wives and families of soldiers. Through this 
agency, during the year 1862, over one million of dollars were 
collected in the army, and distributed in accordance with the 
wishes of the soldiers, without charge, save the trifling cost 
of the express from the agents' residence to points of desti- 
nation. In all this business not a single defalcation occurred, 
and not a dollar was lost. The risk, however, of traveling 
through the army, collecting large amounts of money — the 
agents being frequently compelled to stand guard for the trea- 
sure entrusted to them, was so great the plan was abandoned, 
and early in 1863 a permanent office was established by the 
Governor at Indianapolis, and a plan devised for the easy 
and safe transmission of funds by means of allotment rolls. 
It took several months to introduce the new system; the sol- 
diers did not understand it, and the Paymasters, upon whom 
it imposed new duties, were for a time specially averse to it. 
Gradually, however, it gained a foothold and secured confi- 



30 EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT. 

dence. Commanding Generals gave it encouragement, the Pay- 
masters began to appreciate it, and of each payment now 
made to the army, the single State Agent usually receives, 
without expense or risk, about three hundred thousand dol- 
lars. The distribution is made by draft on eastern cities, 
without any cost except that of exchange. The plan is in 
great favor with our regiments in the Army of the Cumber- 
land, who have, by extensive trial, learned to appreciate its 
value. Other armies are beginning to avail themselves of it, 
and remittances are coming in from Texas, and other parts 
of the Department of the Gulf, Vicksburgh, Memphis, 
Knoxville, etc. 

CITY HOSPITAL. 

The establishment of the city hospital at Indianapolis at 
the commencement of the war, and the location of hospitals 
at Evansville, JSTew Albany, Jeffersonville and Madison, in 
which the military authorities of the State took great inter- 
est, were alike creditable to them and to the government. 
The city hospital alone from May, 1861, till January, 1863, 
received five thousand four hundred and ninety-five patients, 
who were treated by the accomplished and skillful Surgeon, 
Dr. John M. Kitchen, who was placed in charge. The hos- 
pitals at Evansville, under charge of army surgeons, being on 
the Ohio river, and nearer the army in the south and west, 
received a much larger number. 

The capital of the State being the great railroad center at 
which was located the several departments having control 
over the military affairs of the Commonwealth, a large num- 
ber of soldiers continually arrived and departed — many pas- 
sing to join their regiments in the field, others returning 
discharged, or on furlough or "siek leave." During the first 
year of the war it was often impossible to procure accommo- 
dations sufficient to provide for these men. To remedy the 
evil Governor Morton, early in 1862, determined to establish 
a Soldier's Home, on a scale commensurate with the wants 
and interests of the public service, where our brave defenders 
could obtain food and rest. By the kind co-operation of the 



EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT. 31 

accomplished United States Quartermaster, Capt. (now Lieut. 
Col.) Ekin, and Commissary of Subsistence, Capt. Thomas 
Foster, the requisite buildings were speedily erected, and the 
Home put in successful operation. Afterwards it was greatly 
enlarged, and is now regarded as one of the most complete 
establishments of the kind in the country. Individuals or 
regiments can there obtain good warm meals and comfortable 
lodging almost on a moment's notice. Convalescents and 
others connected with the army are always made welcome, 
and the management, under Capt. Frank Wilcox, is such as 
to merit the highest commendations. 

During the fall of 1863 a "Soldier's Families Home," was 
opened under the same auspices. The large number of ladies 
and children, generally the families of soldiers, visiting their 
relatives in the hospitals here or elsewhere, made it necessary 
that some well conducted home be provided for them during 
their temporary stay, where they could be comfortably cared 
for and protected from imposition. It is a source of pride to 
our State that this institution has also been attended with 
great success. It is under the direction of an experienced 
manager and matron, and is governed by rules and regula- 
tions which insure all who partake of its hospitalities of a 
quiet and comfortable retreat. 

Allusion has been made in this sketch to the special sur- 
geons and nurses sent out by the Governor to administer to 
the sick and wounded in the hospitals and in the field, but 
the valuable services which many of them have rendered to 
the cause of their country call for a more extended recogni- 
tion. In the last message of the Governor this subject is 
referred to as follows : " I have employed and sent to the 
field many additional Surgeons, to remain until the emer- 
gency they were sent to relieve had passed. After severe 
battles, the regimental Sugeons, worn down by fatigue and 
exposure, were found inadequate to the care of the wounded, 
and additional aid became indispensable. Many times all the 
Surgeons of a regiment were either sick or absent on detached 
duty, and their places had to be supplied by temporary 
appointments. They have generally discharged their duties 
with ability, and to the satisfaction of those to whom they 



32 EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT. 

were sent, and for the promptitude with which they left their 
business and responded to these sudden calls, are entitled to 
the thanks of the State." 

In man}- cases these special Surgeons, actuated only by the 
largest patriotism, and the warmest humanity, to the neglect 
of their practice at home, have labored for weeks with the 
sick, the wounded, and the dying — on the battle Held, by the 
road side, in camp, in hospital, wherever they could relieve 
distress and serve their country. 

And the numerous nurses, many of them ladies of the 
highest character and social position, actuated by a desire to 
lend their aid in the great struggle, and influenced by the 
purest philanthrophy, volunteered also, and served long and 
faithfully in the hospital. Some of these noble spirits volun- 
teered their services in the early stages of the rebellion, and 
are yet patiently and cheerfully soothing the pangs of suffer- 
ing far away from their comfortable and happy homes. 



WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 



CHAPTER II. 



Western Virginia was the first section of the Union to feel 
the desolating effects of civil war. Among her rugged hills, 
along her deep valleys, and by the pure streams which gush 
from her mountain sides, the troops of Indiana first learned 
to endure the hardships of the camp. 

The first "Western Virginia campaign was short, but bril- 
liant. Events of greater magnitude — the shock of vast 
armies, and the spacious and blood stained fields, where the 
slain have been numbered by thousands, — have eclipsed the 
early victories of our armies. Yet they are not the less 
important, and the faithful historian, who has carefully 
observed the tide of success rolling onward to the suppres- 
sion of the rebellion, will see and acknowledge the influence 
of these early victories upon the successful issue of the 
struggle ; and will carefully record them in his pages. 

Virginia is susceptible of three grand divisions. These 
have always been recognized by her people. The first, or 
Eastern section, extends from tide water to the Blue Ridge 
Mountains ; the second, or Middle section, called the Valley, 
embraces the country between the Blue Ridge and the Alle- 
ghanies ; and the third, or Western Virginia, embraces the 
mountain regions from the Valley to the Ohio River. 

A feeling of hearty friendship never existed between these 
sections. The East, or Old Virginia, was largely slavehold- 
ing; and had succeeded in forcing through the Legislature 
Vol. I.— 3. 






34 WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 

a system of taxation, which shielded the wealth of that 
section, at the expense of the Middle and Western portions 
of the State. 

The question of a division of the State had long been 
agitated. The people of the West, had very little interest in 
slavery. Their's was an agricultural and mineral region. 
Their wealth, consisted in stock and lands. To develop the 
resources of their soil, required the miner's labor and 
machinery. With interests directly opposed to those of the 
eastern part of the State, they knew their connection under 
the same State government, with a people who could always 
outvote them, would continue to cramp their energies, and 
prevent the full development of their agricultural and 
mineral resources. In these views the people of the valley 
sympathized. In the discussion of the question at issue 
between these people, the Legislative Halls at Richmond 
were the scenes of many stormy debates. 

Two- thirds of the inhabitants of Western Virginia, long 
before the question of secession w T as agitated, were warmly 
in favor of a division of the State. With this, the question 
of slavery had little to do. It was sometimes brought 
into the controversy by politicians, but had scarcely any 
weight, either in forming, or confirming, the opinions of the 
masses. A majority of the people were attached to their 
local institution, and, in the event of a division, were willing 
it should continue. 

That, however, was not the issue, although the politicians, 
beyond the Blue Ridge, knowing the early prejudices of the 
people, on all occasions brought it into the controversy. In 
the East, slave property constituted the bulk of the planter's 
wealth; in the West, it was but the tithe of the farmer's 
estate. When, therefore, it was declared that slaves should 
be taxed per capita, while taxes on other property should be 
ad valorem, it was so manifestly unjust, that the strongest 
pro-slavery men in the West were as firm in their demands 
for a separation, as were those w T ho were solely engaged in 
manufacturing and commercial pursuits. It was not Aboli- 
tionism, but unequal taxation, which caused the feeling of 
discontent among the inhabitants of the hills and valleys of 



WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 35 

the West, to the government at Richmond. Internal improve- 
ments was another fertile theme in this local agitation. The 
West complained that the East received too large a propor- 
tion of the outlays of the State, and that the money drawn 
from the coffers of the poor and hardy settlers of the moun- 
tains, was used in opening up lines of communication east of 
the Blue Ridge, while the West was comparatively neglected. 
This subject was always agitated with zeal, and sometimes 
with great bitterness. 

Such, briefly, was the condition of affairs in Western 
Virginia, when it was reached by the tide of secession which 
had rolled across the Eastern counties of the State. 

The secessionists demanded a Convention to assemble at 
Richmond, to consider the position Virginia should assume 
in the crisis. Many of the public men of the Eastern and 
Central portions of the State, were strong in their expressions 
of love for the Union, but the controlling element, with per- 
sistent and fiery zeal, urged their mad project of disunion. 
The West had very little, if any, sympathy with secession. 

Appeals and invectives from beyond the mountains; and 
from those who had by threats and bribery been brought to 
advocate the radical views of the Southern leaders, had no 
power to draw away the hearts of the people of the West, 
from their love of the old Union. After an active canvass, a 
delegation in Western Virginia was elected, and instructed to 
oppose a secession ordinance. 

The Convention met at Richmond. That city was in the 
hands of a mob, determined to control the action of the Con- 
vention, by argument if possible, by force if necessary. Nearly 
all the western members heroicly held out against the threats 
of violence, with which they were assailed, and fought at 
every step, the measures of the majority, even after all hope 
of checking the tide was lost. At length, in secret session, 
on the seventeenth of April, 1861, the ordinance of secession 
was passed. Agents were immediately despatched to Mont- 
gomery, to negotiate with the Rebel Government, for the 
admission of Virginia into the so-called Confederacy. 

On the return of the Western Virginia delegates to their 
homes, those who had betrayed their constituents, were 



o6 WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 

received with merited scorn. A party, small in number, soon 
sprung up, who advocated the adoption of the secession ordi- 
nance. This party was sustained by squads of troops, sent 
from the eastern counties to dragoon public sentiment. But 
in spite of the most strenuous efforts of the secession leaders, 
the people were true to their convictions, and the ordinance, 
when voted upon, was defeated by a large majority, in nearly 
all the trans-Alleghany counties. 

The strife continued, and ripened into bitter persecution of 
those who remained true in their allegiance to the old 
Government. Larger bodies of troops were pushed through 
the mountain passes. These overran the country bordering on 
the Baltimore and Ohio railroad. Gov. Letcher, on the twen- 
tieth of April — three days after the passage of the secession 
ordinance — wrote to Andrew Sweeney, Mayor of Wheeling, to 
" take possession of the Custom House, Post Office, all public 
buildings, and public documents, in the name of Virginia," 
adding, "Virginia has seceded." Mayor Sweeney, faithful 
to the trust which the public had committed to him, gave 
true expression of the popular sentiment, when, in his reply 
to Gov. Letcher, he said : " I have taken possession of the 
Custom House, Post Office, and all public buildings, and pub- 
lic documents, in the name of Abraham Lincoln, President 
of the United States, whose property they are." A noble 
reply, from the loyal Mayor of the loyal city of Wheeling. 
This brought the issue directly between the State and Fed- 
eral Governments. It w T as evident to those who had watched 
the current of public sentiment in the West, that the hardy 
mountaineers, left to their own impulses, would rally around 
the old flag, which from childhood had been to them an object 
of reverence. This they were not permitted to do. By 
authority of Gov. Letcher, who had been legally elected Chief 
Magistrate of the State, squads of troops scoured the valleys, 
urging, entreating, and commanding men, to take up arms. 
Their State pride was appealed to, and, when all else failed, 
force was used, to compel them to commit some act, to com- 
promise their loyalty to the Federal cause. In this way, a 
considerable militia force was raised in the counties where 
the Confederate troops were quartered, or through which 
they roved. 



WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 37 

The Union men were not idle. A Convention was called 
at Wheeling. It assembled on the thirteenth of May. Nearly 
four hundred delegates were present. A determination to 
share in the fortunes of the old Union was manifested. The 
greatest enthusiasm prevailed. The National standard floated 
from the top of every public building. The favorite orators 
of the people were received with exultant shouts. Their 
patriotic sentiments were cheered to the echo. Twenty-six 
counties were represented by regularly elected delegates. A 
proposition was made to admit informal delegates. John S. 
Carlile, the most prominent politician present, who at Rieh- 
mond had nobly contended against- the secession heresy, 
opposed the admission of informal delegates, on the ground 
that a regular organization and parliamentary precedence was 
essential to give force and effect to the proceedings. Much 
feeling was exhibited by speakers representing counties where 
formal conventions had not been held. Finally the matter 
was referred to a Committee of one from each county repre- 
sented. Delegates from some of the Valley counties were 
present who entreated to be taken along in the event of the 
secession of "Western Virginia. Various plans of action 
were proposed. The boldest was by Mr. Carlile, who advo- 
cated the withdrawal of two congressional districts, compris- 
ing thirty-one counties, and containing a population of two 
hundred and fifty thousand, and the organization of a Pro- 
visional Government. Another plan was to organize a State 
Government to be recognized by Congress under the Consti- 
tution ; and to submit it to the vote of the people. The vote 
on the secession ordinance was not yet taken, and the vote 
on the new State organization could be submitted at the same 
time. These, with other plans, were referred to the Commit- 
tee on Federal Relations, who reported without recommend- 
ing any definite action. The fear of committing treason to 
the State, seemed to weigh heavily on the hearts of members. 
Mr. Carlile moved the reconsideration of his resolutions, and 
supported the motion by a brilliant and powerful speech, 
depicting in eloquent terms the absolute necessity for prompt 
and immediate action. The adoption of the report of the 
Committee, he contended, would disappoint the people, and 



38 WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 

result in the utter and inevitable subjugation of Western Vir- 
ginia, to the Southern Confederacy. He declared, that in 
three weeks after the passage of such resolutions, every able- 
bodied member of the Convention would, at the tap of the 
Confederate drum, be drafted into the rebel army. Mr. Car- 
lile's proposition was opposed by Mr. Willey, who declared 
that there was as much treason in acting now, as there ever 
would be, as by the terms of the secession ordinance, it was 
already operative. Besides, they had no means to set a gov- 
ernment in motion, much less to maintain it by war; and the 
adoption of Carlile's plan would make their fair fields the 
theater of a relentless war, between two hostile powers. The 
Convention, having been in session one week, adjourned 
without taking any final action, but ordered the assembling 
of another body, at the same place, on the eleventh of June. 

The Convention met on the day appointed. Arthur J. 
Boreman, of Wood county, was chosen permanent president. 
In his address, he reviewed the action of the Richmond Con- 
vention, and exhorted the delegates to firm, decided, and 
thorough action. The first action of the body was the adop- 
tion of a resolution offered by Mr. Carlile, thanking Gen. 
McClellan for sending troops to Western Virginia; com- 
mending the gallant troops at Philippi, and complimenting 
the bravery of Col. Kelly. 

On the nineteenth of June, a Declaration of Independence 
was unanimously adopted. Fifty-six members voted for, and 
signed it. Thirty were absent on leave. The declaration set 
forth the grievances entailed upon the people, by the Conven- 
tion at Richmond, and solemnly declared, that the safety and 
security of the people of Virginia, demanded the re-organiza- 
tion of the Government of the Commonwealth, and that all 
acts of said Convention were without authority, and void, 
and that the offices of all who adhered to said Convention, 
whether Legislative, executive or judicial, were vacated. 
Under this declaration, Francis H. Pierpont was chosen Gov- 
ernor, lie summoned the Legislature to meet at Wheeling 
on the first day of July. The machinery of a State Govern- 
ment was put in motion, and recognized by the Federal Gov- 
ernment, by the admission of Senators to Congress chosen 
under it. 



WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 39 

PHILIPPI. 

General McClellan, in May, 18G1, was assigned to the 
Department of the Ohio, which included Western Virginia. 
He rapidly organized the troops called from the several States 
within his command. Indiana had six regiments ready for 
the field. One of these, the Eleventh, Col. Wallace's, had 
been sent to Evansville, to prevent the passage South, of 
supplies and munitions of war, and to protect the interests of 
the Government on the southern border. The following 
extract from the special order issued by Gen. Morris, on assign- 
ing the Eleventh to the border, will show how careful he was 
to recognize the supremacy of the civil authorities : " The 
regiment is charged with the duty of protecting the city and 
country from invasion, insurrection, or violence of any 
character; being held in strict subordination to the civil 
authorities, and being extremely careful to abstain from all 
interference with private property, the rights of citizens, or 
the good order and peace of society." 

On the twenty-fourth of May, 1861, Gen. McClellan visited 
Indianapolis, and reviewed the brigade under the command 
of Gen. Morris, which consisted of the Sixth regiment, Col. 
Crittenden's; Seventh, Col. Dumont's; Eighth, Col. Benton's; 
Ninth, Col. Milroy's; and Tenth, Col. Manson's — all three 
months men. The review was the most grand military 
pageant that had ever been witnessed at the Capital of 
Indiana. The troops were in fine condition, and eager to be 
led to the field. They were highly complimented by Gen. 
McClellan. Their equipment was pronounced complete. In 
a short speech at the Bates House, Gen. McClellan assured 
the assembled thousands, that the Indiana troops would soon 
be called upon to follow him, and have an opportunity of 
winning the distinction they so eagerly coveted. These were 
not idle words. 

The events just sketched convinced the Government, that 
if Western Virginia was saved, it must be done by force of 
arms. Although the result of every ballot proved the Union 
sentiment to be in a large majority, yet the secession element 
was well organized, and ably supported by armed bands from 






40 WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 

the Confederacy. Gen. Lee was in command of all the State 
troops of Virginia. The Confederacy, while forming a strong 
military line on the Potomac, were hurrying troops through 
the passes of the mountains, to support the roving detach- 
ments, with a view to the permanent occupation of the terri- 
tory. The Union men of the river counties raised a regi- 
ment, which was placed under command of Col. Kelly, of 
Wheeling. A Confederate force under Col. Porterfield occu- 
pied Grafton. They forced many citizens to fly from their 
homes, leaving their property to be pillaged by the enemy. 
These fugitives warned the people of the fate awaiting them, 
in the event of the success of the Confederates. The people 
flew to arms, and being joined by friends from Pennsylvania, 
marched toward Grafton in force about one thousand strong. 
On their approach Porterfield fled to Philippi. Col. Kelly, 
with . his first Virginia regiment, arrived at Grafton shortly 
after its evacuation, and assumed command. 

On the evening of the twenty-sixth of May, Gen. McClel- 
lan received notice at his headquarters, then in Cincinnati, 
that the rebels had burned two bridges near Farmington, on 
the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, and were preparing to burn 
others between that point and Wheeling. He immediately 
issued the following address to the Union men of Western 
Virginia : 

"Virginians: — The General Government has long enough 
endured the machinations of a few factious rebels in your 
midst. Armed traitors have in vain endeavored to deter you 
from expressing your loyalty at the polls; having failed in 
this infamous attempt to deprive you of the exercise of your 
dearest rights, they now seek to inaugurate a reign of terror, 
and thus force you to yield to their schemes, and submit to 
the yoke of the traitorous conspiracy, dignified by the name 
of Southern Confederacy. They are destroying the property 
of citizens of your State, and ruining your magnificent rail- 
ways. The General Government has heretofore carefully 
abstained from sending troops across the Ohio, or even from 
posting them along its banks, although frequently urged by 
many of your prominent citizens to do so. It determined to 
await the result of the late election, desirous that no one 



WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 41 

might be able to say that the slightest effort had been made 
from this side to influence the free expression of your opinion, 
although the many agencies brought to bear upon you by the 
rebels were well known. You have now shown, under the 
most adverse circumstances, that the great mass of the peo- 
ple of "Western Virginia are true and loyal to that beneficent* 
Government under which we and our fathers have lived so 
long. As soon as the result of the election was known, the 
traitors commenced their work of destruction. The General 
Government can not close its ears to the demand you have 
made for assistance. I have ordered troops to cross the river. 
They come as your friends and brothers — as enemies only to 
the armed rebels who are preying upon you. Your homes, 
your families, and your property, are safe under our protec- 
tion. All your rights shall be religiously respected. 

Notwithstanding all that has Been said by the traitors to 
induce you to believe that our advent among you will be sig- 
nalized by interference with your slaves, understand one thing 
clearly — not only will we abstain from all such interference, 
but we will, on the contrary, with an iron hand, crush any 
attempt at insurrection on their part. IsTow, that we are in 
your midst, I call upon you to fly to arms and support the 
General Government. Sever the connection that binds you 
to traitors — proclaim to the world that the faith and loyalty 
so long boasted by the Old Dominion are still preserved in 
Western Virginia, and that you remain true to the Stars and 
Stripes." 

This address was accompanied by the following to the vol- 
unteer army under his command: 

" Soldiers : — You are ordered to cross the frontier and enter 
upon the soil of Virginia. Your mission is to restore peace 
and confidence, to protect the majesty of the law, and to res- 
cue our brethren from the grasp of armed traitors. You are 
to act in concert with the Virginia troops, and to support 
their advance. 

I place under the safeguard of your honor the persons and 
property of the Virginians. I know that you will respect 
their feelings and all their rights. Preserve the strictest dis- 



42 WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 

cipline; remember that each one of you holds in his keeping 
the honor of Ohio and of the Union. 

If you are called upon to overcome armed opposition, I 
know that your courage is equal to the task ; but remember 
that your only foes are the armed traitors — and show mercy 
even to them when they are in your power, for many of them 
are misguided. When, under your protection, the loyal men 
of Western Virginia have been enabled to organize and arm, 
they can protect themselves; and you can then return to your 
homes, with the proud satisfaction of having preserved a gal- 
lant people from destruction." 

The troops from Ohio and Indiana were immediately put 
in motion, for the seat of war. A portion of Gen. Morris' 
brigade, the Seventh, Col. Dumont's, and the Ninth, Col. Mil- 
roy's, started by railroad to Wheeling, — the Sixth, Col. Crit- 
tenden's, went to Parkersburg, from thence to Philippi, where 
it joined the other two. The Eighth regiment, Col. Benton's, 
and the Tenth, Col. Manson's, subsequently were sent by rail 
and water to Parkersburg, where they joined the column 
which was eventually led by Gen. McClellan in person. The 
Ohio regiments, commanded by Colonels Irvin aud Andrews, 
crossed the river from Benwood to Wheeling on the twenty- 
seventh of May. 

Through the State of Ohio, the approach of our troops 
was everywhere bailed with enthusiasm. Letters from our 
officers and men were filled with graphic descriptions of the 
attentions shown them at every station. It was different 
•when they crossed the Ohio river. Along the railroads, a 
Union flag, occasionally waved as the train swept by, but no 
enthusiasm was evinced. Some poetical accounts were at that 
time written of lively and heartfelt demonstrations of wel- 
come to our troops, but they fade from view, in the prepon- 
derance of testimony, that the wealthier classes were sullen, 
and the poorer classes at least undemonstrative. 

The Ninth Indiana crossed the river at Benwood and pro- 
ceeded on the Baltimore and Ohio Kailroad to Grafton, where 
it arrived on the first of June. The Sixth and Seventh regi- 
ments followed next day. 

Gen. Morris arrived at Grafton in company with the Indi- 



WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 43 

ana troops. The General was accompanied by a very able 
staff. Major Love, a graduate of "West Point, who had served 
with distinction in the regular cavalry during the Mexican 
war, was Brigade Major. John A. Stein, of Lafayette, was 
Acting Assistant Adjutant General, and Milo S. Hascall, 
afterwards Gen. Hascall, a West Point graduate, was aid-de- 
camp, and Dr. Fletcher, Mr., afterwards Col., Hines, and 
other young men of intelligence from Indianapolis, were 
members of the military family, as volunteer aids. 

Col. Kelly was on the eve of starting for Philippi, to rout 
Col. Porterfield's force at that point, when Gen. Morris 
arrived at Grafton. Kelly's troops were already in line. The 
expedition and its object were known to every one in Graf- 
ton. Gen. Morris sent for Col. Kelly. On consultation this 
expedition was abandoned. 

Rebel sympathizers who eagerly watched our every move- 
ment, and had means of communication with the rebels, 
which the Federal commanders could not detect, supposed 
that no attack would be made on the rebel forces. Morris 
felt convinced that the small force of Col. Kelly, — inferior in 
numbers to the army he was about to attack — would be met 
in some of the mountain defiles and perhaps defeated. 

The utmost Kelly with his forces, could do, was to defeat 
Porterfield ; Morris wished to capture him. The Seventh and 
Ninth Indiana regiments were already in Grafton, the Sixth 
Indiana and Fourteenth Ohio were expected at Webster that 
evening. Col. Lander, volunteer aid to Gen. McClellan, was 
coming with a section of Burnett's Ohio artillery. These 
troops came as expected. Gen. Morris, instead of making 
the direct attack, contemplated by the gallant Col. Kelly, 
planned an expedition, which was to start quietly and secretly, 
and attack the enemy's camp in front and rear. 

The attacking force was to move in two columns, by differ- 
ent roads. The First Virginia, the Ninth Indiana, and a por- 
tion of the Fourteenth Ohio, were to move east to Thornton, 
a small railway station five miles from Grafton, and from 
thence march under command of Col. Kelly to the rear of 
the enemy's position. The second column, consisting of the' 
Sixth and Seventh Indiana, and Fourteenth Ohio — Col. Lan- 



44 WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 

der accompanying the column in charge of the artillery — were 
to march from Webster, a distance of twelve miles, and assail 
the enemy in front. The attack of the two divisions was to 
be simultaneous, at four o'clock in the morning. The column 
from Webster was instructed to wait on the hills above Phil- 
ippi, for the signal of the approach of Col. Kelly's column. 
The march was made at night, through darkness, rain 
and mud. Bravely the soldiers toiled in a drenching storm, 
through a strange and mountainous country. Their route 
lay through valleys crossed by swollen streams, over the 
spurs, and winding along the slopes, of the more elevated 
range of mountains. The early dawn found the column 
from Webster on the heights above Philippi. At the foot 
of this range of hills, ran Tygart's Valley River — a branch 
of the Monongahela — across it, nestling in one of the most 
romantic little valleys in Western Virginia, la} 7 the pretty lit- 
tle village of Philippi. The road wound down the ridge to 
a fine bridge, which spanned the river at the entrance to the 
town. 

The advance of this column was discovered by the enemy. 
Col. Lander was riding ahead of the troops in the gray of 
the morning, when he was seen by a woman who twice fired 
at him with a pistol, and started her little boy across the hills, 
to apprise Col. Porterfield of the approach of Federal troops. 

Impatiently the column awaited the signal of the approach 
of Col. Kelly. The officers swept the hills across the val- 
ley with their glasses, straining their eyes to note the most 
trivial evidence of a moving object. The camp below was 
in commotion, the firing of the pistol by the woman having 
aroused them. The boy sent never reached the camp. He 
was overtaken and held by some of our men until the action 
opened, when he was sent back to his belligerent mother. 

The hour appointed for the attack came and passed, but 
still Col. Kelly's division had not arrived. Col. Lander, 
fearful that the enemy might escape unhurt, if he longer 
waited for the arrival of Col. Kelly — who might still be some 
miles away toiling among the hills — ordered the battery to 
.unlimber and begin the attack. Soon after the sound of the 
first gun woke the echoes of the hills, Col. Kelly's command 



WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 45 

appeared in sight, but not at the point expected. The treach- 
ous guide, in the darkness and storm, had led the column 
astray. It entered the town immediately below the camp, 
instead of debouching from the hills upon the Beverly pike, 
which would have thrown it directly in the rear of the enemy, 
and secured his capture. The battery soon got range of the 
rebel camp, which was about a quarter of a mile distant. 
The first ball pierced though a barn and took off the leg of 
a man named Dangerfield. 

The enemy made no attempt to take a position of defense. 
At the first flash of the guns, they fled, each eager to secure 
his own safety. While the artillery thundered from the hills, 
the infantry moved down the road at double quick, rushed 
through the bridge, shouting like Indians; Kelly's forces 
closed upon the fugitives from the flank, the two columns 
uniting on the main street of the town, and continuing the 
pursuit along the Beverly pike. The rebels were fresh. The 
Federals were wearied by a long and fatiguing night march. 
The pursuit was continued for about two miles, when our 
troops, failing to overtake the retreating foe, returned and 
took possession of the abandoned rebel camp. 

The only casuality to the Union forces in this brilliant sur- 
prise, was the wounding of Col. Kelly, the chivalrous Vir- 
ginian, who was shot in the shoulder by a pistol ball, while 
leading the pursuit through the town. It was never known 
who fired the shot. A rebel Quartermaster, named Simms, 
was seized and accused of the act. He would have been 
roughly handled by the heated followers of Col. Kelly, had 
not that noble soldier interfered to protect him. It was 
reported that the shot was fired after the fight, and by the hand 
of an assassin. Capt. Benham, the Chief of Engineers, who 
subsequently investigated the matter, says in his report tiL 
Gen. Morris, "notwithstanding one report to me that he was 
shot from a house, I am still disposed to think he was shot 
in a fair fight by a gallant fellow who was surrounded, and 
fired at the brightest mark." 

The life of Col. Kelly was for a long time despaired of, but 
he finally recovered and has since, as Brigadier General, been 
actively engaged in the field. 



46 WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 

Porterfield's force consisted of twelve hundred men, five 
hundred of whom were cavalry. He had represented to the 
citizens that he had twenty-five hundred men. His object 
in exaggerating the number of his force, being to overawe 
the Union, and strengthen the secession, feeling. A large 
amount of stores was left behind by the fugitives, but the 
captures were not so important as then represented. CoL 
Porterfield's baggage and official papers fell into the hands 
of the Union army. Three hundred and eighty stand of 
arms and a flag of one of the rebel regiments, were among 
the trophies. Col. Willey, who had led the bridge burning 
party, was taken prisoner. Upon his person was found his 
commission in the Confederate service, and letters from Gen. 
Garnett, the rebel commander. 

Col. Dumont, of the Seventh Indiana, assumed the com- 
mand on the fall of Col. Kelly, and immediately commenced 
vigorous efforts to secure the approaches to the town, — to 
ascertain the state of the country, and the condition of the 
enemy. In this work he was ably assisted by Capt^Benham 
of the Engineers. In his first official report, written on the 
fourth of June, Col. Dumont speaks of the services of Jona- 
than W. Gordon — of the Ninth Indiana — who had at his 
solicitation "led a small mounted scouting party on a 
hazardous expedition and performed it in a very satisfactory 
manner." This seems to have been the origin of that efficient 
system of scouting which characterized the operations of both 
campaigns in "Western Virginia. Among the mountains it 
was a perilous service, but had the charms of adventure and 
romance, which made it irresistible to the bold and active 
sons of the Hoosier and Buckeye States. 

The occupation of Philippi developed the fact, that nearly 
all the wealthier classes were strongly tinctured with seces- 
sion. The leading men of the place had abandoned their 
homes, and gone with the Confederate troops. Those who 
remained were sullen, and unwilling to commit themselves to 
the Union cause. They argued that the retirement of the 
Federal forces would leave them subject to every species of 
oppression, and the .most that could be expected from them 
vas strict neutrality between the opposing forces. 



WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 47 

The question of the permanent occupation of the place 
was at once presented to the mind of the commander. 
Should our forces fall back to Grafton, those who were yet 
uncommitted to the Confederate cause, would at once be 
forced by the rebels to commit the overt act of treason, and 
unite their destiny with the armed bands, which would soon 
be poured upon them. Capt. Benham carefully compared 
the reports of his scouts with the testimony of citizens, and 
came to the conclusion that Porterfield's forces, twelve hun- 
dred strong, were at Beverly, twenty-five or thirty miles from 
Philippi, at the junction of the Staunton pike, with the road 
passing through Philippi, and winding along the Laurel Hill 
range, to the passes leading to the Great Central Valley. 
Through these passes troops could be thrown from Eastern 
Virginia. Benham, in his report to Gen. Morris, suggested 
an advance upon Beverly, urging if Philippi was held, 
Beverly must be occupied. 

Gen. Morris found it impossible to advance with a view tu 
a permanent occupation. He had no wagons, the troops had 
been hurried from Grafton without-even their camp equipage, 
and the limited number of teams obtainable in the country 
barely sufficed to forward supplies to Philippi. He assented, 
however, to an expedition to attack the forces gathering at 
Beverly. But a continued storm, such as frequently sweep 
over these mountain regions, delayed the proposed movement 
until the enemy pushed forces through the gaps of the 
Alleghanies, and effected, as they supposed, a permanent 
lodgment with Beverly as a center. 

LAUREL HILL. 

Col. Porterfield, before falling back from Grafton, had 
notified the authorities at Richmond, that it would be impos- 
sible to prevent the Federal troops from overrunning Western 
Virginia, unless a strong force was at once sent there. He 
reported that not over one-third of the militia were willing to 
take up arms for the State ; the majority declaring if they must 
fight, they would fight for the Union. This notice did not 
pass unheeded. A plan of campaign was quickly adopted to 



48 WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 

check the further advance of the Federal forces. Gen. Wise, 
who had organized a brigade in the Kanawha region, was 
ordered to cross the intervening mountains, and co-operate 
with the forces which were then being hurried through the 
Valley to oppose the army of Gen. McClellan. Gen. Garnett 
was placed in command of North- Western Virginia. He at 
once fortified the passes on the roads leading to .Beverly. 
Beverly is the principal town in Tygart's Valley, and the seat of 
justice for Randolph county. The fine turnpike road from 
Webster through Philippi, crossing the Laurel Hill range— 
and the Parkersburg and Staunton pike, crossing Rich Moun- 
tain, there unite, and form the only practicable road for an 
army to cross the Alleghanies, which divide Western and 
Central Virginia. The authorities at Richmond evident]/ 
feared Gen. McClellan would push through the mountain 
passes, and effect a junction with Gen. Patterson, for the pur- 
pose of occupying the valley of the Shenandoah. Pollard, a 
Southern writer, in his " First Year of the War," says : " The 
demonstrations of the Federal forces .in the direction of the 
Valley of Virginia, were' certainly thwarted by the timely 
falling back of our army from Harper's Ferry to Winchester. 
Gen. Patterson's approach was expected by the great route 
into the Valley from Pennsylvania and Maryland, leading 
through Winchester, and it was an object of the utmost 
importance to prevent any junction between his forces and 
those of Gen. McClellanj who was already making his way 
into the upper portions of the Valley." The positions of 
Gen. Garnett were admirably chosen, as may be seen by 
glancing at a map of Virginia. If, at any point on his line, 
he might expect to check McClellan's advance, it was either 
at Rich Mountain or Laurel Hill ; and in the event of that 
General moving his forces by rail to the Potomac outlets of 
the Valley, and thus effect a junction with Patterson, he could 
sally from his mountain fastnesses, and overrun the country 
thus left to his mercy. 

We have no evidence that Gen. McClellan's instructions 
extended farther than to drive the enemy from his Depart- 
ment. His measures to do this were promptly taken. He 
dispatched Gen. Cox with a considerable force to the Kanawha 



WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 49 

region, to hold Wise and Floyd in check. This end was 
accomplished, although a column of Gen. Cox's forces, under 
Col. Lowe, was repulsed in an attack on the enemy's works 
at Scareytown. Gen. Morris was ordered to advance from 
Philippi to Bealington, a small village, within a mile of the 
camp at Laurel Hill, w T here Gen. Garnett commanded in 
person, and where he was strongly intrenched. The instruc- 
tions of Gen. McClellan were full and explicit. Gen. Morris 
was not to attack. He was to reconnoiter the country 
thoroughly, and amuse the rebel General with the idea that 
the main attack was to be made on that position. The plan 
was to hold Garnett at Laurel Hill, while McClellan gained 
his rear. Gen. McClellan himself moved from Parkersburg 
through Clarksburg and Buckhannon, and encamped at Roar- 
ing Run — a small stream which crosses the main Staunton pike, 
directly in front of the rebel works at Rich Mountain — where 
Col. Pegram commanded. Gen. Morris faithfully carried 
out the instructions given him. He moved to Bealington, 
and closely invested Gen. Garnett. 

The skirmishing in front of the Laurel Hill intrenchments 
was heavy and constant. The enemy occupied the wooded 
hills in front of his works with masses of troops, and 
resolutely disputed the advance of reconnoitering parties. 
Nothing could restrain the ardor of the Indiana and Ohio 
soldiers. They frequently stole out from their camps, drove 
in the outer pickets, and engaged in a brisk fight with the 
enemy. The regular scouts of Gen. Morris were constantly 
in the saddle, and penetrated every by-path on the surrounding 
hills. Their adventures, always daring, and often perilous, 
would fill a volume. The Colonels were eager to lead their- 
regiments in the storming of the works. This, Gen. Morris, 
under his instructions, could not permit. The orders given 
him were imperative. He was only to threaten — not to attack. 
The position and range of the enemy's works were concealed 
by the thickly wooded mountain spurs; but the scouts had 
penetrated by stealth to positions overlooking them. The 
situation was well known to Gen. Morris. He also knew 
the position could be turned. The laurel thickets, — from 
which the range of hills takes its name, — while they screened 
Vol. I.— 4. 



50 WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 

the enemy, afforded shelter for our scouts, who were soon 
familiar with every rock and path in the vicinity. The only 
approach for artillery was by the pike, winding along the 
hill sides, lined with thick undergrowth, and overshadowed 
by tall forest trees. Our skirmishers often drove the enemy 
from their hiding places. The artillery frequently dashed up 
the road, and threw shells into the woods beyond. The men 
occasionally accompanied their charges with a yell, and poured 
vollies of musketry upon the startled rebels, whom they 
pursued until superior numbers from the works beyond drove 
them back. They then sought the shelter of trees and logs, 
and continued the fight, until positive orders recalled them to 
camp. Thus the skirmishing continued from day to day. 
The instances of individual daring and courage were numerous. 
Col. Milroy's Ninth regiment was especially conspicuous in 
these scenes. They had acquired the soubriquet of " Swamp 
Devils;" and from their annoyance of the rebel pickets and 
outposts, at Laurel Hill, they might also have appropriately 
been termed " Mountain Imps." Their Colonel there exhibited 
the qualities that have since distinguished him in the war — a 
daring akin to rashness, and a bravery which seldom sought 
counsel from judgment. 

Gen. Morris, cool and cautious, carefully watched over his 
little army. While gathering information respecting the 
enemy's strength, he was willing our men should test their 
ability on his outposts, and occasionally feel his position. It 
seasoned the men, and accustomed them to stand fire. When 
the order to advance came, he knew he could depend upon 
them. 

The Seventh and Ninth regiments lost several brave men 
in these skirmishes. The regiments opposed to them, so far 
as could be learned, were Georgians, who seemed to be foemen 
worthy of their steel. On one occasion, a Georgian, after a 
sharp engagement, in which neither party seemed to have 
gained much advantage, peeping from behind his tree, asked, 
"What troops are you?" "Ohio and Indiana Volunteers," 
was the response. "Volunteers!" exclaimed the Georgian, 
"you need not teh me volunteers stand fire that way!" 

George P. Buell, the editor of the Democratic Review, — 



WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 51 

formerly published in Indianapolis, — and who had once rep- 
resented Marion county in the State Legislature, accompanied 
the Ohio troops to Western Virginia, and took an active part 
in these dashing enterprises. One Sunday morning he went 
with the advanced skirmishers to the wooded hill which 
concealed the enemy's works. It was swarming with rebels. 
"When the skirmishers halted to deploy, and moved forward 
from tree to tree, Buell, who was well mounted, kept straight 
on to Laurel Hill. The audacity of the proceeding startled 
the rebels, who permitted him to proceed several hundred 
yards before they opened fire, which at length came in a per- 
fect storm. Buell, hatless, rejoined his comrades, having run 
the gauntlet untouched by a shot. 

The enemy's cavalry made several charges down the slopes 
of the hills, exciting the admiration of our men. On one 
occasion, a charge had been repulsed, with considerable loss. 
A wounded cavalryman was seen to reel upon his horse. A 
comrade who rode by his side had his bridle arm shattered. 
He took the bridle in his teeth, and with his sword arm drew 
up his falling companion on the saddle behind him, and suc- 
ceeded in making his escape to camp, followed by the admiring 
cheers of the brave men with whom he had been battling. 

But the thousand instances of chivalry on both sides must 
be left to the sketches which will be written concerning this 
war, in which the highest and noblest traits which dignify 
the race have been so frequently exhibited. Written they 
will be. There is a love for brave deeds — an admiration of 
the heroic — implanted in the human heart, which no sys- 
tem of ethics has been, or ever shall be able to eradicate. 
We admire a courageous enemy, however we may condemn 
the motive which incites hirn, provided there be nothing low 
or base in his acts. A mistaken motive we may condemn, 
but, in spite of our reason, we can not but admire the acts of 
a brave, noble and chivalric soldier. How often, when our 
brave volunteers returned from their first campaign, have we 
sat, hour after hour, listening to their recital, interspersed 
with complimentary remarks of the daring deeds of the foe 
they had so gallantly repulsed. 



52 WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 

RICH MOUNTAIN. 

Gen. McClellan, meantime, in his camp at Roaring Run, was 
preparing to move upon the Rich Mountain works. Could 
he drive Pegram from his stronghold, across the mountain, 
he would be in Garnett's rear, and entrap that General and 
his Laurel Hill force. Pegram felt secure in his fortified 
gorge. He boasted that his position could not be turned; and 
that he could resist a front attack from any force that could 
be brought against him. But his position was turned, in spite 
of the seemingly impassable barriers which frowned from his 
flanks. There was very little skirmishing about Roaring Run. 
Col. Pegram left his front door open, hoping Gen. McClellan 
would walk into the vestibule of his mansion, which was 
intended to be converted into a slaughter pen. A reconnois- 
sance was made on the tenth of July, and on the eleventh 
the movement was made to turn the position, which resulted 
in the battle of Rich Mountain and in the capture of the 
stronghold. A young man named Hart, son of the proprietor 
of the mountain farm upon which Pegram was encamped, 
agreed to guide a force by bridle paths over the mountain on 
the enemy's left, to their rear. At three o'clock in the 
morning, the Eighth, Tenth and Thirteenth Indiana, and the 
Sixteenth Ohio, regiments, with BurdsalPs troop of cavalry, 
left camp, under command of Gen. Rosecrans. The troops 
were in light marching order, with one day's rations in their 
haversacks. Taking a wide detour to the south-east, the 
column commenced to ascend the mountain, through tangled 
undergrowth, over slippery paths, often so narrow that two 
men could not move abreast, and so steep that they had liter- 
ally to climb from rock to rock. They passed far above 
Pegram's camp, following the ridge that curved to the rear. 
While following the uncertain path, the mountain top was 
reached, then the beautiful Valley of the Tygart river, with 
the Cheat Mountain range beyond, broke in the grey light 
of the morning upon the vision of the tired soldiers. Each 
turn in the narrow winding road changed the delightful scene 
which stretched far away below them. To their view was 
presented an ever-changing panorama of mountain and vale. 



WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 53 

The pike struck the mountain at a depression between two 
high ridges, and wound up through the camp. The ridges 
almost meet at Hart's house, the highest point on the road. 
The column, without being disturbed by pickets, had reached 
the elevation above the farm house, a mile in the rear of the 
fortifications, when suddenly a volley was poured into them. 
It was evident the enemy had been apprised of their move- 
ment, and had disposed his force to meet it. The men were 
ordered to lie down. Gen. Hosecrans dashed along the 
mountain side, rapidly scanning the condition of affairs. At 
the first fire Capt. Chris. Miller, of the Tenth Indiana, fell, 
having been shot through the left lung. His subsequent 
recovery was a source of as great surprise, as joy, to the 
citizens of Indiana. 

The rebels were discovered in force, intrenched behind log 
breastworks, on the opposite side of the road, and on the 
slope of the twin mountain spur upon which our forces had 
advanced. They had three pieces of cannon, partially pro- 
tected by the farm buildings, from which they kept up a 
lively cannonade during the brief reconnoissance. Gen. 
Rosecrans moved his force from the thick wood on the hill 
top, to the cleared land on its side. There he formed his 
line — the Tenth Indiana on the right, the Eighth in the center, 
and the Thirteenth on the left, flanking or bending toward 
the front. The Nineteenth Ohio was formed in reserve. After 
considerable skirmishing, in which both parties lost many 
men, a large body of rebels, under cover of their battery, 
charged across the road. The Hoosiers lay still in the grass. 
The grape, canister and shells from the rebel battery passed 
over them. They were ordered to fire. Each man in the 
line sprang to his feet. A murderous volley was poured into 
the ranks of the advancing foe. They hastened back to their 
cover. Our men broke line and followed, each company and 
squad fighting independently of the other. The daring Col. 
Lander, who was with the party, leaped upon a high rock — a 
conspicuous object for the rebel marksmen — urging the men 
to form in companies, and charge the batteries. A Lieutenant 
and twenty men, deployed as skirmishers, commenced picking 
off the gunners. In the meantime, Gen. Bosecrans, dashing 



54 WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 

over rocks and stumps, and fallen timber, appeared among 
the troops, and reformed the line broken by the headlong 
daring of the men. The order to take the batteries was 
given. The skirmishers poured in a volley. The line dashed 
like a thunderbolt down the hill. The struggle was short. 
The rebels fought well, but nothing could withstand that 
furious charge. The batteries were taken — by what regiments 
it matters not — for all fought gallantly and well. The rebels 
fled towards their main position at the foot of the east slope 
of the mountain, followed for some distance by our troops, 
who could scarcely be restrained from rushing into the rebel 
intrenchments below. 

The battle commenced about two o'clock and lasted for an 
hour and twenty minutes. A portion of the time, the firing 
was very heavy, and distinctly heard in Gen. McClellan's 
camp at Roaring Run. The Federal loss was light com- 
pared with that of the enemy, who besides their killed and 
wounded, had a number made prisoners. The entire force 
of Gen. Rosecrans was one thousand seven hundred and 
forty — that of the enemy about nine hundred. The disparity 
in numbers was more than equalized by the artillery and 
breastworks of the enemy. 

When the battle opened two regiments of Confederate 
troops, were ascending the eastern slope of the mountain 
from Beverly to reinforce Pegram's rear guard. They were 
advised by fugitives of the defeat, and fell back, but were 
still in a condition to join in a night attack, should Pegram 
sally from his camp, upon the isolated little force of Gen. 
Rosecrans. Pegram, however, was threatened in front by a 
heavy force under Gen. McClellan, and, having been defeated 
in the rear by Gen. Rosecrans, took advantage of the night, 
which set in dark and stormy, to abandon his camp with all 
his stores, and fly over a mountain path in the direction of 
Laurel Hill. The regiments advancing to his aid, retired 
through Beverly towards the Cheat Mountain Pass. Early 
next morning Rosecrans moved upon Pegram's main works, 
and found only a few stragglers and sick, to tell the story of 
the hasty flight of their commander. 

Gen. McClellan immediately moved his column to Beverly, 



WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 55 

and took active measures to cut off the retreat of Garnett 
from Laurel Hill, and to capture the fugitives from Rich 
Mountain. The mountains were scouted in every direction. 
Prisoners were picked up on every by-path, who, wearied and 
dispirited, were brought to headquarters. 

carrick's ford. 

The capture of a courier despatched by Gen. McClellan, 
revealed the plan of his attack upon Rich Mountain. Gen. 
Garnett, at Laurel Hill, being advised of the movement and 
anticipating its success, hastily abandoned his camp on the 
night of the eleventh of July, hoping to pass Beverly before 
the force of Gen. McClellan could reach it from the Weston 
pike. The roads were heavy from the constant rains. He 
had proceeded but seven or eight miles in the direction of 
Beverly, when he found the route blocked in his front. 
Retracing his steps a few miles, he struck off at Leedsville, 
on the Leading Creek road, towards St. George, in Tucker 
county. This road plunges at once into the wild mountains 
of the Cheat range, and has all the characteristics of a toler- 
able pass-way over rugged and broken spurs swept by moun- 
tain torrents. The retiring force hastily disencumbered 
themselves of all superfluous baggage, and marked their 
track with blankets, knapsacks and clothing. 

At daylight on Friday morning, the twelfth, conflicting 
reports were received at the headquarters of Gen. Morris, 
from the night scouts. One party reported that the enemy 
had evacuated, while another who had occupied a different 
stand point was positive he had been reinforced during the 
night. These conflicting reports rendered it necessary to send 
out other parties, who soon returned with stories quite as 
much at variance as those received in the early morning. 
Gen. Morris then ordered three regiments to approach the 
works cautiously by the pike. They marched up and found 
them evacuated; the tents, however, were stilr*standing. 

The entire column was put in pursuit of the enemy. Then 
followed one of the most exciting races between a retreating, 
and pursuing force recorded in the annals of the war. The 



56 WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 

graphic accounts of the chase which reached us through the 
press at the time must be familiar to our readers. The 
advance had scarcely passed the deserted camp when they 
met with obstructions. The enemy had felled heavy trees 
across the road. Axes had to be obtained, and men set to 
work to remove the obstructions. The Seventh and Ninth 
Indiana, the Fourteenth Ohio, and a section of Barnett's 
Ohio battery, led the advance. There could be no mistake in 
reference to the line of retreat, for the deep mud was worked 
to a jelly by the active feet of men and horses. The mouth 
of the Leedsville road was closely blocked with fallen trees. 
It was evident the retreating foe had doubled on his track. 
He had turned and blockaded the road behind him. There 
was evidence too, that he had advanced towards Beverly. A 
short halt was made. A guide was found who led the advance 
by a rough and broken path around the obstructions. Night 
coming on, the men bivouaced on the rocks and among the 
bushes, many of them going supperless to their airy beds, 
those best provided for partook of a slice of raw pork or a 
piece of soaked cracker, which chance had left in their haver- 
sacks. 

At two o'clock on Saturday morning, the advance was 
again in motion. The sky was overcast, and the weather 
cold. A chilling mist followed, which soon turned into a 
pitiless storm. The rain descended in torrents, and rushed 
in cataracts from the hill sides. The road was miserable. 
The soldiers slipped, and plunged, and scrambled along, often 
reeling like drunken men in the mire; but they overcame 
every obstacle in their eagerness to overtake the foe. The 
evidence of the haste of the rebels increased as our troops 
advanced. Broken wagons were upset in the gorges, and 
hung to the sides of precipices. The thickets on the road 
sides were strewn with officers' baggage, having been thrown 
out to lighten the teams. The soft mud in the road was 
thickened with blankets and other articles, dropped by 
fatigued and overmarched men. The enemy started twelve 
hours in advance of our troops. After fruitless efforts to 
bring up his train, he abandoned, first, much of the contents 
of his wagons, next, many of the wagons themselves. About 



WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 57 

noon, the advance emerged from the defile upon Cheat River 
at Kahler's Ford. The main body was several miles in the 
rear, their march even more severe than that of the advance, 
as the mud became deeper by each additional body of men 
that tramped through it. At the ford the advance perceived 
the enemy. He was evidently seeking a position to make a 
stand. He halted a large portion of his force until the 
remnant of his train, lightened of nearly all its load, passed 
on. The Ohio and Indiana soldiers dashed into the stream, 
the water being nearly waist deep. With great difficulty, 
they were halted on the opposite side of the river, until the 
artillery arrived. A single shot set the rebel infantry in 
motion. On went the eager Union soldiers in pursuit, 
splashing through the mud, trampling the bushes beneath 
their feet. The rebels rally to cover their train. A scatter- 
ing fire of musketry opens, and continues, until the artillery 
unlimbers. A few shells compel them to scamper. Thus a 
running fight was kept up for three miles to the second cross- 
ing, called Carrick's Ford, which takes its name from the 
owner of the farm. At this point, the mountains recede on 
both sides of the river, leaving a comparatively level bottom 
of about a mile in width. On the opposite side, the rebels 
prepared to make a stand. Here the bank is bold and high, 
rising about sixty feet above the shore, down which, the 
Fourteenth Ohio, being in advance, rushed for the ford. 
Rebel wagons were stuck fast in the stream. The teamsters 
implored the skirmishers not to shoot, as they were about to 
surrender. Gen. Garnett now rose from the bushes on the 
opposite bank, ordering his men, who were in position behind 
a fence, in an oat field, to fire. The Fourteenth Ohio, 
without flinching, received the volley. The rebel battery 
now opened. The Seventh and Mnth Indiana hastened up, 
Barnett's artillery unlimbered, and the battle, for a few 
minutes, raged with fury. The fire, however, was not 
destructive; the principal loss falling on the Fourteenth Ohio, 
which had received the first deliberate volley of the enemy. 
Capt. Benham, who commanded the advance, ordered Col. 
Dumont, with six companies of the Seventh Indiana, to cross 
the river above the ford, pass up the hill, and reach the 



58 WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 

enemy's rear. The order being given, the Seventh, with 
their gallant Colonel at their head, plunged into the rapid 
stream. The head of the column reached the opposite bank, 
and were working up its almost perpendicular sides by the 
aid of rocks and bushes, when Capt. Benham, seeing the 
hopeless task in which they were engaged, ordered Col. 
Dumont to form his men in the river bed, to march down the 
river under cover of the bank, and charge the enemy in front 
at the ford, while the two regiments, the Ninth Indiana, the 
Fourteenth Ohio, and Barnett's battery, should pour their 
fire on the foe over the heads of his men. The command had 
to march about five hundred yards. The river's bottom was 
covered with bowlders, which turned at every step ; yet the 
men formed with remarkable regularity. The moment the 
head of Dumont's column reached the ford, the rebels broke. 
Gen. Garnett strove to rally his men, but in vain. He stood on 
the bank waving his handkerchief, urging them to return, 
and exhorting them to dispute the further advance of our 
force. The Seventh rushed forward like a whirlwind. Major 
Gordon, who had accompanied the Ninth Indiana to Virginia, 
and joined the Seventh at the crossing, jumped upon a stump 
to cheer on the men. Gen. Garnett directed the attention of 
a few of his followers, who still clung to him, to the Major. 
A volley from their guns literally riddled the stump upon 
which he was standing. The Major, at the same moment, 
caught sight of Garnett, and directed Sergeant Burlingame, 
of the Seventh, to bring him down. The Sergeant fired, 
when the brave and gallant General of the routed and hard 
pressed rebel army, fell dead. A young Georgian, a mere 
youth, who, amid all calamity, had clung to his General, fell 
dead by his side. The battle was ended. The enemy fled in 
the wildest confusion, followed by our troops, until the hope- 
lessness of further pursuit in those wild and dreary hills was 
self-evident even to the most eager and earnest. They 
returned. The reserve came up, and the army bivouaced for 
the night on the banks of the ford, forever made memorable 
by the operations of that day. Our loss was two killed, two 
mortally, and eight slightly wounded — in all twelve. The 
enemy's loss is not known. Eight of their dead were buried 



WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 59 

on the field, three died in hospital, and twelve wounded fell 
prisoners into our hands. All night long the scouts and 
pickets continued to bring prisoners into our camp, until 
their number became an incumbrance to our wearied soldiers. 

GENERAL GARNETT. 

Major Gordon was the first to reach the fallen General. 
Life was already extinct. The brave commander of the 
Confederate army of Western Virginia had given his last 
order. Tenderly did Major Gordon straighten the limbs, 
close the eyes, and tie the face, of the gallant dead. The 
body was recognized by Major Love, who had been a class 
mate and an intimate friend of the deceased at West Point, 
and who, to his honor and manhood be it said, shed tears 
over the lifeless body of his former friend. He had it con- 
veyed to headquarters, and gently assisted in preparing it for 
the coffin. 

Gen. Garnett graduated at West Point in 1841. He was a 
military character by choice and education. He distinguished 
himself in the Mexican war, and since that period held very 
important positions in the army. He was at one time Super- 
intendent of the Military Academy, and was regarded by the 
officers of the old army as one of its brightest ornaments. 
A personal description written at the time of his death says: 
" In person General Garnett was about &Ye feet eight inches, 
rather slenderly built, with a fine, high arching forehead, and 
regular and handsome features, almost classic in their regu- 
larity, and mingled delicacy and strength of beauty. His 
hair, almost coal black, as were his eyes, he wore long on the 
neck, in the prevailing fashion of the Virginia aristocracy. 
His dress was of fine blue broadcloth throughout, and richly 
ornamented. The buttons bore the coat of arms of the State 
of Virginia, and the star on his shoulder strap was richly 
studded with brilliants.' 

Major Gordon was placed in charge of the body of the 
fallen General, and of the effects found upon it, and was sent 
with them to the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, that they 
might be transmitted to his friends. 



60 WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 

THE CAMPAIGN ENDS. 

Gen. Morris returned to his camp at Bealington, where he 
made preparations for the return of his three months regi- 
ments to their homes, their term of service having expired. 
Gen. Hill was ordered from Powelsburg to intercept the scat- 
tered army. Although he had a large force, the fugitives 
slipped through his fingers, and escaped by the way of Rom- 
ney to Winchester, where they rallied and reorganized. 

Gen. McClellan, in the meantime, had received an offer of 
surrender from Pegram, who, with six hundred of his 
followers, had wandered over the hills — unable to find a 
loop-hole of escape — until fatigue and want of food had 
broken their proud spirit. Gen. McClellan tendered them all 
the kindness due prisoners of war. Pushing on to Huttons- 
ville, he learned that the force which had occupied Beverly — 
the reserve of Garnett's army — after having destroyed the 
bridge, had followed the Staunton pike over Cheat Mountain, 
and were in full retreat beyond the confines of Western 
Virginia. He followed to the " Summit," a place afterwards 
famous in the annals of the war, and sent detachments to the 
foot of the Alleghanies. The only evidence of an army there 
seen, were the brushwood camps on the rocky and wooded 
hills, the smoking embers of bivouac fires, and the wreck of 
wagons at the foot of mountain declivities, down which they 
had tumbled in the hasty flight of the rear guard of the 
Confederate Army of Western Virginia. 

Gen. McClellan left a portion of Col. Kimball's regiment, 
the Fourteenth Indiana, as an outpost on the summit of Cheat 
Mountain, established a camp at the foot of its western slope, 
which he placed under command of Gen. Schleich, and returned 
to Beverly. Truly could the young General say — "the enemy 
is driven out of Western Virginia." The following address 
was issued by the Commanding General, and read at the head 
of the several regiments: 
u Soldiers of the Army of the West: 

"I am more than satisfied with you. 

"You have annihilated two armies, commanded by educated 
and experienced soldiers, intrenched in mountain fastnesses 



WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 61 

fortified at their leisure. You have taken fi.ve guns, twelve 
colors, fifteen hundred stand of arms, one thousand prisoners, 
including more than forty officers — one of the two commanders 
of the rebels is a prisoner, the other lost, his life on the field 
of battle. You have killed more than two hundred and fifty 
of the enemy, who has lost all his baggage and camp equipage. 
All this has been accomplished with the loss of twenty brave 
men killed and sixty wounded, on your part. 

"You have proved that Union men, fighting for the preserva- 
tion of our Government, are more than a match for our 
misguided and erring brethren; more than this, you have 
shown mercy to the vanquished. You have made long and 
arduous marches, often with insufficient food, frequently 
exposed to the inclemency of the weather. I have not 
hesitated to demand this of you, feeling that I could rely on 
your endurance, patriotism and courage. 

"In the future, I may have still greater demands to make 
upon you, still greater sacrifices for you to offer ; it shall be 
my care to provide for you to the extent of my ability; but I 
know now, that by your valor and endurance you will accom- 
plish all that is asked. 

"Soldiers! I have confidence in you, and I trust you have 
learned to confide in me. Remember that discipline and sub- 
ordination are qualities of equal value with courage. 

"I am proud to say that you have gained the highest 
reward that American troops can receive — the thanks of 
Congress, and the applause of your fellow citizens." 

The victory of the Union army was complete. The short 
campaign was brilliantly conceived and ably executed. The 
Confederate plan for overrunning and subjugating the moun- 
tain districts was also marked with genius. The master 
players met, the first move of the Federal commander on the 
mountain chess-board scattered, in hopeless confusion, the 
rebel pawns. Rapidly did he follow his advantage, from 
skirmish to skirmish, and from outpost to outpost, from camp 
to camp, until the duty assigned him was thoroughly per- 
formed. Gen. McClellan had scarcely time to place his troops 
in positions to hold what they had gained, before events on 
another field called him to part from his victorious little army. 



62 WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 

On the return of Gen. Morris' Indiana brigade to the capi- 
tal of the State, to be mustered out of service, he issued the 
following: address to his brave comrades : 

" To the Officers and Soldiers of the Brigade : 

" The term of service for this brigade, in the army of the 
United States, having expired, and the relation of officers and 
soldiers about to be dissolved, the General, in relinquishing 
his command, deems this a fit occasion to express his entire 
approbation of the conduct of the brigade, whether in the 
camp, on the march, or on the field of battle. The General 
tenders to all his thanks for the soldierly bearing, the cheerful 
performance of every duty, and the patient endurance of the 
privations and fatigues of campaign life, which all have so 
constantly exhibited. Called suddenly by the National 
Executive from the ease and luxuries of home life to the 
defense of our Government, the officers and soldiers of this 
brigade have voluntarily submitted to the privations and 
restraints of military life ; and, with the intelligence of free 
Americans, have acquired the arts of war as readily as they 
relinquished the pursuits of peace. They have cheerfully 
endured the fatigue of long and dreary marches by day and 
night, through the rain and storm — they have borne the 
exhaustion of hunger for the sake of their country. Their 
labor and suffering were not in vain. The foe they met, they 
vanquished. They scattered the traitors from their secure 
intrenchments in the gorges of Laurel Hill, stripped of their 
munitions of war, to flee before the vengeance of patriots. 

" Soldiers! you have now returned to the friends whose 
prayers went with you to the field of strife. They welcome 
you with pride and exultation. Your State and country 
acknowledge the value of your labors. May your future 
career be as your past has been, honorable to yourselves and 
serviceable to your country. 

" The General in command, sensible of the great obligation 
he is under to the members of his staff, can not refrain from 
this public acknowledgment of the value of their services. 

"To Brigade Major Love he can but feebly express hia 
obligations. To his ripe and practiced judgment, his accurate 
knowledge of the duties of officers and soldiers, his unremit- 



WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 63 

ting labors to secure instruction and discipline, to his cheerful 
and valuable counsel, the General is greatly indebted. 

"For the valuable services of Captain Benham of the 
United States Engineers, not only in the appropriate duties 
of his station, but in his voluntary and arduous labors in the 
field, the General desires, in the name of the Brigade, to 
thank him. He has proved himself not only the skillful 
engineer, but competent to discharge any and every duty 
incident to military life. 

"To Captain Hines, Aid-de-Camp, and to Acting Assistant 
Adjutant General Stein, the General tenders his acknowl- 
edgments for their ready and cheerful performance of the 
severe duties imposed upon them." 

This short campaign had a decided influence in increasing 
the military spirit of the State. Everwhere the soldiers were 
received with enthusiasm by the people, and their narratives 
listened to with eager interest. When the regiments returned 
to the Capital ovations awaited them. When companies 
reached the county seats, crowds greeted them with enthu- 
siasm. When the soldiers arrived at their homes, they were 
objects of especial attention and regard in their respective 
neighborhoods. As every district in the State was repre- 
sented, and every county had at least given individual mem- 
bers to the regiments engaged in the campaign, a martial 
spirit was kindled throughout the length and breadth of 
Indiana. We do not think it is unreasonable to claim that 
our State owes much of the military reputation acquired in 
this war, to the experience gained by her sons in the first 
Western Virginia campaign, and to the love of the stirring 
scenes of camp life there acquired, and reflected on the masses 
of her citizens when they returned. The hardships they had 
endured were soon forgotten, and the pleasures and the wild 
excitement of the bivouac and the battle-field, were remem- 
bered and related with zest to eager listeners. As the mag- 
nitude of the struggle was unfolded, and as additional forces 
were demanded by the Government, the returned volunteers 
stepped forward and raised companies with comparative ease. 
As officers and as drill-masters, they soon brought the new 
levies to a state of efficiency, which, without their aid, would 









64 WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 

have required time to perfect. The three years regiments, 
when sent to the field, had many experienced officers who 
had confidence in themselves, and in whom the men confided. 
The regiments bearing the same numbers with the six raised 
for the three months service, had a large proportion of the 
old members in their ranks. As additional troops were 
required, these men were promoted, and now are in every 
division of the army where Indiana is represented. 




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HISTORY OF REGIMENTS. 



CHAPTER III. 

THREE MONTHS' SERVICE.— SIXTH REGIMENT. 

The booming of the cannon that battered Sumter's walls 
had scarcely died away, when, with lightning speed its rever- 
berations were transmitted to a slumbering and startled 
nation. The call to arms was sounded, and thousands, 
anxious to wipe out the stains of traitor hands, rallied around 
our nation's emblem of liberty — the Stars and Stripes. None 
responded more promptly than Indiana, the Queen of the 
brave north-west. The Sixth was the first regiment organized 
in the State. It was in rendezvous at her Capital, on the 
twentieth of April, 1861, less than a week after Sumter had 
fallen into rebel hands. 

Hagerman Tripp, of North Vernon, Jennings county, was 
among the first to offer his services. He reported a company 
of one hundred and sixteen men, having raised it in a small 
inland town, in the short space of thirty-six hours. Other 
companies, among them Crittenden's and Harrison's, were 
as speedily raised. The regimental organization was not 
completed until the twenty-seventh of April. The following 
is the roster, as prepared by Adjutant General Noble : 

Field and Staff Officers. — Colonel, Thomas T. Crittenden, 

Madison ; Lieutenant Colonel, Hiram Prather, Vernon ; Major, 

John Gerber, Madison ; Adjutant, George W. Wiley, Madison ; 

Regimental Quartermaster, Josiah H. Andrews, North Ver- 

Vol. L— 5. 



66 WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 

non; Surgeon, Charles Sehussler, Madison; Assistant Sur- 
geon, Johu W. Davis, Vincennes. 

Company A. — Captain, Philemon P. Baldwin, Madison ; 
First Lieutenant, Samuel Russell; Second Lieutenant, Isaac 
Stephens. fc 

Company B. — Captain, Augustus H. Abbett, Columbus; 
First Lieutenant, Allen "W. Prather; Second Lieutenant, 
Wm. C. Wheeler. 

Company C. — Captain, Charles Childs, "Washington ; First 
Lieutenant, R. W. Meredith; Second Lieutenant, Alamson 
Solomon. 

Company D. — Captain, Thomas J. Harrison, Kokomo; 
First Lieutenant, Thomas Herring; Second Lieutenant, Wm. 
R. Phillips, 

Company E. — Captain, Rufus Gale, Madison; First Lieu- 
tenant, John T. Hendricks; Second Lieutenant, William 
Hamilton. 

Company F. — Captain, Will C. Moreau, Knightstown ; 
First Lieutenant, Robert Allison ; Second Lieutenant, John 
Cole. 

Company G. — Captain, Hagerman Tripp, North Yernon; 
First Lieutenant, Josiah C. Andrews; Second Lieutenant, 
George W. Kendrick. 

Company II — Captain, Fielder A. Jones, Seymour; First 
Lieutenant, Stephen Story; Second Lieutenant, Calvin B. 
Trumbo. 

Company I. — Captain, John D. Evans, Noblesville; First 
Lieutenant, John F. Longley; Second Lieutenant, George A. 
Wain wright. 

Company K. — Captain, Alois 0. Bachman, Madison ; First 
Lieutenant, George W. Wiley ; Second Lieutenant, William 
T. Doys. 

The large majority of the members of this regiment resided 
within the bounds of the Third Congressional District. The 
regiment was fully equipped with arms, and hoosier grey 
uniform, and remained at Indianapolis under almost constant 
drill, until the thirtieth of May, when, upon receiving march- 
ing orders, it started for Western Virginia. Passing through 
Cincinnati, it stopped for the night at Camp Dennison, where 



WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 67 

its members were the guests of the Sixth Ohio, the gallant 
"Guthrie Greys." In the morning the regiment renewed its 
journey through the "Buckeye State." At every station 
the trains were hailed, and edibles of every description fur- 
nished to the passing soldiery. The choice viands were 
accompanied with boquets of flowers, fresh from the hands 
of Ohio's fair daughters. While memory remains true to her 
trust, they will never be forgotten by the members of the 
Sixth Indiana. How different the reception when, at Par- 
kersburgh, the Ohio border was passed and Hoosier feet 
struck Virginia soil. A black pall seemed to hover over the 
city. There the Hoosier soldiers received no smile of welcome, 
no friendly hand-grasp, but were confronted with scowling 
countenances, and haughty stand-off airs. The streets were 
quiet as the city of the dead, and the few who were in them, 
seemed to stalk along like "ghosts of the damned." Com- 
panies A, D and K were left here under Capt. Baldwin, to dis- 
perse a rebel organization at St. Mary's. The rest of the 
regiment went by rail to Webster, which place they reached 
on the evening of June second; here they were joined by 
portions of the First Virginia, Seventh Indiana, and Four- 
teenth Ohio. Hard crackers were now first issued to the 
troops. The night was dark and stormy. In a drenching 
rain, company after company formed, and filed away through 
the darkness, to surprise a rebel camp at Philippi, fourteen 
miles distant. Silently they wended their toilsome way up 
the mountain, carrying heavy knapsacks through mud and 
mire. The long night hours passed slowly and heavily, and 
morning dawned upon our wearied troops, near the enemy's 
encampments. Many, fatigued and exhausted, had dropped 
by the way-side. But hark ! the boom of the cannon rings 
out merrily upon the morning air. It is the first gun of the 
war. It rouses the weary, and animates the laggard. Boom 
upon boom is echoed far and wide over mountains unused to 
such sounds. There are no laggards now; new energies are 
roused within them. The heights above Philippi, overlook- 
ing the quiet village — hid away among the hills — are reached 
at last. What a scene meets the eye! a scene which painters 
would rejoice to witness. The "God of Day" had not yet 



68 WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 

risen from his slumbers. The tints of morning had just 
begun to dispel the gloom of night. A dense fog was rising 
like a curtain from the village. Barnett's Cleveland Battery 
now belches forth her loud thunder. Federal troops rush 
down the hill and dash over the bridge that spans a branch 
of the Monongahela, Tygart's Valley River. They enter the 
village. The quick volley of musketry rattles — the rebels 
hurriedly and rapidly retreat — men almost naked and daugh- 
ters of chivalry frantic and en dishabile, fly down the Beverly 
pike, and clamber up the mountain sides, endeavoring to flee 
from the wrath of an outraged nation. From a hotel window 
where lately a rebel flag had w r aved, the stars and stripes now 
gaily float. The court house campus is filled with Union 
soldiers, who, with great relish, discuss a smoking breakfast 
which had been prepared for rebel palates. The doors of the 
jail are now unbarred, and men whose only crime had been 
love of the old Government, are set at liberty. 

On the outside of the court house square stood several 
wagons filled with rebel property, which now fell a prey to 
the victors. Many articles never seen amongst Quartermas- 
ter's stores, nor mentioned in army regulations, were appro- 
priated by our troops, in anticipation of the confiscation act 
afterwards passed by Congress. Owing to a want of proper 
co-operation, most of the enemy escaped toward Laurel Hill, 
and were not pursued. A small garrison was here left, and 
the Sixth, with the rest of the brigade, marched back to 
Grafton, w r here Gen. Morris, the commander of the brigade, 
established his headquarters, to watch the " drift of events." 
Every thing bid fair for a quiet time ; no armed organization 
of the rebels was near. The Sixth went into camp on a high 
bluff north of the city. Gen. Morris had no cavalry, and to 
obviate this deficiency, Capt. Tripp, of Co. G, was put in 
command of a party of volunteer scouts. An order was 
given on the Quartermaster for a dozen horses and revolvers. 
The scouts were from the Sixth regiment, and consisted of 
the following persons : 

Capt. Tripp, in command; Capt. Jones, Co. H; Lieut. 
Allison, Co. F; Lieut. Longley, Co. I; Lieut. Hendricks, Co. 
E ; Lieut. McKeehon, Co. G ; Ord. Johnson, Co. D ; Corp. 



WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. G9 

Ellingham, Co. K; Corp. Potts, Co. II ; Sergt. Boxley, Co. F; 
Wm. Lower, Co. F; H. I. Burge, Co. G; I. T. Patterson, 
Co. G. 

The equipments, though the best the country afforded, were 
very inferior, consisting of broken bridles, and worn-out 
saddles. Away sped the light-hearted party, ready alike for 
fun or hard service, none knowing their destination. The 
orders given the Captain were queer for war times. He was 
to reconnoiter the country, watch the movements of the 
enemy, and mingle as much as possible with the inhabitants, 
and enlighten them respecting the purposes of the Federals 
in the prosecution of the war. Their minds had been poisoned 
by the cunning leaders of the rebellion, who took advantage 
of their prejudice against slavery — for Western Virginia was 
opposed to that institution — and told them the Union army 
intended to free the slaves and settle them in Western Virginia. 
It was important these erroneous opinions should be removed. 
So this little band started on its mission. They visited Prun- 
ty ville and the adjacent country, penetrated the enemy's lines 
to Tunnelton and St. George, in Tucker country ; from thence 
they proceeded to Cranberry Summit, on Laurel Mountain; 
thence to Kingstown, conversing freely with the principal 
citizens. At St. George, they met a stanch Unionist, an old 
-acquaintance of the Captain's, in the person of the hotel- 
keeper — a Mr. Tate — who had formerly resided in Jennings 
county; from him much valuable information was received. 
Three and a half miles distant was a regiment of rebel 
cavalry. Captain Tripp, with his scouts, visited the most 
prominent rebels in the vicinity, and gave them their choice, 
either to take the oath of allegiance, or be placed in arrest. 
The little band knowing — from their proximity to the rebel 
cavalry — that they were on dangerous ground, moved at night- 
fall up the mountain, to prevent capture, and be in a position 
for defense in case of attack. They afterwards learned their 
caution was well timed. A party of rebels visited the town 
that night to capture them; but the birds had flown. Thus 
these scouts traveled from house to house, and from village to 
village. Manv of the citizens, ignorant of the purposes of 
the Federal army, fted at their approach. The clatter of 



70 WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 

their horses' hoofs down the little valley roads, and the sight 
of their uniform, made houses tenantless — caused men and 
women to collect their families, and clamber up the rough 
mountain sides, to hide among the rocks and caverns. So 
much for the fear of Federal soldiers entertained at the com- 
mencement of the war, by the people who inhabit Western 
Virginia — a country as beautiful as the eye ever rested on. 
Her fertile valleys — limpid streams — her rock-ribbed moun- 
tains and flowery vales, make her the "Switzerland of 
America." One day, as the scouts were passing through a 
Little valley at the base of Laurel Mountain, they espied a 
hamlet — rode up, and inquired for the master of the premises. 
The mistress told them he had been absent five days — she 
knew not where. Dinner being upon the table, she invited 
the party to dine. They cheerfully accepted the offered hos- 
pitality, dismounted, and were in the act of providing hay 
for their jaded animals, when one of the party, in plunging 
the pitchfork into the mow, scratched a limb of the owner, 
who had been reported as absent, but who now sprang to his 
feet, and stood trembling in the presence of the surprised 
scout. The affrighted rebel expected immediate death, and 
asked for a few moments with his family. When he heard 
his fate, and the terms upon which he could still enjoy " life, 
liberty, and the pursuit of happiness," he was wild with 
delight. Joyfully he took the oath, and has ever since been 
a stanch Union man. This little band traveled in seven 
days more than a hundred miles — conversed with many of 
the principal citizens of four counties, commenced the organ- 
ization of a Union company at Kingstown, and passed around 
several rebel camps, without loss of life, or serious accident. 
After spending a day at camp, they made another trip to St. 
George, where they remained over night, and administered 
the oath to several refractory citizens. While there, Capt. 
Jones, Lieut. Longley, and Sergts. Boxley and Patterson, 
were sent to administer the oath to a leading rebel, who at 
first refused to take it, but finally consented, deeming it more 
prudent to swear loyalty to government than be a prisoner 
in the Federal camp. How he kept his oath the sequel will 
show. After the route of the enemy at Carrick's Ford, the 



WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 71 

Federals, in returning to Laurel Hill, passed through St. 
George, at which place Capt. Jones was in the rear of the 
brigade, in charge of a wagon train. On a former occasion, 
his operations in this vicinity had made him a "marked" 
man. As the train was passing through a defile of the 
mountains, it was fired upon by bushwackers, and Capt. 
Jones, now Lieut. Colonel of the Thirty-Ninth — whose name 
is on Gen. Rosecrans' "Roll of Honor" — received a severe 
wound. A detachment under Major Gerber and Lieut. 
McKeehan were sent back to punish the guilty offenders, but 
all search for them proved unavailing. The old rebel, to 
whom Capt. Jones had previously administered the oath, 
boasted publicly that he had wounded the Captain. A Fed- 
eral scout, named "Blackhawk," secreted himself near the 
old rebel's house, and remained there eight days, waiting for 
an opportunity to punish him, but he did not return. After 
the return of the scouts from the second trip to St. George, 
they received a reinforcement of thirty-eight men, and were 
ordered to Oakland, thirty-five miles distant, on the Balti- 
more and Ohio Railroad. They had procured a special train 
for shipment, when the order "was countermanded, and they 
were sent to Philippi, to which place Morris' brigade had 
moved. On arriving at Philippi, Capt. Jones was ordered to 
go down the Laurel Hill road, until he encountered the 
pickets, and found the position of the enemy. The Captain 
and his men gaily dashed five miles along the winding turnpike 
to a point where they received information that the enemy's 
pickets were close at hand. They now moved more cautiously, 
and passed the supposed line without molestation. They 
proceeded eight or nine miles and found no enemy. The 
Captain then concluded he would go to Laurel Hill or find 
the enemy. He determined to dash through the rebel pickets, 
and cut them off from the main body. The ranks were 
closed, and a long strip of dark woods galloped through ; but 
no enemy was yet visible. Fears were entertained that he 
had evacuated. Bealington, one mile from Laurel Hill, lay 
at the base of the hill below the party. Down the southern 
slope the troops gaily sped, with their faithful "navies" in 
their hands, and were just slacking their pace, preparing for 



72 WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 

a charge over the bridge, when the rebel volley came. Horses 
shrunk back on their haunches, girths broke, and rider and 
horse lay floundering in the road. After the shock, back 
plunged the horses, and a general stampede seemed inevitable. 
A few of the horses had stood the lire, and the Captain 
ordered Lieuts. McKeehan and Longley to rally the men and 
move over the bridge. The order was quickly executed. 
The rebel pickets, taking advantage of the temporary shock 
caused by their fire, escaped through the darkness. The 
object of the expedition having been accomplished, the party 
returned to camp. Not one of them was hurt. The enemy 
aimed too high; several received shots through their hats. 
The loss was three horses and one man missing, and twenty- 
one saddle-girths broken. The horse equipments were all 
procured from the farmers, and could not stand the severe 
test to which they had been subjected. At dawn of day, the 
party reached Philippi, where our own pickets informed them 
they were all supposed to be killed or captured, and that one 
man, and three riderless horses, had passed them, occasioning 
great alarm in camp. Such proved to be the case. The 
troops were all under arms. The streets of Philippi, and the 
bridge, were barricaded. The scout who was in the rear had 
seen the men and horses fall as the volley came, and supposed 
"he was all that escaped to tell the tale." The scouts were 
warmly welcomed back, and shouts rent the air, as they 
passed by the different regiments to their camp, on the hill 
north of the village. They now entered on the most arduous 
duties of the trooper. They furnished all details for Morris' 
headquarters, and sent daily detachments to the front to 
watch the movements of the enemy, besides throwing out 
videttes on the several roads leading to Philippi. For twenty- 
two days they were kept almost constantly in the saddle, 
scouring the country in every direction, and bringing the 
General most valuable information. On one dark and rainy 
night, Captain Tripp, accompanied by six men, took the 
Meadowville road, running south-east from Philippi, penetra- 
ted the enemy's lines, confiscated several fine horses — the 
property of a noted rebel sympathizer — and returned with 
them to camp, having passed the rebel pickets without detec- 



WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 73 

tion. A few vidcttes were daily thrown out a distance of 
seven miles from camp, on the Laurel Hill road, near where 
the enemy's cavalry picketted in force; on this road there 
were several Union men, who gave notice of the movements 
of the enemy. A dwelling, known as Thompson's house, 
upon this road, was a disputed point, but was occupied by 
our scouts at dinner hour, one eating while the others kept 
guard. Several amusing and spirited chases occurred in this 
vicinity. Rebel citizens displayed great tact in their efforts 
to ascertain our movements. The following will serve as an 
illustration. An old man at Thompson's, who was by our 
men considered harmless, on account of his extreme old age, 
used to sweep the roads, at different points, so that he might 
inform the enemy how many Federal troops had passed 
during the night. When caught in the act. he said it was 
through mere curiosity. He was, however, henceforth 
regarded as capable of aiding the rebels, and appropriately 
admonished not to repeat the operation. 

On another night, all the scouts, and four companies of the 
Ninth Indiana infantry, were sent out to watch the enemy, 
who were reported advancing. The infantry, under command 
of Lieut. Col. Dunn, of the Ninth, were halted near Thomp- 
son's. The scouts dashed ahead, drove in the pickets near 
Col. Elliott's, at Bealington, went to within a mile of the 
enemy's camp, and heard the "long roll" beat on the arrival 
of their pickets; soon the rattling of the artillery wagons; the 
noise of the enemy's infantry, and the commands of their 
officers were distinctly heard. The Captain had dropped 
sentinels on all the cross-roads to notify him of any attempt 
that might be made to cat him off from his infantry reserve. 
In this state of affairs, it was found prudent to retire. The 
command to fall back was executed without loss. Next 
morning all were safe within our own lines. Such were the 
scenes witnessed, and such were the duties performed, by 
these fearless Hoosiers, for more than thirtv days — days of 
ceaseless vigilance and unremitting toil. Horse and rider 
were inseparable. The country they traversed was entirely 
unknown to them, and full of dangers. Their march lay 
over rough mountains, and through dense valley -jungles, that 



74 WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 

gave every advantage to the enemy's secret ambuscade. Their 
ceaseless labors and brilliant exploits, resulting in so much 
good to this little army, isolated from all commands, were 
attended without the loss of a man, and reflect much credit 
upon the skill and daring of the commander and his men. 

On the fourth of July they were relieved, and returned to 
their regiments, receiving warm thanks from their brigade 
commander, for the able and successful manner in which they 
had discharged their duty. 

Lieut. Col. Prather, of the Sixth, was left in command at 
Webster, for the purpose of forwarding supplies, in which 
work he was actively engaged until the close of the campaign. 

The forces under Morris soon moved to Laurel Hill ; after 
two days' brisk skirmishing, the rebels evacuated their posi- 
tion, and were hotly pursued, overtaken, and completely 
routed at Carrick's Ford. The main body of the rebels 
escaped, having fled toward Romney. The march from 
Laurel Hill to Carrick's Ford was one of the hardest on 
record; though the men were on short rations, they bravely 
pressed forward through drenching rain and rivers of mud. 
After a march of forty miles, they overtook the enemy, who, 
on leaving Laurel Hill, had started several hours in advance 
of them. Morris now returned with his brigade to Laurel 
Hill, and the three month's campaign was virtually ended. 
The baggage captured from the retreating foe was collected, 
and the troops marched to Grafton. They returned to Indi- 
anapolis in the latter part of July. Who does not remember 
their bronzed features, and veteran-like appearance, as they 
marched through our Capital. Only one man of the Sixth 
was killed. The regiment was discharged on the second of 
August, and returned to their homes, where they received the 
warm congratulations and thanks of their neighbors and 
friends. 

SEVENTH REGIMENT. 

The regimental organization of the Seventh was completed 
at Indianapolis on the twenty-second of April, 1861. Ebenezer 
Dumont, a brave and energetic officer, who had served with 
distinction in the Mexican war, was appointed Colonel. 



WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 75 

Three of the companies, viz : I), G and E, were from Dear- 
born county. Two, viz: B and F, were from Decatur. Co. 
A was from Hendricks county, Co. C from Shelby, Co. II. 
from Johnson, Co. I from Ohio, and Co. K from Morgan 
county. 

The following is the roster : 

Field and Staff Officers. — Colonel, Ebenezer Dumont, Indian- 
apolis; Lieutenant Colonel, Benjamin J. Spooner, Lawrence- 
burgh; Major, Samuel P. Oyler, Franklin; Adjutant, James 
Gavin, Greensburgh; Begimental Quartermaster, David E. 
Sparks; Surgeon, Geo. W. New, Indianapolis; Assistant Sur- 
geon, William Gillespie. 

Company A. — Captain, James Burgess, Danville; First 
Lieutenant, Peter S. Kennedy; Second Lieutenant, Joseph S. 
Miller. 

Company B. — Captain, James Morgan, Greensburgh; First 
Lieutenant, Ira G. Grover; Second Lieutenant, Benjamin 
Pickets. 

Company C. — Captain, John M. Blair, Shelbyville; First 
Lieutenant, John Flynn ; Second Lieutenant, John C. Mayo. 

Company D. — Captain, John F. Cheek, Lawrenceburgh; 
First Lieutenant, Jesse Armstrong; Second Lieutenant, Eli 
Matlock. 

Company F. — Captain, John H. Ferry, Aurora; First 
Lieutenant, Henry Waller; Second Lieutenant, A. B. Pat- 
terson. 

Company F.*— Captain, J. V. Bemusdaffer, Greensburgh; 
First Lieutenant, Benjamin C. Shaw; Second Lieutenant, 
Josephus L. Tucker. 

Company G. — Captain, Nathan Lord, Lawrenceburgh; 
First Lieutenant, L. K. Stevens; Second Lieutenant, William 
Francis. 

Company H. — Captain, Joseph P. Gill, Franklin; First 
Lieutenant, William B. Ellis; Second Lieutenant, Welcome 
B. McLaughlin. 

Company I. — Captain, John W. Eabb, Eising Sun; First 
Lieutenant, Solomon Waterman, Second Lieutenant, David 
Lasterman. 

Company K. — Captain, Jefferson H. Scott, Martinsville; 



76 WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 

First Lieutenant, Charles Day; Second Lieutenant, Theodore 
Orner. 

The regiment remained in camp at Indianapolis until the 
29th of May, 1861, drilling and preparing for the field, under 
the direction of its able and efficient Colonel. While at 
Indianapolis, the officers of the regiment presented to him a 
fine sword. The presentation was made by Adjutant Gavin 
in a neat and appropriate speech, to which Col. Dumont very 
handsomely replied. About this time, news of the rebel 
movements in Western Virginia, and of the taking and occu- 
pancy of Grafton by Col. Porterfield's rebel command, was 
received. The Seventh Indiana, together with other regi- 
ments, were ordered to Western Virginia. With light hearts 
and brilliant anticipations, they started for the battle field. 
Passing through Richmond, Indiana, Dayton, Columbus and 
Zanesville, Ohio, they arrived at Bellair, on the Ohio river, 
on the evening of the thirtieth. In every town and city they 
were hailed by large and enthusiastic crowds, who testified 
their devotion to the Union by their kindness to her soldiers. 
The regiment crossed the Ohio river to Ben wood, and pro- 
ceeded to Grafton. Gen. Morris, who was in command at 
that place, determined to surprise Col. Porterfield at Philippi. 
The attacking: force was divided into tw r o columns — one of 
which was under the immediate command of Col. Kelly, the 
other was accompanied by Col. Dumont, and by Col. Lander 
of Gen. McCiellan's staff. On Sunday evening, the second 
of June, the Seventh Indiana proceeded by rail to Webster, 
where it was joined by the rest of the command. At eight 
o'clock on the night of the second, the column took up its 
line of march to Philippi — the Seventh being in the advance. 
The night was dark — the rain continued to fall in torrents 
until daybreak. The heavy roads rendered it impossible for 
the command to reach the town at the time indicated in Gen. 
Morris' order. The advance guard, under Lieut. Benjamin 
Ivicketts, of Co. B, Seventh Indiana, when within a mile of 
the towu, engaged the enemy's pickets, and drove them back. 
The artillery was quickly placed in position on the hights 
overlooking the town, and fired a few rounds; then the Sev- 
enth, followed by the rest of the column, crossed the bridge, 



WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 77 

and entered the town at double quick, driving the rebels 
before them. In passing through the town, the Seventh 
observed a rebel flag waving from the top of the principal 
hotel, which they captured. In its stead, the stars and stripes 
were run up and given to the breeze. The regiment, though 
exhausted by a long and fatiguing night march, continued the 
pursuit of the rebels for two miles, took some prisoners, and 
captured a large amount of baggage. Col. Dumont, in his 
official report, justly compliments the officers and men of the 
Seventh for their determination and bravery. 

Col. Kelly, of the First Virginia regiment, having been 
severely wounded, while riding in advance of his troops 
through Philippi, was carried by some of the members of the 
Seventh to a hotel, where his wounds were properly dressed 
by the skillful and accomplished Surgeon of the regiment, 
Dr. Geo. "W. New, w r ho, according to Col. Dumont' s report, 
" had proved himself as gallant and courageous in the field, 
as he is skillful in his profession." When the excitement of 
the rout of the rebels from Philippi was over, the members 
of the Seventh returned to camp, refreshed themselves, and 
laid down to rest. Never was sleep and rest more welcome 
and sweet to tm d and foot-sore soldiers. These volunteers 
had taken their first practical lesson in the military art, and 
enjoyed, as they never did before, "nature's sweet restorer, 
balmy sleep." 

The Seventh went into camp at Philippi, under command 
of Col. Dumont, who, as ranking officer, assumed command 
of all the forces at that place. The regiment, on the six- 
teenth of June, marched across the river and took a strong 
position on the hights west of town. It contributed its share 
to the scouting parties which performed such valuable service 
during the campaign. 

Among these scouts, Private Smith, of Co. C, was con- 
spicuous. He was an excellent marksman, and such sport to 
him was glorious. When he fired his gun, it was well under- 
stood that rebel blood had been spilled. A squad of Geor- 
gians were concealed behind rocks, one hundred yards from 
our skirmishers, and were exceedingly annoying to our men. 
It was desirable they should be driven from their position. 



78 WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 

Smith, eager" for the task, with gun in hand, crawled upon 
the ground to a log, about two hundred yards to their left. 
He iired three successive shots. The rebels ran. Smith, too 
much elated at his success, rose from his hiding place, and 
was in the act of returning to our lines, when the enemy fired 
at him a volley, which brought him lifeless to the ground. It 
was afterwards ascertained that each of his three shots, pre- 
vious to his death, killed a rebel soldier. 

A party of four Union scouts went out from camp in the 
direction of Laurel Hill, to investigate the condition of affairs 
in that direction. At a turn in the road, they suddenly came 
upon a force of tw T enty rebels, with whom they exchanged 
shots, and then retreated. In the encounter, John Lowe, a 
member of Co. G-, Seventh Indiana, was thrown from his 
horse. He quickly remounted. The rebels w r ere upon him. 
One rebel, mounted on a fleet horse, passes him. Lowe sees 
his danger, deliberately draws his revolver, shoots the rebel in 
advance, coolly seizes the riderless horse, and triumphantly 
dashes along towards camp, leaving far behind him the tardy 
rebel pursuers. 

The horse captured by Lowe proved to be the one which 
had previously been owned by one of Col. Steadman's men, 
who, while scouting, was killed by a rebel, who appropriated 
the horse to his own use. Thus the death of the soldier of 
the Fourteenth Ohio was avenged by a gallant member of the 
Seventh Indiana. 

On one occasion, Capt. Bemusdaffer's company was on 
picket duty when the enemy was expected. Two mounted 
scouts, of the Second Virginia, passed the position occupied 
by the company, and were hailed by one of the pickets, who 
requested them to dismount, ground arms, and give the coun- 
tersign. The scouts foolishly turned and fled. The picket fired 
and inflicted a severe wound upon one of them. J^o blame 
could be attached to the soldier who fired; he acted strictly 
within the line of duty. 

FOURTH OF JULY IN CAMP. 

The newly-risen sun on the fourth of July was saluted by 



WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 79 

a round of thirty-four guns from Col. Barnett's Cleveland 
battery. The day was celebrated by Gen. Morris' command 
on the plain in front of the General's headquarters, in regular 
old-fashioned style. 

After having been in camp for upwards of six weeks, the 
Seventh accompanied the command to Bealington. On 
arriving in front of the town, skirmishing with the enemy com- 
menced. The impetuosity of the Seventh to be led against the 
enemy, was almost uncontrollable. They took part in skirmish- 
ing every afternoon for three successive days. Some of them, 
contrary to orders, broke away from their companions to have 
a shot at exposed rebels. In vain did the Commanding Gen- 
eral issue orders to restrain these restless, fiery spirits. On 
one occasion, Geo. H. Rodgers, of Co. H, stepped out in full 
view of the rebels, and read in their hearing a fictitious 
account of the death of their rebel President. Such acts 
surprised the rebel skirmishers, who believed the Indiana 
troops were regulars. 

While at Bealington, a part of the Seventh and a part of 
the Ninth Indiana regiments, mustering about iive hundred 
men, commanded by Col. Dumont, made a reconnoissance to 
the right and rear of the enemy's line. They marched within 
five hundred yards of their works. The rebels placed their 
artillery and infantry in position to cut off or capture the 
expedition on its return. But Col. Dumont returned by 
a different route, and avoided the danger to which he was 
exposed. 

The following night was one of alarms. At nine o'clock 
the long roll was sounded. The Adjutant of the Seventh 
formed the regiment in line of battle, and impatiently awaited 
the expected attack. Again the men lay down to rest. 
Again they were ordered to form in line of battle. No sign 
of an enemy being visible, the men were once more ordered 
to break ranks, when they again lay down to sleep. 

The following night, Adjutant Gavin was detailed, with 
two companies of the Seventh, to hold the steep, high hill on 
the left. The pickets of the enemy had been advanced in 
that direction, and it was expected they would attempt to get 
possession of the hill, which would have given them com- 
mand of our position. 






80 WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 

During* the night of the eleventh of July, our men posted 
on the hill could distinctly hear the swearing of the teamsters 
and the commands of the officers in the rebel camp. The 
night was one of almost Egyptian darkness. The rain fell in 
torrents. No soldier on that dismal hill closed his eyes that 
night in sleep. All surmised that Gen. Garnett was making 
preparations, either for battle, or for abandoning his position. 
At length the welcome morn came to cheer the wet, weary 
and care-worn soldier. The order to march was given. It 
w r as soon whispered in camp that the rebels had fled, and 
were in full retreat southward. On the morning of the twelfth 
the pursuit commenced — the Seventh being in the rear — and 
continued until two o'clock P. M., when our forces arrived at 
Leedsville. While here Capt. Blair and Lieut. Tucker cap- 
tured three rebel prisoners. In the afternoon rain began to 
fall, which continued uninterruptedly until the next morning. 
The soldiers slept that night upon the bare ground, and slept 
as only soldiers can sleep, in spite of the pitiless storm. The 
Seventh, next morning, before daylight, wet, gloomy and 
hungry, were formed into line, and very soon were on the 
march towards St. George. The roads were slippery and 
almost impassable. The rain was falling rapidly. Cheat river 
was reached and forded. Soon the advanced guard overtook, 
as they supposed, the enemy. The troops were formed in 
line of battle. The Fourteenth Ohio, being in the advance, 
fired several volleys at an imaginary enemy in the woods, on 
the opposite bank of the river. Col. Barnett's battery was 
soon in position, and took part in the imaginary struggle. 
The Seventh advanced to the bank of the river, prepared to 
charge across, but no enemy was visible. A ludicrous cir- 
cumstance here occurred. As the Seventh, during the firing, 
advanced across the field to take position, a mounted officer, 
Jehu-like, rode up, and ordered the Seventh forward at double 
quick, stating that the Fourteenth Ohio were being " cut to 
pieces by the enemy." Col. Dumont hastened the regiment 
forward, and was surprised to find not a man of the Four- 
teenth Ohio had been either killed or wounded. There had 
not been a rebel within gunshot when the firing occurred. 

This imaginary battle having been fought and won, the 



WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 81 

Seventh, with the rest of the command, recrossed the deep, 
swift stream, and renewed the pursuit of the enemy. The 
opposite bank of the next ford is very steep, and covered 
with thick undergrowth, which effectually concealed the 
enemy from view. At this ford Gen. Garnett prepared to 
resist our advance. Here he formed his infantry, and placed 
artillery on the left, which commanded the opposite shore. 
Col. Steadman's command, being in advance, were fired upon 
as they neared the ford. The fire was returned in gallant 
style. The Seventh now advanced and charged down the 
banks of the river. They crossed the river and captured the 
enemy's baggage, over which Col. Dumont placed guards, 
and hurried on in pursuit of the retreating foe. At the next 
ford, three-quarters of a mile from Carrick's Ford, : the enemy 
made another stand, under the personal command of Gen. 
Garnett. They fired a few shots and retreated, leaving their 
fallen General dead on the field. Col. Dumont continued the 
pursuit for two miles, and then halted for the night. The 
next day, the Seventh, with the rest of Gen. Morris* com- 
mand, took up the line of march to St. George, from thence 
to Bealington. Here the regiment rested for a few days. Their 
time of service being now expired, they were ordered to 
Indianapolis. On arriving at the Capital of their native 
State, they were welcomed back by Gov. Morton in a neat 
and patriotic speech, to which Col. Dumont eloquently replied. 
The regiment was then mustered out of service. During the 
short campaign in Western Virginia, the brave members of 
the Seventh nobly discharged their duty, for which they 
received due praise from their patriotic fellow citizens on their 
return to their homes. 

EIGHTH REGIMENT. 

The Eighth regiment was organized from the companies 
assembled at Indianapolis from the several counties in the 
State. Three companies were from Wayne county, and one 
from each of the counties of Grant, Randolph, Delaware, 
Madison, Henry, Hancock and Wabash. The following is 
the roster of the regiment : 
Vol. I.— 6. 



82 WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 

Field and Staff Officers. — Colonel, William P. Benton, Rich- 
mond; Lieutenant Colonel, Silas Colgrove, Winchester; 
Major, David Shunk, Marion; Adjutant, A. I. Harrison, Indi- 
anapolis; Regimental Quartermaster, John Robinson; Sur- 
geon, James Ford; Assistant Surgeon, G-. W. Edgerly, 
Muncie. 

Company A. — Captain, Jacob Widemar, Cambridge City; 
First Lieutenant, Francis Swiggett; Second Lieutenant, Geo. 
Adams. 

Company B. — Captain, Oliver H. P. Carey, Marion ; First 
Lieutenant, John Reuss; Second Lieutenant, Jacob M. Wells. 

Company C. — Captain, Thomas J. Lee, Winchester; First 
Lieutenant, E. M. Ives; Second Lieutenant, Allen 0. Neff. 

Company D. — Captain, Thomas J. Brady, Muncie; First 
Lieutenant, Joseph T. Kirk; Second Lieutennnt, Nathan 
Branson. 

Company E. — Captain, Hiram J. Yanderventer, Anderson ; 
First Lieutenant, John T. Robinson; Second Lieutenant, 
James Fergus. 

Company F. — Captain, Frederick Tykle, Newcastle; First 
Lieutenant, Henry Ray; Second Lieutenant, Joseph W. 
Connel. 

Company G. — Captain, Reuben A. Riley, Greenfield ; First 
Lieutenant, H. C. Rariden; Second Lieutenant, George W. H. 
Riley. 

Company H. — Captain, Charles 0. Howard, Richmond; 
First Lieutenant, A. I. Kenney; Second Lieutenant, Robert 
A. Douglass. 

Company I. — Captain, Mayberry M. Lacy, Richmond; 
First Lieutenant, Irwin Harrison ; Second Lieutenant, James 
Conner. 

Company K. — Captain, Charles S. Parish, Wabash county; 
First Lieutenant, Joseph W. Thompson; Second Lieutenant, 
Franklin Dailey. 

The history of the Eighth is similar to that of the Tenth, 
as it left Indianapolis for the seat of war at the same time, 
was in the same brigade, performed the same marches, and 
participated in the same skirmishes and battles. At Rich 
Mountain it charged side by side with the Tenth and Thir- 



WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 83 

teenth. In the camp, on the march, in the bivouac, or on 
the battle-field, the Eighth was always ready for the dnty 
assigned it. There are many incidents of personal bravery 
connected with the short and decisive campaign in which the 
regiment bore an honored "part, which would be well worth 
recording, but we have been unable to obtain them. The 
officers to whom we have written for details of their service, 
have replied that the history of the Eighth is substantially 
that of the Tenth. 

NINTH REGIMENT. 

The Ninth regiment was organized at Indianapolis, on the 
the twenty-fifth of April, 1861, by two companies from 
Laporte county, two from Cass county, and one company 
from each of the counties of Carroll, Elkhart, Allen, Jasper, 
Porter, and St. Joseph. The following is the roster: 

Field and Staff Officers. — Colonel, Robert H. Milroy; Lieu- 
tenant Colonel, David M. Dunn; Major, Don J. "Woodward; 
Adjutant, Henry Loring"; Regimental Quartermaster, Carter 
L. Vigus; Surgeon, Daniel Meeker; Assistant Surgeon, M. 
G. Sherman. 

Company A. — Captain, J. C. Hannam, Delphi ; First Lieu- 
tenant, John H. Gould; Second Lieutenant, W. A. Pigman. 

Company B. — Captain, "William H. Blake, Michigan City; 
First Lieutenant, Ashael K. Bush; Second Lieutenant, Alson 
Bailey. 

Company C. — Captain, Theodore F. Mann, Elkhart; First 
Lieutenant, Chas. H. Kirkendall ; Second Lieutenant, James 
D. Braden. 

Company D. — Captain, Thomas G. Dunn, Logansport ; First 
Lieutenant, Clinton Weyner; Second Lieutenant, Orlando 
W. Miles. 

Company E. — Captain, "William P. Segar, Fort Wayne; 
First Lieutenant, Henry A. Whitman; Second Lieutenant, 
W. S. Story. 

Company F. — Captain, Thomas J. Patton, Laporte; First 
Lieutenant, George W. Carter; Second Lieutenant, Joseph 
Richards. 



84 WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 

Company G. — Captain, Gideon C. Moody, Renssalear; First 

Lieutenant, Edwin P. Hammond; Second Lieutenant, 

Guthridge. 

Company H. — Captain, H. A. Cameron, Valparaiso ; First 
Lieutenant, I. C. B. Suman; Second Lieutenant, G. C. Pierce. 

Company J. — Captain, Andrew Anderson, South Bend; 
First Lieutenant, Henry Loring ; Second Lieutenant, Henry 
J. Blowney. 

Company K. — Captain, Dudley H. Chase, Logansport; First 
Lieutenant, Frank P. Morrison; Second Lieutenant, Alexan- 
der Hamilton. 

The Ninth left Indianapolis by rail on the twenty-ninth of 
April, four days after its muster into the service of the United 
States. It proceeded directly to Benwood, and was immediately 
ordered to Grafton, where it arrived on the first of June. 
The expedition to Philippi was about to start, and the Ninth 
was assigned to the column of Col. Kelly. Capt. Patton'a 
company was detailed as a camp guard. When his men 
heard the duty to which they were assigned, they were 
greatly disappointed, and deeply chagrined. The Captain in 
vain endeavored to have the order changed. Such was his 
anxiety to enter the field that he offered all his wages during 
the campaign, to any other Captain of the regiment, who 
would exchange places with him. He did not find any one 
to accept his offer, and had to bear his disappointment as 
philosophically as the circumstances would admit. In Capt. 
Cameron's company, some of the men complained because 
rations for the expedition were not served out to them. The 
Captain promptly informed those who were dissatisfied, that 
if he heard another murmur, those who complained should 
remain in camp. This threat effectually silenced all murmur- 
ings. The dreary night march, and the incidents of the rout 
of Porterfield's force, have been dwelt upon in other parts of 
this work. It is sufficient to say, that the Ninth participated 
in the toils and dangers of the expedition, and was distin- 
guished for its order and steadiness. 

At Laurel Hill, at Carrick's Ford, and in all the skirmish- 
ing of the campaign, the Ninth Indiana was always where 
the Commanding General wished it to be. Its history has 



WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 85 

yet to be written. ^Nearly all the members of the regiment 
re-entered the service ; and those who still survive, are holding 
positions in the several divisions of the army, widely scattered, 
and from whom we have been unable to collect incidents that 
could properly be used in this regimental history. The reader 
has only to follow the brief sketch of the campaign to see 
that the Ninth took a prominent part in every important , 
movement of the troops in Western Virginia. 

TENTH REGIMENT. 

This gallant body of men was among the first to offer to 
the country its services as a regiment. It was organized by 
Colonel Joseph J. Reynolds, of Lafayette, Indiana, who com- 
manded it until the tenth of May, when the following organ- 
ization took place : 

Field and Staff Officers. — Colonel, Mahlon D. Manson, 
Crawfordsville ; Lieutenant Colonel, James R. M. Bryant, 
Williamsport; Major, William C.Wilson, Lafayette; Adju- 
tant, Joseph C. Suit; Regimental Quartermaster, Zebulon M. 
P. Hand, Lafayette; Surgeon, Thomas P. McCrea; Assistant 
Surgeon, William H. Myers. '* 

Company A. — Captain, Chris. Miller, Lafayette ; First Lieu- 
tenant, John E. Baylor; Second Lieutenant, Alvin Gay. 

Company B. — Captain, Dickson Fleming, Williamsport; 
First Lieutenant, Levin T. Miller; Second Lieutenant, John 
F. Compton. 

Company C. — Captain, John W. Blake, Lafayette; First 
Lieutenant, Alexander Hogeland ; Second Lieutenant, John 
B rower. 

Company D. — Captain, Samuel M.Wilson, Frankfort; First 
Lieutenant, Joseph C. Suit; Second Lieutenant, Samuel M. 
Shortle. 

Company E. — Captain, William Taylor, Lafayette; First 
Lieutenant, John A. Stein; Second Lieutenant Henry C. 
Tenney. 

Company F. — Captain, Ezra Olds, Brazil ; First Lieutenant, 
Demetrius Parsley ; Second Lieutentant, Isaac W. Sanders. 

Company G. — Captain, James H. Watson, Crawfordsville ; 



86 WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 

First Lieutenant, Ebenezer II. Morgan ; Second Lieutenant, 
George W. Riley. 

Company H. — Captain, William Conklin, Greencastle ; First 
Lieutenant, E. R.Bladen; Second Lieutenant, David ST. Steel. 

Company I. — Captain, William C. Kise, Lebanon ; First 
Lieutenant, John W. Perkins; Second Lieutenant, Reuben C. 
Kise. 

Company K. — Captain, Charles C. Smith, Indianapolis ; 
First Lieutenant, Richard T. Fahnestock; Second Lieuten- 
ant, Z. M. P. Hand. 

The Tenth was mostly from the Eighth Congressional Dis- 
trict. The regiment was quartered at Camp Morton until 
about the middle of May, when it was removed to Camp 
McClellan, about three miles east of Indianapolis. "While 
stationed at this camp the officers and men advanced them- 
selves in the drill to a great degree of proficiency. It 
remained in camp at this place until the nineteenth of June. 

At three o'clock on the morning of that day the order to 
move so soon as possible was received. The announcement 
pleased all. It was thought too good to be true. The 
regiment in "double quick" attacked bundles of clothing, 
bedding, cooking utensils, and packed them in almost impos- 
sible places; tents were stricken to the ground; affec- 
tionately young men wrote letters, and hungry ones cooked 
and ate rations. All was bustle and confusion. At nine 
o'clock the regiment marched to Indianapolis and then 
boarded the cars for Cincinnati, being en route for Parkers- 
burg, Va., via Cincinnati and Marietta. At noon they left the 
city amid the cheers of an excited multitude. 

The regiment arrived in Cincinnati at nine o'clock p. m., 
where a hearty supper awaited them. The Colonel thanked 
the good people of the Queen City, and then marched his 
command to the Marietta depot, where it remained during 
the night. 

It then went on board the cars. Soon the familiar sound, 
"All aboard!" was heard. All were tired, and some seemed 
out of humor. After twenty hours tiresome, tedious riding, 
the clear, sharp whistle of the locomotive announced their 
arrival at Marietta. There the hungry and brave men 



WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 87 

expected to find huge baskets filled with eatables. But alas ! 
It was past midnight and the patriotic citizens of Marietta had 
retired to rest — having fed regiment after regiment for two 
weeks, and being both physically and rationally exhausted. 
The regiment was immediately marched to the government 
transports lying in the river below, and was soon joined by 
Gen. McClellan, who made every possible arrangement for their 
comfort. The next morning the fleet, containing the officers 
and men of the Eighth and Tenth Indiana, and General 
McClellan and staff, steamed down the Ohio. After a pleas- 
ant ride of an hour and a half, they were landed below the 
beautiful little city of Parkersburg, where they immediately 
cooked rations and prepared for another railroad trip, which 
they took in two or three days. The next road traveled was 
the Parkersburg branch of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, 
to Clarksburg. Here they arrived on the day following and 
went into camp on a large elevation called " Clark's Hill." 
They had no sooner cooked their rations than orders were 
received to fortify the hill, and place it in a condition for 
defense, which was done during the night after their arrival. 
The regiment remained at Clarksburg two days, and then 
took up the line of march for Buckhannon, about thirty 
miles distant, where it was reported the enemy was awaiting 
them. After two days march they arrived in sight of Buck- 
hannon. The enemy had abandoned his position and moved 
on to Rich Mountain. The Tenth Indiana was in the brigade 
under command of Brig. Gen. Rosecrans. Nothing transpired 
while at Buckhannon except a grand review on the fourth 
of July by Gen. McClellan. On Sunday, the tenth, the 
brigade took up the line of march for Rich Mountain, and 
camped that night twelve miles beyond, on a small stream 
called Middle Pork. After resting nearly a day they moved 
on, and that night camped two miles from Rich Mountain, 
on a creek called Roaring Run. 

Gen. McClellan had made preparations for the coming con- 
test, but the movement did not begin until the second morn- 
ing after the arrival of the Tenth Indiana. At three o'clock, 
on the morning of the eleventh of July, Gen. Rosecrans' 
brigade took up the line of march for the enemy's position 



88 WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 

on the mountain, the object being to attack him 'in the rear, 
and, at a given signal, open on him in front. At daylight, 
the little army was seen winding its way up the steep, narrow 
road that led to the enemy's works. When within a mile of 
their front, the command turned to the right and occupied 
a path which was barely wide enough to admit of the pas- 
sage of one man at a time. They pursued this narrow defile 
for the distance of nearly nine miles, when they alarmed the 
enemy's pickets, who fired and ran, killing several of Co. A, 
and severely wounding the Captain — Chris. Miller, of 
Lafayette. The Tenth took a position behind the hill, and 
there remained until the orders came to " charge !" This was 
done in gallant style, and resulted in the total rout of the 
enemy, and capture of his guns. The Tenth lost many brave 
men in the attack, but their success banished all thoughts of 
danger. After taking the battery which had been playing 
on them with such fearful effect, they drove the rebels, with 
great loss, from their chosen position. To no regiment 
belongs more honor for this victory, than the Tenth Indiana, 
whose gallant Colonel handled his command with great skill. 
After the battle, the Tenth camped on the ground, and the 
next day marched to Beverly, about three miles distant, 
where they remained nearly two weeks, making arrange- 
ments for a homeward trip. 

They left Beverly on the twenty-fourth of July, and arrived 
at Indianapolis on the twenty-eighth, where they were cor- 
dially received. The citizens of the Hoosier Capital were 
glad to do honor to the noble victors of the most sanguinary 
battle of the three month's campaign in Western Virginia. 
Col. Manson, in his official report of the battle of Rich 
Mountain, after complimenting the field and line officers of 
his regiment, says : " I can not close my report without men- 
tioning the name of private J. H. Boyle, of Co. C, for great 
gallantry; also young Hart, whose great knowledge of the 
country, and efficiency as a guide, I doubt not, contributed 
largely to our success." 



WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 89 

ELEVENTH REGIMENT. 

Under the President's call for seventy-five thousand men, 
the quota of Indiana was six regiments. The companies 
required to organize them being accepted and in rendezvous 
at Camp Morton, Adjutant Gen. Wallace filed his report with 
the Governor, and obtained permission to take one of the 
regiments into camp. Proceeding immediately to Camp 
Morton, he selected ten companies, and on the 26th of April 
marched them to the old Bellefontaine Depot, in the north- 
eastern part of Indianapolis, which he hastily converted into 
barracks. The regimental organization was completed next 
day. Excellent use had been made of the carte blanche with 
which Col. Wallace had been entrusted, when he went into 
Camp Morton to select his companies. It had happened that 
a State Military Encampment, originating in private enter- 
prise, had been held the preceding fall at the old military 
grounds near the city. That encampment had been attended 
by the following independent companies: The National 
Guards, City Greys, and Independent Zouaves, of Indianap- 
olis ; the Yigo Guards, and Harrison Guards, of Terre Haute ; 
and the Montgomery Guards, of Crawfordsville. These com- 
posed all the companies of any actual vitality in the State at 
that time. Col. Wallace had been chosen commandant. 
There, in the pleasant September days, lasting friendships 
had been formed between officers, men and companies. Aside 
from the advantages accruing from association with gentle- 
men of considerable military experience as company officers, 
all of whom had demonstrated the possession of a natural 
love of arms — in those days the most costly pleasure that could 
be indulged — it was natural that Col. Wallace should seek 
association with acquaintances whose abilities he knew, and 
whom he had reason to respect and love. Accordingly, when 
he visited Camp Morton, and found there those six compa- 
nies, organized and constituted very nearly as they had been 
at the previous encampment, they were his first selection. 
To them he added the Rumsey Guards, of Tipton ; the Wal- 
lace Guards, recruited chiefly in Camp Morton; the Indian- 
apolis Zouaves, of Indianapolis ; and the Ladoga Blues, of 



90 WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 

Ladoga, Montgomery county. In the final organization, these 
companies, of course, sunk their original names, and were 
known by letters, A, B, C, &c. These letters fell to the Cap- 
tains by lot, as did also their position in the regimental line 
of battle. 

The organization thus reported was approved by Gov. 
Morton, and commissions were promptly issued to the officers. 

The following is the roster : 

Field and Staff Officers. — Colonel, Lewis Wallace, Craw- 
fordsville; Lieutenant Colonel, George F. McGinnis, Indian- 
apolis; Major, Charles O. Wood, Terre Haute; Adjutant, 
Daniel McCauley, Indianapolis; Regimental Quartermaster, 
Henry Rice, Terre Haute; Surgeon, Thomas W. Fry, Craw- 
fordsville; Assistant Surgeon, John C. Thompson, Indian- 
apolis. 

Company A. — Captain, Robert S. Foster, Indianapolis; First 
Lieutenant, George Butler; Second Lieutenant, Joseph H. 
Livsey. 

Company B. — Captain, John Fahnestock, Indianapolis; 
First Lieutenant, Orin S. Fahnestock; Second Lieutenant, 
Daniel B. Culley. 

Company C. — Captain, Jesse E. Hamill, Terre Haute ; First 
Lieutenant, John E. Moore ; Second Lieutenant, Frank Scott. 

Company D. — Captain, Jabez Smith, Terre Haute; First 
Lieutenant, N. S. Brown; Second Lieutenant, Thomas F. 
Wells. 

Company E. — Captain, De Witt C. Rugg, Indianapolis; 
First Lieutenant, Henry Tindall ; Second Lieutenant, Nicholas 
R. Ruckle. 

Company F. — Captain, Ed. T. Wallace, Tipton; First 
Lieutenant, John Steveson; Second Lieutenant, Isaac M. 
Rumsey. 

Company G. — Captain, Henry M. Carr, Crawfordsville ; 
First Lieutenant, H. B. Wilson ; Second Lieutenant, John F. 
Cavin. 

Company H. — Captain, Wm. J. H. Robinson, Indianapolis; 
First Lieutenant, Fred. Knefler; Second Lieutenant, Wallace 
Foster. 

Company I. — Captain, Isaac C.Elston, Crawfordsville; First 



WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 91 

Lieutenant, A. C. Wilson; Second Lieutenant, John M. 
Koss. 

Company K. — Captain, W. W. Darnell, Indianapolis ; First 
Lieutenant, John A. McLaughlin ; Second Lieutenant, Wil- 
liam Dawson. 

Though this regiment was the first of the six to be organ- 
ized, and was, therefore, entitled to be numbered first, its 
Colonel voluntarily chose the last, viz : the Eleventh. As it 
was the unanimous wish of all parties, officers and men, that 
the system of tactics known as Zouave should be adopted and 
practiced, the regiment added to its name the word Zouave. 
Hence the name Eleventh Regiment — Indiana Zouaves. 

No time was lost in preparing the regiment for the field. 
Everybody connected with it, besides the possession of ordi- 
nary military pride — an inspiration better know among 
soldiers as esprit d 9 corps — felt that the national necessities 
were as immediate as they were pressing. Within an hour 
after the election, quietly the work of discipline began. Each 
man felt that in some way, how he hardly knew, and could 
not describe, he had been divested of the large liberties of 
the citizen, and was a soldier whose will and judgment had 
been magically merged in the commanding officer. Leaves 
of absence were suspended, visitors were turned away from 
the lines, the hours of service were so arranged that not a 
minute of the day was lost. Without going into minutiae, it 
is enough to say, that the discipline adopted in the Eleventh 
regiment was more systematic and rigidly adhered to than in 
any regiment that ever left the State. In some instances the 
discipline was regarded as almost unendurable. A few officers 
and some of the men bitterly complained of it; but no atten- 
tion was paid to their complaints. The Colonel was heartily 
supported by his field officers. He had the honor of his 
regiment in view. Those who appreciated his motive, worked 
on resolutely and earnestly. 

The advantage of experienced officers very early manifested 
itself. The Eleventh had battallion drills on the commons 
north of their barracks, before the other regiments were 
organized. The War Department had not yet issued regula- 
tions respecting the uniform of volunteers. That important' 






92 WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 

matter was, therefore, in the hands of the regiments. The 
Eleventh, having adopted the name and tactics of Zouaves, 
adopted also their costume, except that the color was entirely 
steel gray. The only red in their uniform was the narrow 
binding of the loose collarless jacket and the top of the little 
jaunty cap. The breeches were baggy, buttoning below the 
knee, over the boot tops. The shirt was of dark blue flannel. 
The General Government was slow in its Quartermaster's 
department. Indianapolis was not yet considered of suffi- 
cient importance to justify the establishment of such an officer 
in it. In the absence of any prescribed system, Col. Wallace, 
upon his own responsibility, contracted for the adopted uni- 
form with citizens of Indianapolis; and as something very 
creditable to the energy and enterprise of Mr. Eli Hall, the 
contractor, and the Messrs. Geisendorff & Brothers, his cloth 
manufacturers, it is not improper to add that a large portion 
of the wool consumed was not yet sheared when the agree- 
ment to furnish was made. As may be imagined the first 
parade of the Eleventh in uniform created a sensation. 

By the eighth of May the regiment was fully equipped, 
lacking nothing for the field except colors. On that day took 
place their flag presentation, altogether the most memorable 
and imposing military ceremony that had been witnessed in 
the State. 

The composition of the regiment was of a kind to excite 
the liveliest interest in its success. Its ranks were filled with 
young men of the highest social position in their respective 
communities. In Co. I alone there were thirty students from 
Wabash College. The Zouave system of tactics, then novel 
and popular, had attracted many of the boldest spirits of the 
State. The ladies of Terre Haute and Indianapolis prepared 
colors and concerted the ceremonial of presentation, which 
took place on the south side of the State House square. 

The day was very beautiful. The march from the barracks 
was a grand ovation. In column of companies the regiment 
moved down Washington street, the even step, the well 
poised musket or rifle, the elbow-touch never lost, and the 
consequent unbroken alignment, testified already to a rigid 
discipline. Moreover it was the first regiment that had been 



WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 93 

seen in march in the Capital, indeed, the first in the State. 
It is not strange, therefore, that the multitude which crowded 
the streets were thrilled with w r ild enthusiasm, and vented 
that enthusiasm in cheers which never ceased until the column 
halted in front of the State House, and drew up in order to 
receive the colors. The concourse there was immense. Space 
for formation in close column of divisions was made with the 
utmost difficulty. Hon. W. E. McLean eloquently presented 
the national flag in behalf of the ladies of Terre Haute. 
Mrs. Cady, of Indianapolis, presented the regimental flag 
which she lj#d finely embroidered. The ladies of Indianap- 
olis had appropriately delegated her to speak for them. The 
speech was in all respects creditable to herself and her many 
fair coadjutors. It was elegantly written and gracefully 
delivered. The effect upon spectators and Zouaves was most 
lively and touching; tears fell freely amidst rousing " tigers." 
Col. Wallace responded. After expressing his gratitude to 
the ladies for their patriotism, and the interest they had 
shown in the regiment, he turned to his men, and reminded 
them with great earnestness of the unmerited stain which 
had been cast upon the military fame of Indiana at Buena 
Vista, by the arch traitor Jefferson Davis. He besought 
them, while they did battle for the whole country, to remem- 
ber that vile slander, and to dedicate themselves especially to 
its revenge, he bade them kneel, and with uncovered heads 
and uplifted hands, swear, a To stand by their flag and 
remember Buena Vista!" There had been no pre-concert 
in this matter, no resolving upon a scene, but so full had the 
regiment become of his feeling, that when he repeated, " kneel 
down, my men!" like one man, almost in the same motion 
and time, they all sunk upon their knees, and with upraised 
hands and faces took the oath, amid loud amens and fast 
falling tears. The scene w T as spontaneous and thrilling. 
Remember Buena Vista, became the motto of the regiment, 
and is so yet. The feeling there and then engendered spread 
through all the regiments of the State, and has contributed, 
in no small degree, to the glory our troops have won. Many 
a brave soldier has been held true to his colors, by murmur- 
ing in the storm of the charge, the simple words, Remember 
Buena Vista. 



94 WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 

Upon returning to the barracks, Col. Wallace received 
orders to proceed immediately to Evansville. Promptly that 
night the regiment took up its line of march. 

AT EVANSVILLE. 

This destination had not been anticipated. Being the first 
of the regiments to be organized, armed, uniformed, and 
respectably drilled, its officers and friends had supposed it 
would be the first sent to the theater of action, which about 
that time fairly opened, under Gen. Morris, in Western Vir- 
ginia. Moreover, they believed, that to go to Evansville, was 
to pass out of sight. With many misgivings, and some 
grumbling, they disembarked from the cars, and pitched their 
tents about a mile and three-quarters from the city of Evans- 
ville. The place of encampment had been inconveniently 
chosen. The locality proved unhealthy. The rains made it 
indescribably muddy. Upon proper representation of the situa- 
tions, Col. Wallace received authority to remove his camp to 
the high hill, close to the river bank, and about a mile and a 
half below the tow^n. A more beautiful encampment is sel- 
dom found. The white tents were visible through the trees 
from the city, while from the river, at night, the many fires, 
duplicated in the waters below, indicated the presence of a 
great army. 

The reception of the regiment by the city was very cold. 
There were no cheers. Only one Union flag was observed 
during the march through the streets. Whether the suspi- 
cion of disloyalty against the citizens, was just, it was very 
certain that but few of them made public manifestation of 
welcome to their newly arrived defenders. This was better 
understood afterwards. A few days proved that the fealty 
of the city was merely dormant under the shadow of the 
secession influence which reached it from across the river. 

Hardly had the regiment pitched their tents, before the 
inflexible system of discipline was resumed. It was drill, 
drill, all the time — officers in the morning, companies at 
noon, the battalion in the afternoon. The Colonel, believing 
that he had been sent to protect the city, permitted no intru- 



WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 95 

sion upon citizens, or violations of their municipal laws. 
This care soon won respect and confidence. A week scarcely 
elapsed before fifty banners, flying from the house-tops, could 
be counted from the summit of the hill. The reputation for 
good order thus established, became wide-spread, and many 
were the gay parties, which came picnicing from the towns 
above and below on the Kentucky shore, to see the Zouaves. 
Their parade ground grew into a fashionable resort for the 
citizens of Evansville. The non-interference policy of the 
Colonel, so rigid that officers were not even permitted to 
attend the social parties which were made for them, established 
the regiment permanently in the affection of the people of 
Evansville. 

The regiment, shortly after its removal to the new camp, 
became charged with a duty delicate as it was exciting. It 
had been discovered that a brisk contraband trade was car- 
ried on by boats on the river. Goods and cargoes, serviceable 
in war, from Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Louisville, &c, in despite 
of the trade regulations issued by the Secretary of the Treasury, 
too frequently found their way, by Green River, to Bowling 
Green, and by the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers far into 
the heart of the Southern Confederacy. The blockade at 
Cario was effective on the Mississippi, but not on the Ohio. 
Mr. Robinson, the collector of the port at Evansville, was 
ordered to call on the commander of the regiment located 
there, for assistance. An arrangement was speedily effected, 
by which all passing steamers were subjected to search, and 
made liable to seizure of contraband commodities. It will be 
readily perceived, that the strange neutrality into which 
Kentucky had fallen, and which she vehemently insisted 
upon, made this duty one of great delicacy. 

Two field pieces from the city, under Capt. Klaus, and a 
few German artillerists of experience, were put in position 
on the bank below the camp. Every passing craft, whether 
raft, barge, or steamer, was compelled to bring to, and submit 
to a thorough inspection. Two companies were every day 
detailed to support Capt. Klaus. All examinations were con- 
ducted by the officer of the day; and so prudently were they 
conducted, that offense was seldom given. 



96 WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 

Meantime, Gen. Morris, with some Ohio and Indiana regi- 
ments, opened the campaign in Western Virginia. The vic- 
tory at Philippi sent pleasure and confidence all through the 
West. The Eleventh had witnessed, with bitter regret, the 
younger organizations depart, without them, for the scene of 
honor. The Colonel heartily sympathized with his men ; and 
having unsuccessfully invoked marching orders from other 
authorities, prevailed upon his friends to carry the application 
directly to the General-in-Chief. This succeeded. On the 
sixth of June, the following dispatch was received and pub- 
lished to the regiment : 

" Washington, June 6, 1861. 
"Col. Lewis Wallace: — You will proceed, by rail, to 
Cumberland, Maryland, and report to Major General Patter- 
son. Winfield Scott." 

The military situation at the time may be briefly stated. A 
Federal army occupied Washington and its environs. Another 
column, under Gen. Patterson, was at Hagerstown, observing 
the rebel Gen. Johnston at Harper's Ferry. Gen. Morris, 
with his Philippi victors, had his headquarters at Grafton, in 
Western Virginia. Cumberland is situated about midway 
between Grafton and Hagerstown. A force sent there would, 
on account of the railroad communication between the two 
places, look to Grafton for support. That communication, 
however, was constantly at the mercy of the rebels, who had 
a strong force at Winchester, and a respectable outpost at 
Itomney. The effect of this latter circumstance was, that 
troops at Cumberland were, to all intents and purposes, com- 
pletely isolated and self-dependent. With a superior rebel 
force at Pomney, their situation would at all times be pre- 
carious. The sending of the Eleventh to Cumberland was 
precisely like sending it to a post far in advance of the army. 

They broke up their camp the day after the receipt of the 
order, and taking the cars, bade adieu to Evansville. The 
demonstration on the part of the citizens was in the highest 
degree complimentary, contrasting strongly with the feeling 
shown upon their arrival. The whole populace had become 
their fast friends. 



WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 97 

The route of the regiment was through Terre Haute, 
Indianapolis, Greensburgh, Lawrenceburgh and Cincinnati, 
thence to Bellair and Grafton. Seldom have troops been the 
recipients of such marks of popularity. At Indianapolis the 
crowd, in spite of the efforts of the officers, detained the 
trains through the night. The impression they made in 
Cincinnati is not yet forgotten. Their complete equipment, 
steady demeanor while marching, and strange gray uniform, 
astonished the thousands who lined Fourth street, witnessing 
their passage. 

In the night of the ninth of June the regiment reached the 
vicinity of Cumberland. Not wishing to enter the city until 
day, they were halted outside, and on the bank of the Poto- 
mac prepared their breakfast. Never were a people more 
completely surprised, than were the citizens, when, in the 
gray of the morning, from the summit of a hill which sepa- 
rated the bivouac from the town, they caught the first view 
of the unexpected visitors. It was some time before they 
could be induced to open communication with them. When 
the men in the "outlandish big breeches" were found to be 
friendly Federal soldiers, good feeling was speedily estab- 
lished. 

At Grafton the train had been stopped to take ammunition 
on board. While there, Col. Wallace ascertained from Gen. 
Morris that the rebels occupied Romney with a body of troops 
supposed to be at least twelve hundred strong. The General 
warned him to keep a look-out against them, as the enemy 
would be but a day's march from his post at Cumberland, 
while Winchester was heavily garrisoned by them. 

On the way to Piedmont, the Colonel resolved to attack 
Romney, concluding that it would be better by such a demon- 
stration to place the rebels on the defensive, than to assume 
it himself. To secure his command from molestation, the 
surest policy was to keep the foe in constant apprehension of 
attack. 

At Piedmont he secured two loyal men, who agreed to 

guide him wherever he was pleased to go. One of them was 

afterwards caught and hung by the rebels. From them he 

obtained thorough information respecting the locality of 

Vol. I.— 7. 



98 WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 

i 

Romney and the approaches to it. Starting from Cumber- 
land, a good pike road led down the Potomac a few miles, 
then branched off to the southeast, passing through Komney 
and terminating at Winchester. Another route was to return 
by rail to New Creek, from whence a narrow and dangerous 
mountain road conducted to the point of attack. By the 
pike, the line of march would be twenty-three miles ; by New 
Creek, it was forty-six miles; one-half of it, however, by rail. 
Col. Wallace resolved to take the latter route, and attempt a 
surprise. He believed the enemy, trusting to the difficult 
nature of the road, would most likely leave it unguarded. 
The regiment had no rest after leaving Evansville, except 
that which they had on the cars. Nevertheless, the Colonel 
resolved to attempt the enterprise before a tent was pitched 
in Cumberland. The rebels would undoubtedly hear of his 
passage down the road, but go to rest again, under the suppo- 
sition that it would be some time before he would leave his 
camp, if he left it at all. Nobody knew the physical ability 
of the Zouaves better than the Colonel and his field officers. 
Their incessant training for six weeks at Evansville, was 
proof they could endure the march. 

All that day the Zouaves slept and rested on the cars at 
Cumberland, while Col. Wallace, with his field officers, rode 
about the town and neighborhood, pretending to be looking 
out for a camping place. About five o'clock in the afternoon 
he informed the citizens that he would be compelled to return 
up the road four or five miles to a convenient ground by the 
river ; he was very sorry suitable camp ground Could not be 
found closer to the city. In fact, this industrious search for a 
camp was to deceive the secessionists, of whom the town was 
full, and who were sure to communicate with the rebels at 
Romney. 

With many regrets the citizens saw the train depart. Four 
miles out, a halt was called and supper cooked. Then the 
route was resumed. Leaving the cars at New Creek, the 
little column pushed boldly out across the mountains. The 
night was dark ; the ravines and gorges were hideously black. 
It was the Colonel's purpose to reach the town, if possible, 
by daybreak. Unfortunately, the guides, in endeavoring to 



WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 99 

take a near cut, got the column badly entangled, occasioning 
a loss of three hours. The surprise, however, was complete. 
The rebels, having fired a few random shots, fled. The 
Zouaves pursued for some distance, and captured a consider- 
able amount of arms, ammunition and provision. This expe- 
dition accomplished all its purposes, and showed conclu- 
sively the metal of the regiment. 

The citizens of Cumberland were inspired with confidence 
in the courage of their protectors, and their loyalty, hereto- 
fore suppressed, at once flamed out so fiercely that many of 
the most prominent secessionists absented themselves from 
fear of their neighbors. 

The rebel soldiers, flying from Romney to "Winchester, 
reported the attacking force so strong that it was regarded in 
Richmond as the advance of an army. Harper's Ferry was 
forthwith evacuated. This latter result is given on the 
authority of the Richmond papers. 

The fight was comparatively a trifling skirmish, but it was 
not the fault of the Zouaves. They could not make the 
enemy stand and give battle. The spirit exhibited in the 
enterprise attracted universal admiration. Gen. Scott com- 
mended it in language of the highest encomium. The enemy 
in a short time discovered that the victors at Romney were 
neither an army nor the advance guard of an army. Reas- 
sured by the intelligence, they reoccupied the town, but with 
an increased force of infantry, cavalry and artillery, about 
four thousand men of all arms. This was not the security 
Col. Wallace and his officers bargained for. Without a can- 
non or a horseman, with no chance for immediate assistance, 
within a day's march of an enemy possessed of every advan- 
tage, they had every reason to believe that an attempt would 
be made to avenge the audacious raid upon Romney by a 
return visit to Cumberland. The situation was faithfully 
represented to Gen. Patterson, and reinforcements were 
asked. Similar requests were made to Gen. McClellan, who, 
about that time, relieved Gen. Morris at Grafton. Neither of 
those officers could spare the required aid. Gov. Curtin was 
appealed to, and, after long consideration, he responded by 
sending two regiments of Pennsylvania Reserves, with a bat- 





100 WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 

tery, under orders, however, not to cross the State line into 
Maryland, unless an attack should be made on the Eleventh. 
So tender and careful were the loyal authorities at that early 
stage of the war, of the assumed neutrality of the border slave 
States. Military necessity, with rude hands, has crushed out 
many chimeras, but none so hollow and unsubstantial as that 
called " neutrality." The two Reserve regiments keenly felt 
the peculiarities of their position, and despised the myth that 
held them chained to a geographical line. Campbell, the 
gallant Captain of the artillery, ascertained exactly where the 
line of division ran, and, camping his men close by, with cut- 
ting practical sarcasm planted his guns so that the wheels 
were in Pennsylvania and the muzzles in Maryland. This 
force was in command of Col. Biddle, of Philadelphia. In 
compliance with his orders, he took position on the road from 
Bedford to Cumberland, nine miles distant from the latter 
point, and there waited events. 

But the period between the capture of Romney and the 
arrival of Biddle was exceedingly interesting to the Eleventh. 
The mountains, their passes, valleys and streams — all the 
region, in fact, separating Ilomney and Cumberland — became 
debateable land, and the scene of constant petty strifes and 
stratagems. The Potomac river was so low that the places 
where it was not fordable were the exceptions. Parties on 
both sides crossed and recrossed it at pleasure. Detachments 
of rebel cavalry frequently stole over in the night, and 
abducted Union men from the Maryland side, within three 
miles of the camp of the Eleventh. 

Col. "Wallace tried to impress horses to mount a portion of 
his command. He succeeded in mounting only thirteen. 
The thirteen thus mounted he converted into videttes, some- 
times using them as scouts. As he could not aflbrd to divide 
his regiment even a day, he prevailed on a company of home 
guards, belonging to Cumberland, to undertake the task of 
guarding the bridge at New Creek, which was essential to 
the keeping open of the communication by rail to Grafton. 
To increase his perplexities, the regiment ran short of ammu- 
nition; at the time the enemy was most threatening, the 
stock of cartridges was reduced to an average of ten rounds 



WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 10 L 

to the man; nor could he obtain a supply from either Hagers- 
town or Grafton, although his applications were of almost 
daily occurrence. Feeling the urgency of the necessity, he 
finally sent Capt. Knefler in person to see Gen. Morris on the 
subject. Knefler reached Grafton in safety, but found his 
retreat cut off; the enemy, the night after he passed up the 
road, attacked the Home Guard at New Creek, drove them 
off in spite of a gallant resistance, and burned the bridge 
they were guarding. In nowise despondent, a detail of the 
regiment commenced the work of manufacturing cartridges ; 
but for that the supply would have been entirely exhausted. 
The march from Indiana had been with rations for fifteen 
days ; these began to .fail. All that conld be found in Cum- 
berland were purchased or impressed. After much trouble a 
sufficiency was obtained in Pennsylvania. Altogether the 
situation of the Eleventh during this period furnished a good 
school, in which officers and men were taught valuable lessons 
in that important branch of the art of soldiering, called " taking 
care of themselves." As to the citizens of Cumberland, it is 
to this day pleasant to hear members of the regiment speak 
of the continued kindness and courtesies received from them. 

This period of which we are now speaking will not soon 
be forgotten by the friends of the Eleventh. They lived from 
day to day in continued apprehensions of its welfare and 
safety; these apprehensions were constantly excited by almost 
daily telegrams announcing its cutting off, defeat or capture. 
Had they been in camp, however, they would have seen the 
groundlessness of their fear. Picket duty was so well and 
systematically performed that surprise was impossible ; nearly 
a hundred wagons, impressed from the town and surrounding 
country, were kept on hand ready at a moment's notice to 
move the baggage. The regiment could not have been drawn 
into a fight unless at the pleasure of the Colonel. A retreat 
was always possible by way of the Bedford road into Penn- 
sylvania. 

Probably the most remarkable circumstance connected 
with the history of this regiment is its "luck" or rare good 
fortune. It seemed almost impossible to kill a Zouave. 
Deeds of such extraordinary recklessness and desperation 



102 WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 

were performed that they can well be attributed to a belief 
in " a good star." Many instances might be given in illus- 
tration, but we will content the reader with one, taken from 
what the old members of the Eleventh call their " secret his- 
tory." The incident is known among them as — 

m'laughlin's defeat. 

The enemy's scouts, and the Zouaves, doing picket duty at 
post number four, seven or eight miles above the Potomac, 
had, for several days and nights, been practicing " sharp " on 
each other. One evening, just after dress parade, Corporal 
Ford, in charge of that post, sent word that a body of rebel 
cavalry, had, as they thought, crossed the river unseen, and 
were in cover waiting for night, to make a dash. Colonel 
Wallace concluded to try an ambush on them. He sent the 
picket men, who had brought the intelligence, back to tell 
Ford that two full companies would be in the thicket close 
by the road side, at a designated point, by twelve o'clock at 
night ; and that at that hour, or a little after, he must open a 
skirmish with the rebels, and by making frequent stands, 
followed by short retreats, gradually draw them down to the 
ambuscade. A certain whistle was the signal by which the 
pickets were to signify their identity to the secreted com- 
panies. The man hurried off to Ford. At nine o'clock, two 
companies were quietly called out, and the command given 
to Lieut. McLaughlin, of Co. K. The Lieutenant was fully 
initiated into the plan, and, with a full knowledge of the 
business on hand, led his men in good time to the point 
designated, where he posted them. Unfortunately, Ford, for 
a reason never known, instead of following his instructions, 
had withdrawn his pickets from the post before the time, and 
by pursuing a by-path, got on the Cumberland side of the 
ambuscade, where, to his astonishment, he found the rebels 
ready to attack him. A skirmish at once commenced, result- 
ing in Ford's headlong retreat back upon the ambush. 
McLaughlin heard the firing, and the clatter of horses feet. 
He placed his men in position. Down came the picket, their 
horses stretching out like hounds at full speed, nearer, nearer. 



WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 103 

Now they march on the ambush. McLaughlin stood up, and 
with all his men, listened breathlessly for the signal. The 
foremost rider was opposite the left flank of his left company, 
and still no whistle. It was too dark to judge any thing by 
sight. The flying horsemen might be friends or foes. Of 
one thing he was certain : he had not heard the signal. With 
a palpitating heart, he sung out to his ready men — Fire! 
The thicket kindled as with lightning. Every gun was dis- 
charged. There were screams of terror, and mad plunging 
of horses, in the road. McLaughlin and his companies darted 
from the thicket, and captured every man of our own pickets, 
including the Corporal. The fire had been direct. The imag- 
inary foe was not ten yards distant. Yet, strange to say, 
only one man was wounded, and he eventually recovered. 
Four horses were killed, one or two wounded, and every rider 
thrown. The secret of the misfortune was: Ford, at the 
critical moment, forgot to whistle. The rebels in pursuit 
never inquired into the matter, but turned away and hastened 
up the mountain. 

■ THE FIGHT AT KELLEY'S ISLAND. 

Col. Wallace had been accustomed to send his mounted 
scouts to different posts along the several approaches to Cum- 
berland. There were only thirteen of these scouts; but they 
were picked men, who, from much practice, had become 
accustomed to their peculiar duty. The following are their 
names and companies: 

Company A— D. B. Hay, E. H. Baker. Company B— Ed. 
Burkett, J. C. Hollenback. Company C — Tim Grover, James 
Hollowell. Company D — Thos. Brazier. Company E — G-eo. 
W. Mudbargar. . Company F — Lewis Farley. Company H — 
Frank Harrison. Company I — P. M. Dunlap. Company K — 
Eobt. Dunlap, E. P. Thomas. 

On the twenty-seventh of June, the Colonel found it 
impossible to get reliable information of the enemy. Uniting 
the scouts in a body, he gave them in charge of Corporal D. 
B. Hay, with directions to proceed to a little town on the 
pike from Cumberland to Eomney, named Frankfort, and 
ascertain if rebel troops were there. 



104 WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 

Hay was sharp, cunning and bold — the very man for the 
business. Filling their canteens and haversacks, the brave 
men strapped their rifles on their backs, and started on their 
mission. Their horses were of the class now known as con- 
demned. Hay's was the only good one. He had some repu- 
tation as a racer, and went by the name of " Silverheels." 
His rider had captured him in a scuffle a few days before, and 
prized him highly as a trophy. All the rest had been 
impressed into the service, and now made sad profert of their 
ribs by way of protest against their usage. 

A rumor passed through the camp that morning, that Hay 
was going to have a fight before he returned. His procedure 
was certainly that of man in search of a fight. He took the 
turnpike to Romney, and never drew rein, until, from a little 
eminence, he looked down into the straggling village of 
Frankfort. The street was full of infantry. The horses 
picketed about indicated a large body of cavalry. Most men 
would have been anxious, after that sight, to return to camp 
quickly as possible. !Not so Hay and his comrades. Sitting 
on their horses, they cooly made up their estimate of the 
enemy's number, and when they were perfectly agreed on the 
point, turned about, and rode leisurely away. On the return, 
they took another road very much broken, and which, thread- 
ing among the hills, after many devious windings, finally 
brought up to the track of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. 
The taking of this road was a mere freak of fancy. It was 
by no means the shortest to camp, nor was its exploration of 
any probable use; yet it led to a fight; and if the scouts had 
known that beforehand, it is not likely they would have 
changed their course. 

Three or four miles from Frankfort, while descending a 
mountain side, after turning a sharp elbow in the road, the 
men came suddenly upon a party of rebel cavalry. Each 
instinctively drew his bridle rein, and for an instant halted. 
Rapidly they commenced counting. 

" Forty-one of them, boys !" cried Hay, turning in his sad- 
dle. " What do you say? "Will you stand by me?" 

" Go in, Dave," was the unanimous vote. 

It took but a moment to unsling their rifles. 



Western Virginia campaign. 105 

"Are you ready?" asked Hay. 

"All ready," they replied. 

"Come on, then," shouted the leader. "The best horse 
gets the first man !" 

With the last word they were off. 

It happened the rebels themselves were going in the same 
direction. They were also somewhat below them in the 
descent of the road. With his usual shrewdness, and quick 
as thought, Hay grasped his advantage of position. An 
abrupt declivity on the left of the narrow road, made it 
impossible for the enemy to form line. Neither could the 
rebels turn and charge up hill. They must go on to escape. 
If they stopped, "Silverheels" would go through like a 
thunderbolt. 

The rebels heard the shout, and, in surprise, halted and 
took a look. The sight, under ordinary circumstances, would 
have been interesting to them. Not seventy-five yards behind, 
they saw Hay and his party galloping down the decline at 
break neck speed; their glance rested briefly on the little 
jackets, and big grey breeches, on the short, brown rifles 
shaken menacingly over the scarlet tipped caps, and on the 
straining horses; their ears recognized the yell of pursuit; 
and then they stayed not on their order of going. What 
they said, and whether they counted the assailants, we know 
not; but they began a retreat that soon took the form of a 
promiscuous fox chase, except that the shouts, which momen- 
tarily neared them, had little likeness to the joyous halloo of 
hunters. 

Hay led the pursuit ; Farley was next ; the others followed 
as best they could ; not one hung back. It is to be doubted 
whether, in his best days, " Silverheels " had made better time. 
A short distance from the foot of the hill he overtook the 
rebels. Just before the collision, Hay rose in his stirrups and 
fired his rifle into the party. He was so close that to miss 
would have been an accident. Swinging the weapon round 
his head, he hurled it at the nearest man, 'and the next 
moment, with drawn pistol, plunged furiously amidst them. 
They closed around him. The pistol shooting became sharp 
and quick. Hay received one wound, then another, but for 



106 WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 

each one he killed a man. When his revolver was empty he 
drew his sabre bayonet. The rebel Captain gave him from 
behind a heavy cut on the head. Still he sat his horse, and 
though weakened by the blow, and half blind with blood, he 
laid out right and left. He fared illy enough, but it would 
have been worse if Farley had not then came up and pitched 
loyally into the melee. Close at his heels, but singly or 
doubly, according to the speed of their horses, rode all the 
rest. The rebel Captain was shot before he could repeat his 
sabre blow. Farley was dismounted by the shock of the 
collision. He clinched a foeman in like situation, a struggle 
ensued, he was thrown, but his antagonist was knocked down 
by young Hollowell before he could use his victory. Farley 
caught another horse. The eager onset relieved Hay, and 
again started the rebels who, in their flight, took to the rail- 
road. Not a moment was allowed them to turn upon their 
pursuers. Over the track helter skelter they went. Suddenly 
they came to a burnt culvert. It was too late to dodge it ; 
over or into it they had to go. Eight men were killed in the 
attempt to cross it. Hay, in close pursuit, saw the leap just 
as it was unavoidable. "Silverheels" in his turn cleared the 
culvert, but fell dead a few yards beyond. The chase ended 
there. When his comrades crossed over, they found Hay sit- 
ting by his horse crying like a child, on account of the death 
of "Silverheels." 

The scouts then proceeded to collect the spoils. When 
they were all in, the nett proceeds of the victory were seven- 
teen horses, with their equipments, and eleven dead rebels, 
three on the hill-side, and eight in the culvert. Hay 
re-mounted himself, and started with the party for Cumber- 
land. It may be imagined with what satisfaction the brave 
victors pictured to each other their triumphal entry into 
camp. After going a few miles, Hay became so faint from 
loss of blood, that he had to be taken out of his saddle. The 
dilemma in which they now found themselves was settled by 
sending two of their number to a farm house for a wagon ; 
meantime they laid their leader in -the shade, and brought 
water for him from the river. While they were thus nursing 
him back to strength, a fire was suddenly opened upon them 



WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 107 

from a hill on the left. This was a surprise, yet their cool- 
ness did not desert them. Hay bade them put him on a horse 
and leave him to take care of himself. They complied, cling- 
ing painfully to the saddle, he forded the Potomac and was 
safe. The others couLd probably have saved themselves, but 
in a foolish effort to save their horses, they lost the opportu- 
nity. Farley then became leader. 

"Let the horses go, and give the rebels thunder," was his 
simple emphatic order. 

The fire, thickening on them, was then returned. Years 
before Farley had lost one of his eyes; the sound one, how- 
ever, was now admirably used. He saw the rebels were 
trying to surround the party, and would succeed if better 
cover was not soon found. Behind them ran Patterson's 
creek. The ground on its opposite shore was scarcely higher 
than that which they occupied, but it was covered with rocks 
washed naked by the flowing stream. Farley saw that to get 
there would be a good exchange. 

"It's a pretty slim chance, boys," he coolly said, "but it 
wont do to give in or stay here. Let's make a rush for the 
big rocks yonder, and get the creek between them and us." 

The rush was made ; under a sharp fire, they crossed the 
creek and took shelter behind the bowlders. Ten of them 
were there, but, to use their own language, they were all 
" sound as new fifty cent pieces, and not whipped by a long 
sight." 

Peering over the rocks, they counted over seventy rebels 
on foot making at full speed for the creek, evidently with the 
intention of crossing it. Each one felt the trial had come. 

"Look out, now, and don't waste a cartridge. Recollect 
they are scarce," said Thomas. 

"Yes, and recollect Buena Vista," said Hollowell. 

The first rebel entered the creek before a gun was fired, so 
perfectly calm were those ten men. Then crack, crack, in 
quick succession, went the rifles, scarcely a bullet failing its 
mark. The assailants recoiled, ran back, and finding cover 
as best they could, began the exciting play of sharpshooters. 
This practice continued for more than an hour. The sun 
went down on it. About that time a small party of horse- 



108 WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 

men galloped down the road, and hitching their horses, joined 
the enemy. One of the new comers made himself conspicu- 
ous by refusing to take the ground. Walking about, as if 
in contempt of the minnies which were sent whistling round 
him, he gave directions which resulted in another sudden 
dash for the creek. Again the rifles went crack, crack, in 
quick succession, and with the same fatal consequence; but 
this time the rebels had a leader ; men were seen to fall in 
the water, but there was no second recoil ; the obstructions 
were cleared in the face of the rifles, and with much cursing 
and shouting the attacking party closed in upon the Zouaves. 

The fight was hand to hand. No amount of courage 
could be effective against the great odds at such close quar- 
ters; nevertheless*, all that was possible was done. Night 
was rapidly closing upon the scene ; over the rocks, and 
through the tangled thicket, and in the fading twilight, the 
struggle for revenge and life went on. There was heroism 
on both sides; that of the Zouaves was matchless, because it 
was in no small degree the prompting of despair. 

Farley found himself again engaged with the leader of the 
rebels, a man of as much strength as courage; Hollowell 
saved his life at the cost of his rifle, but snatching the dead 
man's. pistols, he resumed the fight. The pistols were brought 
into camp, and next morning presented to the young hero by 
the Colonel. 

Thomas killed two by rifle shots; while loading a third 
time, he was struck by a pistol ball on the side of the temple, 
and fell senseless. A man in the act of striking him with a 
sabre, was shot through by Grover, and died on Thomas. It 
was dark when Thomas recovered ; hearing no sound of 
fighting, he pushed off the dead body from him, secured his 
rifle, and hid himself in vines and bushes. In a little while 
the rebels came to remove the dead. He saw them carry 
thirteen dead bodies across the creek. In searching the 
island they found Hollenback, who had been shot through 
the body. Thomas heard the exclamation announcing the 
discovery. 

"Here's a Yankee !" was the shout. 

" Kill him, kill him ! " arose on all sides. 



WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 109 

| 

" Come, get out of this ! " said a strong voice. 

"I can't, I'm shot," feebly protested Hollenback. 

Yet they made him rise and wade the creek. When all 
was still, Thomas escaped by wading and swimming the 
Potomac. 

Baker and Dunlap, of Co. I, the men sent for the wagon, 
hearing the second engagement, galloped with all speed to 
camp, and reported. The regiment was on drill when they 
arrived. Fifty men, under Major Robinson, were instantly 
detailed to go to the rescue. When the detachment reached 
the edge of town it was swelled to two hundred — the guards 
found it impossible to keep the Zouaves in the lines. The 
relief traveled fast, but arrived too late. The island was 
deserted. Pistols, broken guns, dead horses, and rocks stained 
with blood told the story. 

The detail returned late in the night. Early next morning 
two companies, under Major Robinson, were sent down to 
search for some of the missing men and property, and bury 
such dead as they might find. In the afternoon the Major 
came back with some trophies, eight horses, and poor Hollen- 
back. He had found Hollenback lying on. a farmer's porch 
dead, but warm and bleeding, with a bullet hole and a bayo- 
net thrust through his body. The woman of the house told 
Major Robinson how he died. 

" The man wasn't dead when they brought him here," 
she said, " but a little while ago, when they heard you coming, 
they set him on a horse to take him off with them ; but he 
fainted; he couldn't stand it. A man then stuck a bayonet 
into his back." 

The Major glanced at the porch, and observed blood on 
the floor. 

"Did they bring anybody else here, Madam? " he asked. 

" Oh, yes ! I reckon they did. Me and my man came out 
while they were at work, and we counted twenty-three men 
laid out side by side on the porch there. Two or three of 
them were wounded. I heard some one say that they had 
brought some of the dead men down the railroad. Ashby 
was one of the wounded." 

The Ashby alluded to was a brother of the Col. Ashby of 



110 WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 

Black Horse Cavalry renown. He afterwards died of his 
wounds. 

By five o'clock the day after the fight the scouts were all 
in camp. They straggled in one by one. Citizens and soldiers 
turned out to receive them. Never did returning heroes have 
more sympathizing and admiring audiences. Thomas showed 
the kiss of the bullet on his temple. Baker wore the cap of 
a rebel — his own had been shot off his head. Dunlap had 
three bullet holes through his shirt. Hollowell exhibited his 
captured pistols and broken rifle. Farley yet retained the 
handle of his sabre-bayonet, shivered in the fray. Several 
of the men testified to his killing six enemies with his own 
hand. Not a man but had some proofs of the engagement, 
such as torn clothes and bruised bodies. But Hay was the 
hero. Three ghastly wounds entitled him to the honor. 

Their final escape had been effected in the same manner. 
Finding themselves overpowered and separated, each one, at 
the first opportunity, had abandoned the battle ground,, 
which proved to be Kelly's Island, at the mouth of Patter- 
son's creek, and plunging into the river succeeded in crossing 
it. The enemy followed to the canal, on the northern side. 

Hollenback was buried in the cemetery. A more solemn 
funeral never took place in the old town. The sorrow was 
universal. Loyal citizens thought — 

"To every man upon this earth, 
Death cometh soon or late ; 
And where can man die better, 
Than facing fearful odds, 
For the ashes of his fathers, 
And the temples of his Gods ! " 

Col. Wallace officially reported the fight to Gen. Patterson, 
and the latter wrote the following general order and pub- 
lished it to his army : 

Headquarters Dep't of Pennsylvania, 
Hagerstown, June 30, 1861. 
General Orders, No. 29. — The Commanding General has the 
satisfaction to announce to the troops a second victory over 
the insurgents by a small party of Indiana Volunteers, under 



WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. Ill 

Col. Wallace, on the twenty-sixth instant. Thirteen mounted 
men attached to the regiment attacked forty-one insurgents, 
killing eight and chasing the rest two miles. On their return 
with seventeen captured horses, they were attacked by seventy- 
five of the enemy, and fell back to a strong position, which 
they held till dark, when they returned to camp, with the loss 
of one man killed and one wounded. 

The Commanding General desires to bring to the attention 
of the officers and men of his command the courage and 
conduct with which this gallant little band of comparatively 
raw troops met the emergency, by turning on an enemy so 
largely superior in numbers, chastising him severely, and 
gathering in retreat the fruits of victory. By order of 

Major Gen. Patterson. 

J. F. Porter, Assistant Adjutant General. 

On the twenty-seventh, General McClellan telegraphed Col. 
Wallace for the particulars of the fight. The Colonel, after 
narrating the particulars, closes his report to Gen. McClellan 
by stating that the account "of the skirmish sounds like 
fiction, but it is not exaggerated. The fight was one of the 
most desperate on record, and abounded in instances of won- 
derful daring and coolness." 

Next day, Gen. McClellan sent the following compliment, 
which was enthusiastically received when published to the 
regiment : 

" Grafton, Va., June 28. 
To Col. Lew. Wallace : — I congratulate you upon the gal- 
lant conduct of your regiment. Thank them for me, and 
express to the party how highly I honor their heroic courage, 
worthy of their French namesakes. I more than ever regret 
that you are not under my command. I have urged Gen. 
Scott to send up the Pennsylvania regiments. I begin to 
doubt whether the Eleventh Indiana needs reinforcements. 

" Geo. B. McClellan, 

Maj. Gen. U. S. Army." 

Prior to the fight at Kelley's Island, an incident occurred, 



112 WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 

strikingly illustrative of the fear with which the Eleventh 
had inspired the enemy at Pomney. A force, estimated at 
four thousand men, of all arms, had been concentrated at 
that place, under Col. McDonald. That officer had frequently 
sent messages to Col. Wallace, declarative of a fixed purpose 
to burn Cumberland. On the nineteenth of June, informa- 
tion came that the rebels were coming. The news was con- 
firmed by an attack made that night on the guards of the 
New Creek bridge, twenty-three miles from Cumberland. 
As already stated, the guard, after a stout resistance, was 
driven off, and the bridge burned. At daylight next morning, 
the enemy were reported in force on the Maryland side of the 
Potomac, moving rapidly upon Cumberland, by way of 
Frostburgh. l |k 

Upon receipt of this news, the regiment made all necessary 
preparations. The sick were provided for, the tents all struck, 
and the baggage loaded in the wagons, then in camp, for such 
an emergency. About ten o'clock the pickets galloped in, 
and reported the enemy at Frostburgh, only six miles distant. 

Col. "Wallace ordered Quartermaster Eyce to move out with 
the train on the road to Bedford, Pa. When the last wagon 
had passed through the town, the regiment was formed, and, 
with flying colors, and band playing, marched after the train. 

As the Colonel had kept his own counsel, the men were in 
ignorance of his purposes. They at once concluded that the 
movement was a retreat. Their shame and mortification were 
amusing. "Is this the way we remember Buena Vista?" was 
the common exclamation. The secessionists in the town had 
the same opinion of the movement, and took no pains to 
conceal their satisfaction. The companies passing the houses 
could see their smiles and sneers. These, coupled with the 
tears and despair of the many loyal people, turned the shame 
of the Zouaves into rage. Col. Wallace, pleased by the feel- 
ing manifested, paid no apparent attention to their bitter 
exclamations. As he rode along, however, he busied himself 
in telling prominent Union citizens to keep in their houses 
with their women and children, if the rebels came into town. 
It was afterwards known that these warnings had connection 
with his plans. 



WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 113 

Slowly and sorrowfully the regiment followed in the wake 
of its train, going towards Bedford. Two miles and a half 
out of town, however, all were surprised to hear the bugles 
blow the halt ; then no less pleased at the order to face about, 
and commence a return march toward Cumberland. 

It appears that when the regiment was about half a mile 
out of town, the Colonel had called the attention of Lieut. 
Col. McGinnis and Major Robinson to a place which, he said, 
was good fighting ground. They agreed with him ; and to 
that point accordingly the regiment returned, and went into 
position for battle. Then the Zouaves comprehended the 
object of the movement; the baggage had been moved for 
safety ; the departure from camp was to obtain a better posi- 
tion for action, and one in which the line of retreat was at 
all times secure — a matter not to be lost sight of, when it is 
considered that the little force had no cavalry or artillery, 
and but an average of ten rounds of cartridge. The spirits 
of the men arose ; and behind the stone wall, which stretched 
across the narrow valley, they waited for the enemy. When 
the Union citizens heard that the regiment had not left them, 
they again hung out the flags, which, a little before, they had 
taken down and concealed. 

While speaking of Col. Wallace's purposes on this occasion, 
it is not improper to add, that he expected the enemy, when 
they took possession of the town, would scatter in search of 
plunder. If so, he intended to attack them in the streets. 
Hence his warning to Union men to keep in their houses. 

The rebels, however, did not come. McDonald halted at 
Erostburgh, and hearing that the Zouaves were ready to fight 
him, he, that night, turned about, and marched back to 
Eomney. Next morning the Eleventh re-oocupied its old 
camps as if nothing had occurred. 

The incidents given show distinctly that the duties per- 
formed by the Eleventh at Cumberland, were hard, fatiguing, 
and dangerous. They were, nevertheless, relieved by pleasant 
social intercourse with the people of the city, who took the 
fourth of July as a proper day on which to express their 
gratitude to their defenders. About ten o'clock in the morn- 
ing, a train of wagons, under escort of the Continentals, the 
Vol. I.— 8. 



114 WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 

independent company, which had so gallantly defended New 
Creek bridge a short time before, was observed to cross the 
bridge, and take the road to camp. Passing the lines, it 
stopped in the tented streets, and satisfied the wonder of sol- 
diers by unloading a splendid dinner. Never were men more 
agreeably surprised. The festivity of the day was concluded 
by the presentation to the regiment of a beautiful garrison 
flag. The dance and song were continued far into the night. 
On the seventh of July, Col. Wallace received an order 
from Gen. Patterson to join his army at Martinsburgh, Va., 
so soon as possible. On the eighth camp was broken up. 
The route of the regiment in this march was through Flint 
Stone, Hancock, Clear Spring, and "Williamsport. 

HOW THE ZOUAVES CONQUERED A MASSACHUSETTS REGIMENT. 

It happened that a regiment, from the old Bay State, 
marched into Martinsburgh immediately after the Eleventh, 
and was assigned to an encampment in an adjoining field. 
Two bodies more dissimilar in every respect, could not have 
been thrown together. Some of the New England officers 
were foolish enough to forbid their men from associating 
with what they contemptuously called the "Indiana grease 
bags." This amused the -Zouaves, who resolved to bring 
their aristocratic friends to terms. 

The two regiments turned out in their respective fields for 
battalion drill. Col. Wallace quickly saw that his competitors 
had the advantage of him in the possession of a new uniform, 
and a splendid brass band, and that the music of the latter 
was attracting the mass of spectators who had come over to 
see the new regiments ; but he had an unexpected resource. 
Ellsworth had been to Boston w 7 ith his celebrated Zouaves; 
and on the boards of a theater, there made exhibition of the 
tactics a la France. He believed, however, that few persona 
in New England had ever seen those tactics performed by a 
full regiment in a broad field. If so, he knew they would be 
irresistible. Breaking the regiment into column of platoons, 
he began the drill, in which the commands are all given by 
the bugle, and executed on the double-quick. The men 



WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 115 

understood the joke, and did their best. A few movements 
brought back the spectators. Advancing, retreating, moving 
by the flanks, firing in advance, and in retreat, the rallies and 
deployments, &c, were done in superb style; and in the midst 
of them, a New York regiment, on drill a little way off, 
halted, wheeled into line, and while watching the perform- 
ance, soon broke into cheers. Massachusetts alone remained 
obstinate. It was easy to see, however, that, despite the 
officers, the curiosity of the men was becoming ungovernable. 
In practicing the march in column, whenever the direction 
of their movement brought their front to the Zouaves, it was 
all right; but the moment their backs were turned, the 
utmost vigor was required to keep them from looking back. 
The field on which the Eleventh was drilling, was enclosed 
on its north side by a high rail fence, beyond which, was a 
hollow; then a low mountain side, covered on the top by a 
dense growth of cedars. The bugles blew "by the right 
flank, march," and off went the regiment at intervals taken; 
they leaped the fence, crossed the hollow, and, still on the 
double-quick, disappeared in the cedars. How will they be 
brought back? was the query. Suddenly the Massachusetts 
regiment halted, and, at ordered arms, became spectators 
The victory was won. Directly the bugles sounded ; the call 
was repeated promptly, and soon the companies re-appeared ; 
and in perfect order returned to the field again. As the last 
man cleared the fence, an involuntary cheer broke from the 
Massachusetts regiment; the Zouaves replied with a "tiger" 
in addition ; and from that time, the fraternization went on 
uninterruptedly. After that, the men with the big grey 
breeches were without rivals, and had the liberty of the town 
with or without the password. 

THE END OF THE TERM. 

In a few days the Eleventh, with the rest of Patterson's 
army, marched to Bunker Hill, about seven miles from Win- 
chester, at which place Gen. Johnson was intrenched. A 
battle was the common expectation, and a proper climax to 
the service of the Zouaves. Gen. Patterson's movement 



116 WESTERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN. 

turned out, however, a mere observation. The morning the 
army should have been marched to Winchester, to the sur- 
prise and mortification of every body not duly informed, it 
was turned to the left, and taken to Charlestown. The night 
it laid at Bunker Hill, Johnson carried his force by rail to 
Manassas, where it was chiefly instrumental in the defeat of 
the Federal army at Bull Run. 

At Charlestown the term of service of the regiment expired, 
together with that of a number of others from other States. 
Gen. Patterson had issued a general request to all such out- 
going regiments to remain with him until their places could 
be supplied by new troops. Upon a vote taken, the Eleventh 
agreed to do so, and marched to headquarters to report their 
conclusion to the General, who complimented them in the 
most flattering manner for their patriotism worthy their fame. 
Shortly after, they were marched to Harper's Ferry; but 
before ten days, they were relieved, and ordered home. It 
arrived at Indianapolis on the twenty-ninth of July, where 
it was accorded a magnificent reception. On the second of 
August it was mustered out of service. 

During almost the entire campaign, the Eleventh was iso- 
lated from all other commands; hence we have deemed it 
proper to give an extended account of its operations. 



FIRST POTOMAC CAMPAIGN. 



CHAPTER IV. 

EARLY OPERATIONS ON THE POTOMAC. 

Iii the early operations on the line of the Potomac, the 
Indiana troops took but little part. There was no regiment 
from the State in the first grand army gathered at Washing- 
ton. The Eleventh was ordered to Cumberland, and received 
instructions from Gen. Patterson, who held the upper Potomac. 
They held an important outpost, but did not participate in the 
series of maneuvers which characterized that campaign. In 
order to connect the links in the chain of events, it is neces- 
sary to glance at the leading movements around Washington, 
which culminated in the disaster at Bull Run. 

Before the State of Virginia had formally seceded, troops 
from other Southern States were welcomed within her borders. 
The martial spirit which animated her people was directed to 
revolutionary ends. It was evident to every thoughtful mind, 
North and South, that her soil would be the great battle- 
field. The aggressive spirit which breathed from her public 
press, and awakened an echo in the hearts of her people, 
pointed to the capture of Washington, and the possession of 
Norfolk, Harper's Ferry and Fortress Monroe. On the nine- 
teenth of April, the important works at Harper's Ferry were 
destroyed, to prevent their falling into the hands of the 
enemy. On the twentieth, all that was combustible in Gos- 
port Navy Yard was burned, the cannon spiked, and the ships 



118 FIRST POTOMAC CAMPAIGN. 

of war Delaware, Pennsylvania, Columbus, Merrimac, Baritan, 
Germantown, Plymouth, and United States, were scuttled, 
and set on fire. The frigate Cumberland was towed out of 
the harbor in the light of the blazing docks, stores and 
fleets. The garrison of Fortress Monroe was strengthened, 
and military possession taken of the Baltimore and Ohio 
Railroad. A heavy guard was placed at Long Bridge, and 
a line of pickets posted beyond. Troops were hurried up to 
Washington for the defense of the Capital. The activity and 
determination of the rebel leaders awoke a corresponding 
energy of purpose in the Federal authorities. Day after day 
the preparations for the impending struggle assumed larger 
proportions. 

On the twentieth of April occurred one of those exciting 
incidents which stir the heart of a nation, and form an epoch 
in its history. A Massachusetts regiment, in passing through 
Baltimore, was attacked by a mob. Two of their number 
were killed and eight wounded. The military struggled 
through the surging tide of maddened and infuriated men, 
while a perfect shower of bricks, stones, and other missiles-, 
was poured upon them. They abstained from firing as an 
organized body. A few straggling shots were fired npon the 
assailants; but at no time during the affray, did a single 
platoon deliver its fire. From this time, until works were 
erected commanding the city, no attempt was made to pass 
troops through it. The Executive of Maryland and the 
majority of her people, were opposed to the revolutionary 
schemes of the Southern leaders. The riot was doubtless 
incited to hurry the State into the vortex of secession. The 
wisdom of the course adopted, after a full consultation at 
Washington by the National, State and city authorities, is 
now clearly seen. The Mayor guaranteed to preserve order 
in the city if the troops were sent by some other route. This 
was done. The excitement, no longer fanned by opposition, 
died away. The giant rowdyism which had long controlled 
the Monumental City, was shorn of its power for mischief. 

On the twenty- seventh of April, by an order from the 
Adjutant General's office, three departments were formed 
from what might be termed the defensive line of Washington, 



FIRST POTOMAC CAMPAIGN. 119 

or the base for operations in Eastern Virginia. These 
departments, we will, for the purpose of our sketch, call the 
Army of the Potomac. The first, under command of Col. 
J. R. F. Mansfield, Inspector General of the army, embraced 
the District of Columbia according to its original boundary — 
Fort Washington, and the county adjacent, and the State of 
Maryland as far as Bladensburgh. The second, under com- 
mand of Gen. B. F. Butler, included the counties on each 
side of the railroad from Annapolis to Blaclensburg, Mary- 
land. The third, called the Department of Pennsylvania, 
commanded by Gen. Patterson, included Pennsylvania, the 
State of Delaware, and all that part of Maryland not included 
in the two first departments. 

The proclamation of Gov. Letcher, of Virginia, calling out 
the militia to defend the State from invasion, aud the procla- 
mation of President Lincoln, calling for forty-two thousand 
additional volunteers, and eighteen thousand sailors, for three 
years, bear the same date — May the third. 

The Confederate forces occupied Norfolk, and were actively 
engaged in fortifying the approaches to the James River. 
Another rebel column, called the army of the Shenandoah, 
threatened the upper Potomac. And a third, having their 
pickets and outposts in sight of the dome of the Capitol, 
were menacing the center of our line. 

On the twenty-third of May, our forces in Washington 
numbered about forty thousand. On the same day, about 
nine thousand of this army marched over Long Bridge for 
Eastern Virginia. Ellsworth's regiment of Fire Zouaves 
were sent by steamer to Alexandria. That town was taken 
without a struggle. Col. Ellsworth there lost his life at the 
hands of a hotel keeper, named Jackson, who shot the ardent 
young officer while in the act of taking down a secession 
flag, which had waved from the roof of the Marshal House. 
Col. Wilcox, with the First Michigan regiment, reached the 
town by the Washington pike soon after Col. Ellsworth had 
entered it from the water front, and surprised a small body of 
cavalry near the depot of the Orange and Alexandria Rail- 
road. Arlington Hights were occupied. The work of 
throwing up defenses commenced. The organization into 



120 FIRST POTOMAC CAMPAIGN. 

brigades and divisions rapidly followed. Brigadier General 
McDowell was placed in command of the forces south of the 
Potomac. The work, of reconnoitering the country, of 
endeavoring to find out the disposition of the enemy's forces, 
and of divining his plans, proceeded. Unfortunately, the 
Northern press, dazzled by the display of force, and misled 
by the falling back of the enemy, commenced clamoring for 
an advance, unmindful and reckless of the fact, that our 
officers, who would be held responsible in case of a defeat, 
were the best judges of the preparations essential to secure 
victory. 

On the first of June, Lieut. Tompkins, with Co. B, of the 
Second regular cavalry, made a dashing charge through the 
town of Fairfax, driving out and routing a superior force of 
Confederate cavalry and infantry, and capturing some pris- 
oners of note. His loss was one killed, four wounded, and 
one missing. The exploit was brilliant and startling. 

THE BATTLE OF BETHEL. 

General Butler in the meantime had taken command at 
Fortress Monroe. It was under his orders the first serious 
contest in Virginia was fought. The enemy had established 
a camp at a place called Bethel. Big Bethel is a short dis- 
tance from Little Bethel. These places take their names 
from two churches situated about eight miles north from 
Newport News, and the same distance north-west from 
Hampton. Our troops were stationed at Newport News and 
at Hampton. The rebels were at Big and Little Bethel, 
from which places squads of cavalry sallied at night upon our 
pickets. 

General Butler resolved to route the rebels. The expedi- 
tion, though well planned, was defeated by one of those 
blunders which raw troops frequently make. Gen. Pierce 
was in command of the force. It was to march in two col- 
umns. Duryea's Zouaves were to move from Hampton 
via New Market bridge, from thence by a by-road and take 
position between Big and Little Bethel, to cut the commu- 
nication, and be in readiness to attack Little Bethel when 



' ML! 



FIRST POTOMAC CAMPAIGN. 121 

assailed in front. Colonel Townsend's regiment, and two 
howitzers, were to support this movement and move about 
an hour later. Another force was to move from Newport 
JSTews, under command of Lieut. Col. Washburn, supported 
by Col. Bendix's regiment and two field pieces. These forces 
were to effect a junction one mile and a half from Little 
Bethel and attack it in front. Duryea andBendix had taken 
position. Townsend's column was approaching. Bendix, 
supposing it to be the enemy, opened upon it with artillery 
and musketry. This blunder gave notice of the impending 
attack. All hope of a surprise was abandoned. Col. Duryea, 
at the moment of the firing, had surprised and captured the 
outlying guard at Little Bethel, and being ordered to fall 
back he joined the other columns, which were there concen- 
trated for an attack. When the united force moved upon 
Little Bethel it was abandoned. 

The enemy took a strong position on the opposite side of 
the south branch of Black river, with heavy batteries pro- 
tected in front by earth works. Capt. Kilpatrick with two 
companies of skirmishers drove in the pickets, and secured a 
position for three pieces of artillery, supported by the advance 
of Duryea's regiment. The artillery, under Lieut. Greble of 
the First United States Artillery, opened fire. It was returned 
from the Parrott guns of the enemy, which told with fearful 
effect upon the exposed line of the Union forces. An attempt 
was made to storm the works under cover of Greble' s guns, 
which had been advanced to within two hundred yards of 
the enemy's intrenchments. The order to withdraw was 
given. Capt. Kilpatrick afterwards reported that the rebel 
works would have been carried had not orders to retire been 
prematurely given. Lieut. Greble, who was serving one of 
his guns, fell at the last fire, a cannon ball having shot off' 
his head. Major Winthrop, while standing on a log waving 
his sword and cheering his men to a charge, was pierced by 
a rifle shot from a rebel sharpshooter, and fell dead in full 
view of the enemy's line. Our loss was fifty killed and a 
proportionate number wounded. The enemy fought under 
shelter and did not sustain much loss — our troops, whenever 
they advanced from the cover of the woods on the left, were 



122 FIRST POTOMAC CAMPAIGN. 

exposed to the full sweep of the enemy's batteries and mus- 
ketry. This battle took place on the tenth of June. 

At the South this repulse was magnified into a great vic- 
tory, and used with effect by the press and politicians to 
feed the vaunting spirit of the people — a spirit too common 
both North and South in the early stages of the contest. 

THE AMBUSCADE AT VIENNA* 

Gen. Schenck was ordered, on the seventeenth of June, to 
make a reconnoissance from Alexandria to Vienna, on the 
Leedsburgh road, and to station guards at the bridges and 
other exposed positions. Vienna is thirteen miles from Alex- 
andria. The road runs through a valley with hills on either 
side, screened by heavy thickets. The Third Ohio regiment, 
Col. McCook's, embarked on platform cars, propelled by a 
locomotive, went through this valley, every yard of which 
might have masked a foe. Squads of men were dropped at 
the exposed points as the train moved backwards through 
the pass. The party were enjoying a merry ride when, within 
half a mile of the little hamlet of Vienna, a battery concealed 
by the thicket, opened upon them. The first round tore five 
men to pieces and crippled the locomotive. The cars were 
abandoned, and the men formed in line of battle, but suc- 
cessful resistance in such a position was out of the question; 
they fell back to the shelter of a wood a mile in the rear. 
The enemy did not attempt to follow. The Federal loss in 
this aifair was five killed, six wounded and ten missing. 

"While the sympathy of the people of the North flowed 
out to the sufferers in this disaster, the criticisms upon it 
were severe — almost savage. Gen. Schenck was censured 
and ridiculed without measure. " Going scouting on a rail- 
road train," passed into a proverb, when speaking of military 
incapacity. 

GENERAL PATTERSON'S CORPS. 

In the early part of June, Gen. Patterson moved from his 
camp at Chambersburgh for the Potomac. 



FIRST POTOMAC CAMPAIGN. 123 

Along the line of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad there 
had been some very important skirmishes by detachments of 
Gen. Patterson's command, the most memorable of which 
was by a party of eleven scouts belonging to the Eleventh 
Indiana, under command of Corp. Hay, who encountered 
forty of Ashby's cavalry on Patterson's creek, twelve miles 
from Cumberland, and succeeded, after a severe struggle, in 
routing them. It was a hand to hand fight, and proved 
the gallantry of Corp. Hay and of the brave men who accom- 
panied him. The history of the Eleventh Indiana contains 
the particulars of this engagement. 

Previously, Col. Wallace having learned that a force was 
collecting at Romney, marched his regiment to that place, 
from Cumberland, and routed the rebels. 

This movement alarmed Gen. Johnston, who feared a j auc- 
tion between Patterson and McClellan, and a demonstration 
in force in the Shenandoah valley. Such a movement would 
hold him at Harper's Ferry, then supposed to be a stronghold, 
and effectually cut him off from the center of the Confederate 
line at Manassas. i 

While Gen. Patterson was moving rapidly upon Martins- 
burg, Johnston destroyed the magnificent railroad structures 
spanning the river at Harper's Ferry, and fell back towards 
Winchester. His advance, after reaching that point pushed 
on to Romney, and found it evacuated by our troops. A 
detachment followed to !New Creek, on the Potomac, where 
they observed a Federal force on the Maryland side. Their 
further progress was checked. The main column of Gen. 
Johnson halted at Charlestown, in light marching order. The 
sick soldiers and heavy baggage were sent on to Winchester, 
and he was thus in a position to move upon Patterson and 
dispute his advance, or hurry to the relief of the center in 
front of Washington, as the progress of events might direct. 

Gen. Patterson crossed the Potomac at Williamsport, on 
the second of July, skirmishing with the enemy's pickets. 
At Falling Waters, five miles from the ford, on the pike lead- 
ing to Martinsburg, his advance had a brisk engagement with 
a force of the enemy, in which our troops were successful. 
Falling Waters — the romantic name given to the battle field, 



124 FIRST POTOMAC CAMPAIGN. 

suggestive of the idea of a stream dashing over a ledge of 
rocks, or leaping down the precipitous side of a mountain — 
takes its name from a dam which gathers the waters of a 
limpid brook for the prosaic, but useful, purpose of turning 
the machinery of a mill. The rebel force was commanded by 
Colonel, afterwards the celebrated, General Jackson. Mar- 
tinsburg was abandoned before the Federal army reached it. 
After a delay of two weeks at Martinsburg, Gen. Patterson 
moved towards Winchester. Gen. Johnston marched his 
main force in the same direction. The pickets of the two 
armies met at Bunker Hill. After several days skirmishing 
Patterson fell back to the abandoned camp of the enemy at 
Charlestown. Gen. Johnston resumed his original march and 
occupied Winchester, leaving large bodies of skirmishers to 
cover his movements. 

The period of the enlistment of Gen. Patterson's men had 
almost expired, when it was decided to make an advance 
upon Manassas. His orders were to engage Johnston, and 
prevent him from effecting a junction with Beauregard, who 
had assumed command of the Confederate force in front of 
Washington; but this, with an army, hastily collected and 
anxious to return to their homes, the General found it impos- 
sible to accomplish. 

Gen. Patterson has been hastily censured for his inability 
to prevent the march of Gen. Johnston to the relief of Beau- 
regard; but as the light of time breaks through the cloud 
which passion, prejudice, disappointed hopes and ill-directed 
ambition, throws around current events, it will be found that 
it was more the misfortune than the fault of the Pennsylvania 
General, that his wily antagonist eluded his grasp. 

THE BATTLE OF BULL RUN. 

When Congress met in July, 1861, fifty-five thousand sol- 
diers of all arms, were encamped around Washington. It 
was the most magnificent army that had ever been seen on 
this continent. Its equipment was pronounced complete. 
The praises of the Grand Army were upon every tongue 
in the loyal States. So little was the magnitude of the 



FIRST POTOMAC CAMPAIGN. 125 

struggle understood, that it was considered treason to doubt 
for a moment, the ability of this force to march without any 
serious difficulty direct to the heart of the Confederacy. 
Our politicians and editors had all become military critics. 
Their zeal was mistaken for knowledge. Their ignorance 
of the resources of the enemy was esteemed patriotism. On 
account of the clamor raised by them, the North became 
impatient for an advance. 

It was well known the enemy were strongly entrenched a 
few miles from Centerville, in a position to cover the junction 
of the Orange and Alexandria and Manassas Gap Eailroads. 
This seems to have been decided — in the popular mind at 
least — as the route to the rebel capital. The "on to Rich- 
mond" frenzy demanded the dispersion of the hordes at 
Manassas, and the forward march from thence without rest 
or delay. 

Our people were unaccustomed to the sight of large armies. 
The glittering military array around Arlington Hights, turned 
the heads of the people and of their leaders. To check such 
an army, composed as it was of the most loyal citizens of our 
loyal States, was regarded as an impossibility. Fired with 
enthusiasm in our cause, and placing unbounded confidence 
in the prowess of our soldiery who were supplied with the 
most approved appliances of modern warfare, we were ready 
to stigmatize as traitors all who doubted the ability of that 
army to march direct to Richmond, and plant the stars and 
stripes on the dome of the rebel capitol. Gen. Scott for a 
long time resisted the public entreaties for an immediate 
advance, but at length surrendered his judgment to the pop- 
ular clamor. The fact that the term of service of a portion 
of the troops was about to expire, might have influenced him 
to consent to the advance. It is not probable he indulged 
the prevailing idea, that our troops, after forcing the strong- 
hold at Manassas, would have a holiday march to Richmond. 

The advance, however, was decided upon. How much 
doubt of success lingered in the mind of the grand Old Chief, 
who had the general supervision of its movements, we per- 
haps will never know. We know, however, he has since 
reproached himself with moral cowardice for bending to the 



126 FIRST POTOMAC CAMPAIGN. 

storm of enthusiasm which for a season swept away calm 
judgment from the minds of our people. Forward! was the 
word. Leaving twenty thousand men to cover Washington, 
Gen. McDowell with thirty-five thousand, moving in several 
columns, hy different roads, felt his way cautiously to Fairfax 
Court House. 

No correct maps of the country could be obtained. The 
engineers had to penetrate in advance and collect that infor- 
mation in regard to roads, which is absolutely essential to 
the safe marching of a large army. It was one of these 
armed reeonnoisances which brought on the first fight, called 
by the South, Bull Run, in contra-distinction to the decisive 
contest which is usually termed the battle of Manassas. 

The enemy's line extended for ten miles along the western 
bank of Bull Run, a small stream rising among the eastern 
slopes of the Blue Ridge Mountains, and gliding between 
rugged and thickly wooded banks to the Occoquan river. 
Their right rested at Union Mills, the crossing of the Orange 
and Alexandria railroad, and extended beyond the main 
turnpike road leading from Centre ville to Warrenton. 
Although the banks of the stream are high and rocky it can 
be crossed at several points on the line by old and long used 
fords, at which a glimpse may be obtained of the rolling pla- 
teau beyond, called the Plains of Manassas. The most noted 
of these fords, or the most frequently named in describing 
the battle, are Sudley's above, and Blackburn's and Mitchell's, 
below, the left of the enemy's line. A stone bridge spans the 
stream on the line of the turnpike. This stone bridge in the 
crowning battle became the key of the rebel position. 

On the eighteenth of July Gen. Tyler, who led the advance 
division with seven regiments — Richardson's brigade — took 
the road from Centreville to Blackburn's ford, to feel the 
enemy and test the practicability of crossing there. On 
emerging from the woods which at that point crown the 
hights between Centreville and the Run, the descent was 
found to be between gentle and open slopes. On the oppo- 
site side the banks rose more abruptly and were wooded to 
the edge of the water. Higher up cleared fields could be 
seen, and away beyond, the more prominent elevations of the 



FIRST POTOMAC CAMPAIGN. 



127 



plateau were visible. It was reasonable to expect that the 
wooded slopes beyond were filled with armed men, although 
not a glimpse could be seen of an enemy. A wary general 
would not neglect such an opportunity of checking the 
advance of an adversary, and the country had at that time 
evidence that every movement of our army was instantly 
communicated to the rebel commanders. The scene which 
broke upon the view of our troops as they emerged from the 
shade of the woods was one of beauty. The limped water 
danced over the rocky channel of the stream. The leaves 
murmured in the gentle summer breeze; all beyond seemed 
lulled to sleep. The quiet was soon broken by the storm and 
roar of battle. Two twenty pound Parrott guns were ordered 
to occupy the rise where the first observations were made. 
They opened upon the opposite hills in different directions, 
without meeting with a response. Ayer's battery was put in 
position on the right and joined its thunder to that of the 
Parrott guns. Suddenly a battery placed near the base of the 
opposite hill, commanding the ford, replied rapidly. Troops 
were seen moving over the plateau, but it could not be deter- 
mined whether they were moving to, or from, the Junction 
at Manassas. Under this fire Richardson's brigade was 
ordered to advance along the skirts of the timber, and take, 
if possible, the opposing battery. They moved up in splendid 
order little dreaming of the reception awaiting them. When 
the column was fairly within the ambuscade, a deadly fire 
was opened upon them from infantry concealed in the thickets. 
No force, however brave or determined, could live amid such 
a shower of leaden hail. After struggling in vain to unmask 
the enemy, our infantry retired slowly, and in order, to the 
shelter of their guns. An artillery duel was kept up for a 
short time, after which the entire force returned to Centreville. 
Our loss was sixty killed and about two hundred and fifty 
wounded. The official report of Beauregard makes the rebel 
loss of killed and wounded at sixty-eight. 

Although this movement of Gen. Tyler's was intended 
simply as a reconnoissance, it assumed the proportions of a 
battle, and as a prelude to the conflict which shortly after 
shook like an earthquake the Plains of Manassas, its impor- 






128 



FIRST POTOMAC CAMPAIGN. 



tance can not be over-estimated. Exaggerated reports of the 
action were carried back by stragglers, and heralded over the 
country; but in no military view can it be regarded as a 
defeat. The effect was doubtless to dampen the ardor of the 
Union forces, and to inspire confidence in their opponents. 
It was certainly an error of judgment in Gen. Tyler, to push 
his infantry, in force, farther than was absolutely necessary 
to gain the information which the engineers, accompanying 
the expedition, were instructed to obtain. 

Gen. McDowell's first plan of attack was to turn the 
enemy's right, by moving his main column upon the Junction. 
This plan was altered, and the battle fought upon the extreme 
left. 

THE BATTLE OF MANASSAS. 

In the early morning of the twenty-first of July, while 
the stars were still twinkling in the sky, Gen. McDowell put 
his column in motion for the attack. The troops moved by 
different roads. The plan was admirable. The force was 
divided into three divisions. One, under Gen. Tyler, was to 
march by the Warrenton pike, and threaten the bridge, while 
one brigade (Richardson's) was to move to Blackburn's Ford, 
and menace that part of the line, and guard against a flank 
movement by the enemy. The second, under Hunter, was to 
move on the same road, to a point between Bull Run and 
Cub Run, thence march to the right to Sudley's Ford, where 
they were to cross the stream, turn to the left, and uncover a 
ford between Sudley's and the bridge. Heintzelman was to 
follow Hunter to the middle ford, and there unite with him. 
The demonstrations against Stone Bridge and Blackburn's 
Ford were feints to cover the real attack; the full force of 
which, under Hunter and Heintzelman, was to be hurled 
against the left of the enemy's line. The fifth division, under 
Col. Miles, was to be held in reserve at Centreville, and to 
this division, Richardson's brigade — which was to threaten 
Blackburn's Ford — was temporarily attached. 

Tyler's division and Richardson's brigade were early in 
position. The attacking columns of Hunter and Heintzel- 



FIRST POTOMAC CAMPAIGN. 129 

man having a longer march, did not reach the crossing until 
the morning was well advanced. Hunter pushed across the 
stream, and, without much opposition, formed his line. The 
enemy's pickets fell back as he advanced. Tyler's guns had 
been playing from half-past six o'clock, and lower down the 
creek, the roar of Richardson's artillery was heard. Hunter's 
advance brigade, under Burnside, soon became engaged, and 
the supports, rapidly as they could be hurried up, joined in 
the exciting work. Heintzelman, failing to find the expected 
ford below Sudley's, pushed forward after Hunter, and threw 
his division across, and upon, the enemy. They were upon 
the plains of Manassas. The plateau was rolling, broken by 
ravines, and dotted with groves and cedar thickets. Behind 
the crests of these hills, the enemy concealed his infantry. 
From their slopes, his artillery belched forth storms of shot 
and shell. The solid masses of the Union army moved on 
slowly, pushing back, by their irresistible weight, the enemy's 
line. The roar of the batteries was incessant. The crash of 
musketry, mingling with the thunder of the artillery, rolled 
in loud volumes of sound over hill and dale. The echoes 
of the strife from that famous and ill-fated field, fell upon 
listening ears at Washington. 

The Confederate commander was not long deceived by the 
feint upon Stone Bridge and Blackburn's. He saw where 
the weight of the attack was to fall, and made his prepara- 
tions to meet it. He drew in his line from Union Mills, and 
htaried up his brigades to strengthen his left, now giving way 
before the fierce onslaught made upon it. Onward and still 
onward the divisions of Hunter and Heintzelman pressed, 
until they had crossed the Warrenton road. The struggle at 
several points was desperate and deadly. The enemy clung 
obstinately to his ground, and only left it whenibrced away 
by an overpowering hand to hand encounter. Sullenly and 
doggedly he seized the next shelter, and hurled back 
defiance to his flushed and confident adversary. About 
noon, Sherman's and Keyes' brigades, of Tyler's division, 
crossed the Run. Sherman leads his infantry up the rugged 
sides of the creek at a point inaccessible to- artillery, and joins 
in the fight. The tide rolls on. Keyes' brigade sweeps the 
Vol. I.— 9. 



130 FIRST POTOMAC CAMPAIGN. 

road down the stream, until they pass below Stone Bridge. 
The engineers clear away the abattis placed there. Now 
victory is with the Union arms. The enemy is held at bay 
on his right and right center. His left flank is doubled and 
dispirited. But our forces, having for hours toiled in the 
broiling sun, become wearied and exhausted. The turning 
point in the battle has arrived. All the reserves of the 
enemy have been hurried up from the Junction, and still he 
is not able to check the steady advance of the Northern 
troops. The Confederate Generals are meditating plans for 
retreat. But, lo! clouds of dust from the direction of the 
Junction, "betokening the arrival of the remnant of the 
Shenandoah army, are clearly visible. The cry, "Kirby 
Smith is advancing," flies from lip to lip along the Confed- 
erate line. Cheer after cheer arises. Their drooping spirits 
are revived. Strong in hope, they nerve themselves for a last 
desperate struggle. The victorious Union troops are far 
within the Confederate lines. The columns of Hunter and 
Heintzelman have drawn in the left, and are nearing the 
brigades of Tyler. On a hill, below the Warrenton road, the 
enemy has planted a powerful battery. This hill is the key 
to his position. For its possession the final struggle is made. 
The conflict sways with varying fortunes around its slopes. 
Through sheer exhaustion, there is a lull in the storm of 
battle. Our w T earied men seek rest on the trampled green 
sward beneath them. The guns cool their heated throats. 
But a long rest can not be expected while the fate of<fcwo 
vast armies hangs in the balance. Emboldened by the arrival 
of reinforcements, the enemy advanced from their cover behind 
the crest of the hill. The batteries again belch forth fire and 
death from their heated throats. The enemy rush upon our 
lines. Three times is Griffin's battery assailed. Three times 
are the bold assailants driven back. On other parts of our 
lines, their furious charges are also repelled. Our batteries 
are advanced. The hillsides swarm with fresh troops, who 
pour a murderous fire into our infantry supports. One regi- 
ment runs, another follows. The brigade of regulars, under 
Major Sykes, moves from the left to the right of Hunter's 
line, to cover the retreat. The order to fall back to Centre- 



FIRST POTOMAC CAMPAIGN. 131 

ville is given. The day is lost. The battle of Manassas is 
over! 

THE RETREAT 

Commenced, and that retreat soon degenerated into a panic. 
It is now known, from the reports of the rebel generals, that 
they intended to have attacked McDowell's force at Centre- 
ville, had he not moved upon their works, and offered battle 
to them on their chosen ground. Their route would have 
been over the direct road from Manassas Junction by Black- 
burn's ford. All through the terrible conflict the dream of 
throwing an overwhelming force upon McDowell's left, by 
this channel, haunted the brain of Beauregard, and even 
when leading the furious charges from the left of his line 
upon the right of McDowell, he watched for a favorable 
opportunity to make that flank movement. McDowell was 
aware of the risk he ran. The attention of the commandant 
of the reserves was directed especially to that point. Daviess, 
who outranked Richardson, and had assumed command of 
the forces on the left, blockaded with fallen timber every 
approach to his position. An attempt to throw a column of 
infantry and cavalry upon him was gallantly repulsed. 

The brigades of Sherman and Keyes, from Tyler's central 
position at the bridge, had crossed, and shared in the perils 
of the fight on the plains, leaving Schenck's brigade to hold 
the road, engage the batteries, and if possible clear away the 
abattis which prevented a direct advance by the Warrenton 
pike. This duty was well performed. Carlisle's battery with 
six brass guns, and two twenty pound Parrotts, under com- 
mand of Lieut. Haines, poured a storm of shot and shell into 
the works erected to sweep the approaches to the bridge, and 
the demonstrations of the infantry against the opposing bat- 
teries kept a large force of that arm from moving to the aid 
of their hard pressed battalions on the left. 

The retreat — the rout — the panic. Who can describe it? 
Who can realize it? It is difficult to form a true conception 
of the horrible confusion of the flight of those terror stricken 
men. Chaos is the only word sufficiently expressive to con- 



132 FIRST POTOMAC CAMPAIGN. 

vey an idea of it. The directing mind had lost all power 
over the animal man, and matter animate and inanimate, 
tumbled together in one inextricable mass of confusion. 
Such a scene was probably never before witnessed. Thou- 
sands of civilians — from the members of Congress down to 
the most abject of the sycophantic expectants of govern- 
mental contracts — confident of an easy victory for our troops, 
had followed the army until they were within long range of 
the enemy's guns. When the tide, which had for hours 
rolled steadily onward to victory, turned, and the receding 
mass threatened to overwhelm them, their terror knew no 
bounds, they threw themselves into the disorganized mass, 
their frenzy adding to its volume and intensity. The scene 
was most disgraceful. Members of Congress and other civil- 
ians had been invited to witness the battle, and were as hila- 
rious in prospect of their expected enjoyment as ever were 
the invited guests of any prince in view of the martial sport 
of the tournament. 

It has been charged, but very unjustly, against those in 
authority, that this scene was so arranged as to take place on 
the Sabbath. Happy the day for our country when our peo- 
ple learn, that so far as right is concerned, men might as well 
attempt to annul God's providential laws, as those which he 
has given for the regulation of man's moral conduct. It 
would involve no greater impiety, or lack of sound judgment, 
for Presidents, Cabinets or Generals, to issue proclamations 
forbidding the eclipse of the sun, or the ebbing and flowing 
of the tide, than it does to issue orders releasing men from 
their obligation to keep the fourth commandment. So soon 
as our forces broke on the right and commenced falling 
back, the enemy threw forward his cavalry, and advanced his 
light batteries in pursuit. The regulars, under Major Sykes, 
presented an unbroken front to the horsemen, and held them 
in check. Had they broken through that wall of steel, and 
mingled with the disorganized and powerless mass, the result 
would have been far more terrible. 

Our right wing crossed the Run without sustaining much 
loss by the enemy's cavalry charges. On the center Schenck's 
brigade checked their advance. Two companies of the 



FIRST POTOMAC CAMPAIGN. 133 

second Ohio breasted a furious charge and sent the assailants 
back with many of their saddles emptied. The ground was 
not well adapted for the operations of cavalry. It was diffi- 
cult for the most dashing horsemen to reach the flanks of 
our columns, but the idea of cavalry had complete possession 
of the minds of the men, and haunted them like a nightmare. 
The word " cavalry," repeated at any point in the line of the 
struggling mass, would cause the most wearied to strain every 
nerve, and to put forth almost superhuman efforts to escape. 

An effort was made to rally the broken forces at Centre- 
ville, but it would have been almost as easy to have checked 
the course of the unchained mountain torrent. The fugitives 
swept on. The road to Washington for its entire length, was 
lined with wearied men, determined to put the Potomac 
between them and the imaginary terrors which pursued 
them. 

The reserves formed at Centreville, and threw up temporary 
defenses. Gen. McDowell called a council of officers at which 
the question of reorganizing at that place was debated. It 
was decided to fall back to the Potomac. Orders were given 
to that effect, and the proud army which a few days before, 
had so confidently marched forth to meet a foe they had 
hoped to conquer, fell back dispirited and in fragments to the 
shelter of the intrenchments at Washington. 

The enemy made no effort to follow up his success. His 
cavalry retired after a few ineffectual efforts upon our rear, 
and we have no evidence that he threw any infantry supports 
to his light batteries across the Run. Indeed he was in no 
condition to do so. He had been severely punished. His 
victory was gained by the death of some of his bravest 
leaders. The drain upon the vitality of his men had left 
him prostrated. His fresh troops and those which had not 
been exhausted in battle were demoralized by their success. 
Raw levies battled against raw levies. The absence of that 
rigid discipline acquired only by long habits of military 
restraint, was severely felt in his lines. With raw troops a 
victory is almost as demoralizing as a defeat. The critical 
time with a commander of such a force is immediately after 
a temporary success. 



134 FIRST POTOMAC CAMPAIGN. 

The losses in the battle were not so great on either side as 
at first represented. Gen. McDowell's loss was four hundred 
and eighty-one killed, one thousand and eleven wounded, and 
one thousand two hundred and sixteen missing; total, two 
thousand seven hundred and eight. The Confederate loss, 
according to their official report, was three hundred and 
ninety-three killed and one thousand two hundred wounded. 

We can not more appropriately close our brief notice of 
this first great battle between Americans, wherein the highest 
degree of courage and endurance was exhibited on both sides, 
than by an extract from the History of the War, by that 
accomplished and graceful writer, Mrs. Ann S. Stephens : 

"There have been rumors of great cruelty on the battle- 
field after the fight was over — of men prowling like fiends 
among the dead, and murdering the wounded; but these 
things should be thrice proven before we believe them of 
American citizens. Rumor is always triple-tongued, and 
human nature does not become demoniac in a single hour. 
One thing is certain, many an act of merciful kindness was 
performed that night, which an honest pen should prefer to 
record. Certain it is that Southern soldiers in many instances 
shared their water — the most precious thing they had — with, 
the wounded Union men. A soldier passing over the field 
found two wounded combatants lying together — one was a 
New Yorker, the other a Georgian. The poor wounded 
fellow from New York cried out piteously for water, and the 
Georgian, gathering up his strength, called out: Tor God's 
sake give him drink; for I called on a New York man for 
water when his column was in retreat, and he ran to the 
trench, at the risk of his life, and brought it to me.' 

" One brave young enemy lost his life, afterpassing through 
all the perils of the battle, in attempting to procure drink for 
his wounded foes. 

" If there were individual instances of cruelty on either 
side, and this is possible — let us remember that there was 
kindness too ; and when the day shall come — God grant it 
may* be quickly — when we are one people again, let the cru- 
elty be forgiven and the kindness only remembered." 



KANAWHA CAMPAIGN. 



CHAPTER V. 

When Gen. McClellan — after the disaster at Manassas — 
was called to the command of the army of the Potomac, 
Gen. Rosecrans, who had been made a Brigadier in the regu- 
lor army, succeeded him in "Western Virginia. The Depart- 
ment was soon afterwards circumscribed by the proposed 
limits of the new State, which it seemed to be the settled 
policy of the controlling element at Wheeling to create. The 
force left for its defense was called the Army of Occupation. 
The rebel army was broken and scattered. The greater por- 
tion of it was captured or driven beyond the territorial lines 
of the department, but it must not be supposed that peace 
and quiet reigned over the wild and rugged region which the 
new commander was left to protect. A spirit of resistance 
to the authority of the Federal Government had taken pos- 
session of the minds of the mountaineers inhabiting the 
border counties. Bands of guerillas roved over the hills 
inaccessible to any regular force, ready to sweep down through 
every unguarded pass upon the loyal settlements. The agents 
of the rebel government were active in promoting discontent, 
in inflaming the passions and arousing the prejudices of the 
simple minded mountaineers. The General had not only to 
capture and destroy these troublesome bands, but also to 
adopt a policy to prevent the spreading of the baleful influ- 
ence which created them. 

On the twenty-fifth of July, 1861, Gen. Rosecrans issued 

135 



136 KANAWHA CAMPAIGN. 

his first general order from Grafton. The three months vol- 
unteers had either left for home or were on their way thither. 
The force remaining was divided into four brigades. The first 
brigade, consisting of six regiments or parts of regiments of 
infantry, one battery of artillery and one company of cavalry, 
occupied the Cheat Mountain region and Tygart's Valley. 
The second and third brigades, consisting of six regiments 
of infantry, two batteries of artillery and one company of 
cavalry, were scattered over the region between the left on 
Cheat Mountain, and the right on the Kanawha. The fourth 
brigade under Gen. Cox, consisting of eight regiments of 
infantry and one company of cavalry occupied the Kanawha 
region. 

These troops were necessarily scattered. The lines of rail- 
road had to be guarded at every bridge, and outposts estab- 
lished far in advance of the depots of supply for the troops. 
Scouting became a prominent feature in the campaign, and 
was reduced to an almost perfect system. To meet the mode 
of warfare adopted by the enemy, it was necessary to have 
small bodies of troops constantly in motion following the 
trail of the guerrillas and finding their hiding places. 

The short season -of seeming inactivity and rest which 
followed Gen. Rosecrans appointment was really one of cease- 
less activity and untiring labor. No great battles were fought, 
nor were there any startling reports received from blood- 
stained fields; but there was hard work performed, and many 
exhibitions of individual courage and endurance were given, 
all of which tended to prove that the Army of Occupation 
possessed the highest soldiery qualities. The mountain region 
became the school for scouts ; there, many who have since 
distinguished themselves took their first lessons in the art of 
war. 

The rebel government was disappointed, but not discour- 
aged, by the rout of their army under Garnett, and the 
failure of Wise to drive Cox from the Kanawha Valley. 
They collected their scattered energies for another effort to 
drive the Federal troops from the seceded counties, which 
they desired to reduce to the authority of the government at 
Richmond. The success of their arms at Manassas had dis- 



KANAWHA CAMPAIGN. 137 

pelled the temporary shadow of their early defeat, and they 
were now confident of their ability to drive our army across the 
Ohio. Gen. Robert E. Lee was appointed by the authorities 
at Richmond to command their forces in Virginia, and was 
ordered to recover the territory to the Ohio border. General 
Lee was, even then, regarded as the ablest officer in the Con- 
federate service. He resigned his commission as Colonel of 
cavalry in our army, to share the fortunes of Virginia — his 
native State — when she renounced her allegiance to the Fed- 
eral Government. His reputation as a scientific soldier in 
the old army was well established. During the Mexican war 
he was on the staff of Gen. Scott, and enjoyed the entire 
confidence of his chief. The popular opinion of the army at 
that period was, that he was entitled to the credit of the plans 
which were so eminently successful from Vera Cruz to the 
City of Mexico. Since that time he had been Superintendent 
of the Academy at West Point, and also Chief of Staff to 
the Commanding General. He had every facility for per- 
fecting himself in all the branches of his profession. It is 
true he had never directed a battle, but he had planned cam- 
paigns or assisted in planning them, and followed Scott's vic- 
torious star from the Gulf to the Halls of the Montezumas. 

That the rebel government felt the conquest of Western 
Virginia to be of prime importance, may be inferred from 
their appointment of Gen. Lee to the command of the forces 
assigned to that duty. Among the Confederate Generals he 
w T as second in rank, but first in all the attributes of a success- 
ful commander. 

Gen. Lee nurried from Richmond by way of Staunton 
with reinforcements. He established his headquarters at 
Huntersville, in Pocahontas county, and called the scattered 
forces of Garnett to his standard. He placed a strong force 
on Buffalo mountain, at the crossing of the Staunton pike, 
extended his line from the Warm Springs in Greenbriar 
county, and matured his plans for bursting through the Fed- 
eral lines and planting the stars and bars on the Custom 
House at Wheeling. What these plans were we have no 
means of knowing, except from the demonstrations made ; 
but they were such as to inspire the Confederate Government 



138 KANAWHA CAMPAIGN. 

with the utmost confidence that the mountain region, with 
its untold mineral wealth, would soon be restored to them. 
Pollard, in his history of the war, says: "Gen. Lee's plan, 
finished drawings of which were sent to the War Department 
at Richmond, was said to have been one of the best laid plans 
that ever illustrated the consummation of the rules of strategy, 
or ever went awry -on account of practical failures in its 
execution." 

It will be seen that the territory, when Gen. Rosecrans 
assumed command was threatened at two points. Gen. Lee, 
with at least sixteen thousand men, was preparing to cross 
Cheat Mountain, while Wise and Floyd were ready to unite 
their commands and sweep down the Kanawha river. 

Gen. Rosecrans had comparatively a small force with which 
to thwart the plans of the Confederate General. In speaking 
of the several districts in which his troops were located we 
will, for convenience, call Cox's brigade on the Kanawha the 
right, the Cheat Mountain division the left, and the small 
detachments on and near the lines of railroad the center. 
The center could be thrown to the support of either wing 
when hard pressed. 

THE KANAWHA. 

This stream, rising in the Blue Ridge Mountains in North 
Carolina, where it is called New River, and flowing in a 
northeasterly direction, breaks through the ridges of the 
Alleghanies, and, after receiving the waters of several large 
tributaries, becomes navigable before it empties into the Ohio. 
It is the outlet to the best coal and salt region in the State of 
Virginia. The salt works on the Kanawha were famous 
through the southwest. On the Ohio and Mississippi the 
fleets of salt boats, slowly floating with the current, had 
been familiar to the inhabitants along their banks from child- 
hood ; who had been accustomed to look to the region, from 
whence they came, for an unfailing supply of the essential 
article with which they were laden. It was one of the wild 
dreams of the North, that the stoppage of the supply of salt 
would materially aid in starving the South to submission. 



KANAWHA CAMPAIGN. 139 

The South dreaded the loss of the salt region as a calamity 
they could not repair. Gen. "Wise had been early sent to the 
Kanawha region, and labored hard, with tongue and pen, to 
raise an army for its defense. We can easily believe, that 
the doughty Ex-Governor, like some of our own wordy war- 
riors — who for years had planned political campaigns in theii 
closets, and fought great battles on the stump — could wield 
the pen with more grace and skill, than he could the sword. 

Gen. Rosecrans established his headquarters at Clarksburgh, 
took personal direction of the campaign on the Kanawha, 
and directed Gen. Reynolds, who had been appointed to the 
command of the Cheat Mountain division, to hold Gen. Lee 
in check. He organized a force to proceed by way of Weston 
and Sutton to the Gauley, intending himself to follow and 
cut off the retreat of the rebel General, whose roving bands 
of cavalry, under Jenkins, had penetrated to the Ohio River„ 

Gen. Cox, in the meantime, was feeling his way up the 
river from Guyandotte and Point Pleasant, skirmishing with 
Jenkins and his irregular cavalry, who seemed to be swarm- 
ing on every hill and in every valley. Our troops moved by 
land and water. A large fleet of steamers moved cautiously 
up the river scouting the banks to guard against masked bat- 
teries as they advanced. Col. Guthrie, with the First Kentucky 
regiment, was ordered to move from Ravenswood to Cissonville, 
where he would be met by reinforcements. Reaching that place 
by a forced march, he routed a cavalry force, and captured their 
camp, but was unable to proceed further with his train, and 
returned to Ravenswood to follow the main column by boats. 
Gen. Wise was not so absorbed in the construction of his long 
periods, as to decline listening to the reports which reached 
him of the preparations for weaving a military net around 
him. He penetrated the design of the Federal General; and, 
although strongly intrenched at Charleston, fell back to the 
Gauley as Gen. Cox approached. The rebels, to retard pur- 
suit, burned the bridges in their rear. The cavalry of 
Jenkins' hovered round the distant hills, watching the progress 
of events ; but vanished from view at the first whistle of a 
Federal shell. A correspondent, writing at the time, says 
"Jenkins, to us, is an illusion, hovering just beyond our 



140 KANAWHA CAMPAIGN. 

reach, aggravating us by his constant contiguity, but without 
giving us the slightest annoyance in any other manner." It 
is evident Jenkins understood his business. The design of 
such a force is to keep the main body advised of all the 
movements of the approaching enemy, and to cut off any 
reconnoitering party venturing too far ahead of the column. 
When nearing Charleston, Cox's fleet captured the rebel 
steamer Julia Moffitt, laden with wheat, for the rebel camp. 
The main column came upon the first deserted intrenchments 
six miles from the town. It was on the brow of a hill, which 
commanded the road for nearly a mile, and protected by 
abattis of high trees, and stones rolled from the hill sides. 
The woods beyond were filled with brash tents. Everything 
around indicated that the rebels, in large force, had recently 
been there. Their position was well chosen, and almost 
impregnable against a direct assault. Further along, across 
a swampy ravine, was the blazing remains of a bridge, which 
the retreating force had fired. The summit of the hill near 
Charleston was girdled, with intrenchments; so that, if the 
outer works had been stormed, the victors would have to 
press for miles through a lane of fire before reaching the 
point they were built to protect. 

On the twenty-fifth of July Gen. Cox entered the town 
closely following the rebels. The splendid suspension bridge 
over the Elk River, which empties into the Kanawha, had been 
destroyed. The main column passed in pursuit; and, after a 
march of four days, reached Gauley Bridge, without over- 
taking the enemy. He had retired from that point before the 
arrival of our troops, and destroyed the bridge in his rear. 
Pursuit beyond this point was not deemed advisable. A base 
of supplies was there established for operations in front, when 
the time would arrive for a forward movement in the direc- 
tion of Lewisburgh. The design of Gen. Rosecrans was to 
have a strong force in the rear of Wise; but his precipitate 
flight, before a column of sufficient strength could be pre- 
pared, with a train of supplies, to move across the rugged 
country between Clarksburgh and the Gauley, foiled that 
design. 

Gen. Cox erected a temporary bridge over the river, forti- 



KANAWHA CAMPAIGN. 141 

iied his position, and sent out strong scouting parties in front 
to feel the enemy. The adventures in these expeditions were 
frequently of the most romantic nature. They were always 
hazardous; but there was an excitement attending them so 
different from the dull monotony of camp routine, that vol- 
unteers were always ready to follow the most dashing leader 
through the most dangerous roads. At all the frontier posts 
active bodies of men were constantly in motion during the 
month of August, feeling the enemy in front, and breaking 
up dens of guerrillas in the mountain fastnesses. 

THE POLICY WITH PRISONERS. 

The policy adopted by the Commanding General was firm 
but conciliatory. Depredations committed upon peaceable 
citizens were severely punished. All supplies taken or pur- 
chased for the use of the army were paid for. Arrests on 
mere suspicion, and without strong proof, were strictly for- 
bidden ; but armed persons arrested, were sent to the military 
prison at Wheeling, Va., or Columbus, Ohio. In the early 
stage of the struggle, the unscrupulous hordes who haunted 
the mountains, and preyed alike on citizens and the army, 
wh mi arrested, were, upon taking the oath of allegiance, 
released. In some instances, the same men were captured 
two or three times, and as often turned loose after kissing the 
book. The imbecility of such a proceeding was fully dis- 
cussed among the troops. If the men were guilty, why not 
punish them ? If innocent, why waste our energies in hunt- 
ing them down? Thus the men reasoned. 

It became apparent, that unless the policy in reference to 
captured guerrillas was soon changed, our men so long as they 
could make good use of their guns, would not impose on 
themselves the trouble of bringing captured guerillas into 
camp. A well authenticated anecdote illustrates the feeling 
then prevalent among the soldiers. 

A squad of men resting during a fatiguing tramp, caught 
on a rocky ledge, a rattle snake in the very act of springing 
upon them. They captured it and tied a withe around its 
neck. They admired its spots, counted its rattles, treated it 



142 KANAWHA CAMPAIGN. 

very tenderly and jested over the anxiety of the little snakes 
for the return of their parent. When the corporal ordered 
the men to fall in, one of them, looking at his snakeship, 
asked "what will we do with our prisoner?' 1 "Swear him 
and let him go," said the corporal. 

Our soldiers were greatly incensed against the inhabitants 
of the guerrilla districts. Their determination not to take 
any more prisoners, was abandoned when the wholesome 
order, subjecting the guilty to punishment and protecting 
the innocent from molestation, was issued. There were 
many who avoided taking any active part in the contest. 
The role of neutrality in the region between the advance 
guards of the two armies was a difficult one to play. Yet 
there were many, untutored in the diplomacy of the world, 
who had never been beyond the narrow valley which bounded 
their vision, unless to mill or market, who played it with 
consummate skill, and escaped uninjured in person and prop- 
erty. The duty of a division commander, to investigate the 
numerous charges preferred against citizens, was one requir- 
ing much wisdom and prudence. He had frequently to stand 
as an arbiter, between his own soldiers and a divided people, 
whom he was commissioned to protect from their own dis- 
sensions. 

That this duty was performed, during this campaign, with 
strict regard to justice, the impartial historian must admit. 
Gen. Rosecrans, to guide the division and post commanders, 
and to instruct the people in the policy to be pursued, pub- 
lished the following address, and caused it to be widely cir- 
culated: 

" To the Loyal Inhabitants of Western Virginia : 

"You are the vast majority of the people. If the princi- 
ple of self-government is to be respected, you have a right to 
stand in the position you have assumed, faithful to the con- 
stitution and laws of Virginia as they were before the ordi- 
nance of secession. 

"The Confederates have determined, at all hazards, to 
destroy the Government which, for eighty years, has defended 
our rights and given us a name among the nations. Contrary 



KANAWHA CAMPAIGN. 143 

to your interests and your wishes, they have brought war 
upon your soil. Their tools and dupes told you you must 
vote for secession as the only means to insure peace; that 
unless you did so, hordes of Abolitionists would overrun you, 
plunder your property, steal your slaves, abuse your wives 
and daughters, seize upon your lands, and hang all those who 
opposed them. 

"By these and other atrocious falsehoods they alarmed 
you, and led many honest and unsuspecting citizens to vote 
for secession. Neither threats, nor fabrications, nor intimi- 
dations, sufficed to carry Western Virginia, against the inter- 
ests and wishes of its people, into the arms of secession. 

"Enraged that you dared to disobey their behests, Eastern 
Virginians, who had been accustomed to rule you and count 
your votes, and ambitious recreants from among yourselves, 
disappointed that you would not make good their promises, 
have conspired to tie you to the desperate fortunes of the 
Confederacy or drive you from your homes. 

"Between submission to them and subjugation or expul- 
sion they leave you no alternative. You say you do not wish 
to destroy the old Government, under which you have lived 
so long and peacefully; they say you shall break it up. You 
say you wish to remain citizens of the United States ; they 
reply, you shall join the Southern Confederacy, to which the 
Richmond junta has transferred you, and to carry their will, 
their Jenkins, Wise, Jackson, and other conspirators, pro- 
claim upon your soil a relentless and neighborhood war; 
their misguided or unprincipled followers re-echo their cry, 
threatening fire and sword, hanging and expulsion to all who 
oppose their arbitrary designs. They have set neighbor 
against neighbor and friend against friend ; they have intro- 
duced among you warfare only known among savages. In 
violation of the laws of nations and humanity, they have 
proclaimed that private citizens may and ought to make war. 

"Under this bloody code, peaceful citizens, unarmed trav- 
elers, and single soldiers, have been shot down, and even the 
wounded and defenseless have been killed; scalping their 
victims is all that is wanting to make their warfare like that 
which seventy or eighty years ago was waged by the Indians 



144 KANAWHA CAMPAIGN. 

against the white race on this very ground. You have no 
alternatives left you hut to unite as one man in the defense 
of your homes, for the restoration of law and order, or be 
subjugated or expelled from the soil. 

"I therefore earnestly exhort you to take the most prompt 
and vigorous measures to put a stop to neighborhood and 
private wars; you must remember that the laws are sus- 
pended in Eastern Virginia, which has transferred itself to 
the Southern Confederacy. The old Constitution and laws 
of Virginia are only in force in Western Virginia. These 
laws you must maintain. 

"Let every citizen, without reference to past political opin- 
ions, unite with his neighbors, to keep these laws in opera- 
tion, and thus prevent the country from being desolated by 
plunder and violence, whether committed in the name of 
Secessionism or Unionism. 

"I conjure all those who have hitherto advocated the 
doctrine of Secessionism as a political opinion, to consider 
that now its advocacy means war against the peace and inter- 
ests of Western Virginia; it is an invitation to the Southern 
Confederates to come in and subdue you, and proclaims that 
there can be no law nor right until this is done. 

"My mission among you is that of a fellow citizen, charged 
by the Government to expel the arbitrary force which domi- 
neered over you, to restore that law and order, of which you 
have been robbed,, and to maintain your right to govern 
yourselves under the Constitution and Laws of the United 
States. 

" To put an end to the savage war waged by individuals 
who without warrant of military authority, lurk in the 
bushes and waylay messengers, or shoot sentries, I shall be 
obliged to hold the neighborhood in which these outrages 
are committed as responsible, and unless they raise the hue 
and cry and pursue the offenders, deal with them as accesso- 
ries to the crime. 

"Unarmed and peaceful citizens shall be protected, the 
rights of private property respected, and only those who are 
found enemies of the Government of the United States and 
the peace of Western Virginia will be disturbed. Of these 



KANAWHA CAMPAIGN. 145 

I shall require absolute certainty that they will do no mis- 
chief. 

" Put a stop to needless arrests and the spread of malicious 
reports. Let each town and district choose live of its most 
reliable and energetic citizens a committee of public safety, 
to act in concert w T ith the civil and military authorities and 
be responsible for the preservation of peace and good order. 

" Citizens of Western Virginia, your fate is mainly in your 
own hands. If you allow yourselves to be trampled under 
foot by hordes of disturbers, plunderers and murderers, your 
land will become a desolation. If you stand firm for law and 
order and maintain your rights you may dwell together 
peacefully and happily as in former days." 

THE GAULEY. 

This stream, which unites with "New river, and forms the 
Great Kanawha, rises in the Greenbriar mountains, and 
drains but a portion of three counties until it loses its name 
by a union of waters. The army of Gen. Cox went into 
camp just below the junction, and at the falls, of the 
Kanawha, where the waters of the Gauley and New rivers, 
after gliding through the hills, leap in loving embrace over 
the rocky ledge, and are lost to view by sweeping around the 
base of a jutting bluff. At this point the famed valley dwin- 
dles to a mere gorge. The mountains roll their rugged sides 
almost to the waters edge, leaving barely room for an encamp- 
ment and a road. There are no broad valleys or rolling 
uplands; no smiling fields covered with golden grain tempt- 
ing the eye. Above and around are high mountains which 
seem dovetailed into each other, for the apparent purpose of 
twisting the river into the shape of a corkscrew. The spot 
was romantic, and, as a military position, very strong. 

The men soon became tired of gazing upon the monoto- 
nous sides of the huge mountains, which, like prison walls, 
seemed to bar them from the outer world. The desire to 
advance became a passion. The heavy details for guards and 
outposts in such a position, soon weary and dishearten the 
soldier, and he longs for the bivouac and the march. 
Vol. L— 10. 



146 KANAWHA CAMPAIGN. 

CROSS LANES. 

On Sunday morning, the twenty-fifth of August, Col. Tyler, 
with the Seventh Ohio regiment, was ordered to march to 
Summersville to disperse or capture a small force of the enemy 
reported there. He moved up to Twenty Mile creek, where 
he left his train, and advancing his regiment a few miles, he 
scouted the country in his front and on his flanks for several 
miles, but could not ascertain the number or position of the 
enemy. A few pickets or videttes were discovered and driven 
back into the hills. Night coming on, the regiment bivouaced 
at Cross Lanes. Early in the morning, while the men were 
cooking their breakfast, the pickets immediately around the 
camp were driven in, followed by a furious charge of cavalry 
and infantry. The men flew to arms, but the onslaught was 
so furious and unexpected that they could not be formed 
under the galling fire poured upon them. They fought 
bravely, but it was individual effort, and indiscriminate and 
hand to hand resistance against an organized attack. They 
were forced to fly to save themselves from destruction. Com 
pauies A and C on the flanks, formed and retired fighting to 
the woods, a distance of three-quarters of a mile. The cav- 
alry charge along the road cut the regiment nearly in two. 
Col. Tyler with one portion retreated to Gauley Bridge. Major 
Casement with the remainder took to the mountain. After a 
circuitous march of one hundred miles along Elk river, they 
reached Charleston foot-sore and almost exhausted with hun- 
ger and fatigue. The train was saved. Capt. Baggs, of the 
Virginia scouts, called "Snake Hunters," was at the bivouac 
when the attack was made, and seeing the hoplessness of 
resistance, hurried back to the train, set it in motion, and con- 
ducted it safely to camp. 

This affair caused great excitement at the time, particularly 
in Ohio. The first exaggerated reports represented the regi- 
ment "cut to pieces" and the men "butchered," but as the 
light of truth broke in, it took its place in the public mind, 
as a mere affair of outposts to be expected in all movements 
of an army. Col. Tyler suffered himself to be surprised, but 
there was nothing unsoldierly or censurable in the conduct 



KANAWHA CAMPAIGN. 147 

of his officers or men. Under circumstances calculated to 
appall the veteran soldier, they were surprised by an over- 
whelming force, and fought while there was the faintest hope 
of holding their ground, and, even when overpowered, cut 
their way out singly and in squads. The loss, when the 
stragglers from the mountains reached camp, was ascertained 
to be fifteen killed and thirty wounded. Capt. SchutclifF and 
several of his men were taken prisoners. The attacking 
force was not so large as at first represented. The tendency 
on such occasions is always to magnify the number of the 
enemy. 

THE MARCH TO THE GAULEY. 

Gen. Rosecrans, having thoroughly organized a strong col- 
umn at Clarksburgh, took up his line of march for the Gau- 
ley, on the first of September, moving though Lewis, Braxton 
and Nicholas counties, via Weston, Jacksonville, Braxton C. 
H., and Summersville. Floyd was known to be on the river 
near Summersville entrenching for a stand, and establishing 
a base for movements down the Kanawha Valley, in the 
event of the Federal force in that region being reduced. 
The recent attack on the regiment of Col. Tyler, confirmed 
the intelligence received from citizens that Floyd had con- 
centrated a large force for a vigorous campaign. His cavalry 
scouted the mountains in the counties through which Gen. 
Rosecrans would pass, coaxing all who could be coaxed, and 
forcing others to join his standard. 

The march was over one of the wildest mountain roads in 
Virginia. The long trains wound around the rugged slopes, 
climbed the steep hills, dipped into the beds of streams, and 
passed through defiles, where the huge cragged rocks seemed 
almost to meet overhead. At Sutton the scattered outposts 
were called in, and joined the advancing column. Then 
onward swept the army over still higher hills, and along 
deeper defiles, the romance of the scenery increasing at every 
step. The army, leaving the valley of Big Birch Creek on 
the morning of the ninth, began to climb the mountain. 
After a tortuous winding of six miles, the summit was 



148 KANAWHA CAMPAIGN. 

reached, when a magnificent scene burst upon the view of the 
weary soldiers. The point they had reached overlooked the 
surrounding ranges, and onward, so far as the eye could reach, 
rose ranges of tree-topped hills, like the billows of the 
ocean, growing smaller as they receded, until lost in the dim 
haze of blue which bounded the vision. The advance had 
scarcely passed the summit when picket firing commenced. 
The enemy had an advance camp just beyond, called "Mud- 
dlethy Bottom." Their videttes hastened in to give the alarm. 
Our advance moved on, and found the camp fires burning 
brightly. It was near night. Fearing an ambush, the cavalry 
was recalled from the pursuit of the flying enemy, and the 
army bivouaced for the night. 

The vanguard were in motion at four o'clock on the morn- 
ing of the tenth, for Summersville, eight miles distant. As 
the scouts ascended the crest of a hill, overlooking the little 
town, a party of mounted rebels were seen hastening down 
the road. Stewart's Indiana cavalry gave chase. It soon 
became an exciting race. The shots from the Hoosier car- 
bines only increased the speed of the fugitives. After a long 
ride, Capt. Stewart succeeded in capturing two prisoners, and 
in bringing them into camp. The Thirty-Sixth Virginia had 
left the town a few hours before the main column of Gen. 
Rosecrans entered it. 

CARNIFAX FERRY. 

The army passed through Summersville about eight o'clock 
A. M., Benham's brigade being in the advance. The conflict- 
ing reports from scouts and citizens rendered it extremely 
difficult to obtain an intelligent idea of the position or strength 
of the enemy. He was reported to be at Cross Lanes, and at 
several other points, in large force. That his camp was near 
was evident, and that he felt secure, was inferred from 
the fact that no attempt had been made to block the roads 
against the advance of our army. Benham's skirmishers felt 
every foot of the road in advance, and scoured the jungle 
which skirted it on either side. The country, after leaving 
the village, is broken and thickly wooded. About three 



KANAWHA CAMPAIGN. 149 

miles from the town, a road was reached, which led through 
ravines, thickly shaded with timber, to a ferry on the Gauley. 
Col. McCook was sent down with Schaumberg's Chicago 
cavalry to destroy the boat. He reached the river. The 
boat was on the opposite shore. Two men plunged into the 
stream to bring it over. This drew the fire from the thicket 
beyond. Col. McCook sent back for a support of infantry. 
The gallant cavalrymen brought over the boat, which was 
scuttled and sent over the falls below. 

About noon, the column halted at the forks of the road, 
one branch leading to Cross Lanes and Gauley Bridge, the 
other to Lewisburgh via Carnifax Ferry. It was here ascer- 
tained, that Floyd was intrenched on the heights overlooking 
Carnifax Ferry. Arrangements were at once made to recon- 
noiter the position. Columns were posted on the hills in the 
rear, and bodies of skirmishers occupied the ridges in front. 

Gen. Benham's brigade was sent by the direct road to the 
Ferry. They moved rapidly until they arrived within a mile 
of the works, when they halted. Gens. Rosecrans and Ben- 
ham made a reconnoisance. The position was strong. The 
river swept around a bend in the rear of the works. In front 
a crest of hills, crowned with fortifications, reached across the 
semi-circle formed by the bend. The valley, at the base of 
the hills, was thickly wooded. Their main battery was placed 
to sweep the approach by the road. Some distance in front 
was an open field; still nearer was another on a small plateau, 
where one of the spurs of the defensive hills juts out on the 
line of the road. Gen. Benham moved up with the Tenth 
Ohio, Col. Lytle's. The road through the forest was narrow 
and muddy. Suddenly turning an angle, the skirmishers 
were exposed to a heavy fire. The advanced camp was routed, 
and driven hastily into the works. The remainder of Ben- 
ham's brigade, the Twelfth Ohio, Col. Lowe's, and the Thir- 
teenth, Col. Smith's, with McMullen and Snyder's batteries, 
advanced and occupied the abandoned camp. The Tenth 
still pushed on. What was intended to be a reconnoisance 
in force, ended in a battle. Debouching upon the clear ground, 
a fire of musketry, grape and canister, was opened upon the 
Tenth. The regiment staggered under the murderous fire. 



150 KANAWHA CAMPAIGN. 

They instantly rallied. The aim of the enemy was uncertain. 
The shots of artillery and musketry rose like the smoke to 
the tree tops; only the random shots were effective. The 
two rifle guns of Capt. Schneuder, and the four mountain 
howitzers of Capt. McMullen, were ordered up, put in posi- 
tion on the edge of the woods, and threw shells into the 
right of the intrenchments. Gen. Benham, after carefully 
scanning the works, concluded the weakest point was to his 
left. The Twelfth and Thirteenth regiments were ordered to 
advance across the deep valley, and attack under cover of the 
woods. Adjutant General Hartsuff led them. It was here 
the gallant and lamented Col. Lowe fell, pierced by a musket 
ball in the head, while w T aving his sword and cheering on his 
men. Gen. Rosecrans, under a heavy fire, sped along the 
hills to the right of the road, and formed McCook's brigade — 
the Third, Ninth, and Twenty-Eighth Ohio. McCook was 
supported by Scammon's brigade a little in the rear. The 
battle raged furiously on the left and center of our line. 
Col. Lytle, becoming impatient, led, without orders, his fiery 
Irishmen across the cleared space, to storm the battery in his 
front. He fell wounded. His force, too weak for such an 
undertaking, retired in good order to the shelter of the 
woods. 

At length the enemy's fire slackened. He shifted his guns 
as if sorely pressed at certain points. It was determined to 
feel his left. McCook's brigade was ordered to advance. 
Adjutant General Hartsuff volunteered to lead them into 
position, having carefully reconnoitered the ground in com- 
pany with the Commanding General. Col. McCook shouted 
to his "Dutchmen" with a wild cheer. They answered the 
summons. The Ninth, McCook's own regiment, and the 
Twenty-Eighth, Col. Moore's, led, Col. Porschner's Third fol- 
lowing a little in the rear. Over densely w r ooded ravines, 
under a galling fire of musketry, McCook and his Germans 
moved rapidly. The courage and daring of their leader 
seemed to inspire every man of the command. The Ninth 
had attained a position flanking a rebel battery; and were 
about to rush upon it, when orders were given to halt. It 
was dusk when the brigade moved to the attack. In those 



KANAWHA CAMPAIGN. 151 

shaded ravines, night, with pitchy darkness, soon follows 
twilight. The battle had raged for four hours. Only the 
dim outline of the strong works were visible. Prudence 
dictated that the men should not be exposed to ambuscades 
on ground, every inch of w T hich was familiar to the enemy, 
while to us it w T as an unmapped wilderness. The curtain of 
night dropped upon the scene, and the battle of Carnifax 
Ferry was ended. 

The army had marched seventeen miles, scouted the woods, 
hills and ravines on the line of march, and fought the enemy 
in his chosen fortified camp. The regiments, wearied and 
exhausted, slept on the ground they occupied when the battle 
closed. Every effort was made by the Commanding General 
and his vigilant staff, to guard against a sortie, and to prevent 
a retreat. It was feared the wily Floyd would slip away in 
the night, if he did not make a dash at our lines. But the 
total ignorance of our Generals respecting the country, and 
the thick darkness, made it impossible to discover his avenues 
for retreat, much less to guard them. The intention w T as to 
storm the works in the morning; but when morning broke, 
it was found the enemy had put the turbulent stream between 
his force and ours, had burnt the bridge, and sunk the flats 
«>n which he had crossed. The General was anxious to pursue, 
the officers and men were wild for the chase, but the roaring 
torrent was between them and the retreating foe. Our force 
actually engaged at Carnifax Ferry did not exceed four thou- 
sand men. The nature of the ground rendered it imprac- 
ticable to use the whole force. With the exception of Stew- 
art's Indiana, and Schaumberg's Chicago, cavalry, our troops 
were all from Ohio. The Southern accounts state that 
Floyd's force was seventeen hundred. They fought behind 
intrenchments, and lost, according to their own report, one 
killed and ten wounded. Our loss was fifteen killed and sev- 
enty wounded. 

On the twelfth, McCook's brigade crossed the river, and 
found the roads so obstructed, that all idea of successful 
pursuit was abandoned. 

Gen. Floyd fell back to Dogwood Gap ; from thence to the 
summit of Big Sewell Mountain. After resting there a few 



152 



KANAWHA CAMPAIGN. 



days, he retreated to Meadow Bluff, to cover the approaches 
to Lewisburgh, the principal town in South- Western Virginia. 
Gen. Wise, who was Floyd's junior, refused to follow his 
superior officer, and intrenched himself in Fayette county, 
calling his stronghold Camp Defiance. Here we must leave 
these two belligerent chieftains, while we trace, in another 
portion of the rugged mountains of their native State, the 
discomfiture of their master in the art of war. 




'eibrJ-C.Bu.ttra.-Sesr^* 



^.^ ^<^^ 



COL. SIGN S_ BASS. 
30^ Indiana Reg* 



CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 



CHAPTER VI. 

The Cheat Mountain campaign in the summer and fall of 
1861, has been but imperfectly understood by the great mass 
of our people. Opening at a time, when the nation was 
bewildered by the unexpected defeat at Manassas, and con- 
tinuing through a period when all eyes were directed, either 
to the gathering hosts on the Potomac, or to the struggle in 
Missouri and the South- West, involving the opening of the 
Mississippi, the central defensive chain was regarded as 
comparatively unimportant. The Cheat Mountain link in 
that chain was scarcely ever thought of, except by those who 
had personal interests at stake, or whose immediate friends 
were in that portion of the Army of Occupation. When 
Western Virginia was thought of, the forward movement of 
Gen. Posecrans to the valley of the Kanawha, stood out in 
relief, and obscured the more humble part of those who kept 
watch and ward at the North-Western gate. The defeat at 
Manassas had not entirely sobered the minds of our people. 
They still looked upon war through rose-colored spectacles. 
The idle dreams in which they had so long indulged, had not 
yet been dispelled. They still loved to contemplate a Gen- 
eral mounted on a fiery charger bedizened with gold lace, 
having a sword flashing the rays of the sun in a circle around 
his head. Their beau ideal of a soldier, was a brigandish 
looking boaster with a sabre bayonet, breathing out profane 
imprecations against all who dared to doubt his ability to 

153 



154 CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 

stride from the Potomac to the Rio Grande without having 
even a hair of his moustache singed. While such was the 
popular delusion, in which the leaders of public sentiment 
shared, it is not surprising that a little army, stationed in an 
obscure outpost, should be almost forgotten, although the 
position they held might be the key to a long line of defense. 
The privations they endured and the labor they performed; 
scarcely gave birth to a paragraph, while whole columns 
could be filled with brilliant parades, and the popular ear 
tickled with the workings of the "anaconda." It was a 
period of great expectations ! 

Gen. Reynolds was assigned to the command of the first 
brigade of the Army of Occupation, on the twenty-fourth 
of July, 1861, and joined it immediately afterward. It con- 
sisted of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Indiana, 
Third and Sixth Ohio, detachments of the First and Second 
Virginia regiments, Burdsall's and Bracken's companies of 
cavalry, the former from Ohio, the latter from Indiana, and 
Loomis' Michigan battery. Burdsall's cavalry was with- 
drawn shortly after, leaving but one company of cavalry on 
the line. This force held the roads and passes from Webster 
on the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, to the summit of Chea'. 
Mountain. The Virginia detachments were at Buckuannon, 
watching the guerrillas in Upshur county, and at the passes 
on the line of the main Staunton pike, to prevent raids frorr 
Tucker, Hardy, and Pendleton counties, around the rear of 
the advanced positions of our forces. The Sixth Ohio was 
at Beverly charged with the care of the subsistence depot of 
supplies, and with the duty of scouting the hills, around tc 
the front of the Cheat Mountain station. This was an im- 
portant point, as there were open paths by which infantry 
and cavalry could pass from the Allegheny Mountains at 
Monterey. The Third Ohio and the Thirteenth and Fif- 
teenth Indiana with Loomis's battery, and a part of the cav- 
alry, were at the Pass at the foot of Cheat Mountain, and at 
the junction of the Huntersville and Staunton pikes; and 
the Fourteenth Indiana with forty cavalrymen were on the 
summit, which was the advanced post. 

Gen. Reynolds did not make any immediate change in the 



CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 155 

disposition of the troops, but worked resolutely and actively 
to make himself master of his situation, and to penetrate the 
designs of the enemy, who was evidently gathering a heavy 
force in his front. To aid him he had excellent troops, and 
an able staff. Capt. Geo. S. Rose, of Lafayette, was A. A. 
General; Capt. Levering, of Lafayette, Chief Quartermaster; 
Capt. Tarkington, of Bloomington, Chief Commissary; 
Lieut. McDonald, of the Seventeenth Indiana, and Lieut. 
Anderson of the Sixth Ohio, Aids-de-camp; Capt. Bain- 
bridge, of the regular army, Judge Advocate. 

The men adapted themselves to the duty required of them. 
There were few among them who could not, with compara- 
tive ease, penetrate the thickest jungle or scale the loftiest 
mountain peak. y 

Two young officers, Lieuts. Merrill and Bowen of the 
engineer corps, were attached to the head quarters to plan 
defenses and map the country. Dr. William Fletcher of 
Indianapolis, who had been one of the most active and zeal- 
ous scouts in the three months campaign, was also attached 
to the staff, and was untiring in his efforts not only to obtain 
information of the condition of the enemy, but also to sketch 
the topography of the country. He was a close and correct 
observer; his reports were of great value to the commanding 
General and to the engineer corps. 

After a thorough inspection of the position at the Gap, 
Gen. Reynolds resolved to establish another outpost above 
Huttonsville on the Huntersville road, near the junction of 
the Elk and Valley rivers. The point chosen was admirably 
adapted for defense. There the valley narrows to a width 
of five hundred yards; bold spurs from the Cheat and Rich 
Mountain ranges jut their thickly wooded sides through the 
meadows, and frown at each other across the stream. The 
Fifteenth Indiana, Col. Wagner's was ordered up, and at once 
commenced to fortify the pass. The labor performed by this 
regiment was almost incredible. Col. Wagner kept one-third 
of his force constantly in front, scouting and reconnoitering, 
while the remainder worked in the trenches, or on the hill 
sides, felling timber for abattis. The outlying pickets when 
relieved, returned to camp only to exchange their rifles for 



156 CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 

the spade or the axe. The weary working parties were rested 
by relieving the weary pickets. Their rest was only a change 
of work; yet cheerily the men worked on, jesting about the 
variety which spiced their frontier life. A skirmish in front 
was hailed with delight, and the appearance of any consider- 
able reconnoitering force of the enemy, on the debatable 
ground between the two" armies, was always responded to by 
the little garrison marching to offer them battle in front of 
their intrenchments. 

From the headquarters at the Pass, lines of telegraph were 
constructed to Kimball's camp on the Summit, and to Wag- 
ner's on Elk Water. Paths were blocked out through the 
mountains, across which infantry supports could be thrown 
from one camp to another in ease of attack, without marching 
by the roads around two sides of the triangle. These paths 
were rough, they winded along the slopes of precipitous hills, 
pitched into deep ravines, led out at the same angle at which 
they entered, and twisted in all imaginable shapes around the 
crags strewed promiscuously on the elevations. Difficult as 
they were to travel, after the main roads were cut up by the 
teams, the men preferred them, and soon, except for supply 
trains, they formed the chief channel of communication 
between the camps. The cavalry and infantry were constantly 
in motion. At any hour of the day small squads might have 
been seen dashing over the rude trails, guiding their steeds 
along precipices where it would seem difficult for a goat to 
climb. 

The camp at the Pass was in a nook at the base of the 
ascent to the Summit, on the banks of a lovely limpid moun- 
tain brook, kept constantly full by living springs above, and 
at a point where the crystal waters first sobered their glad- 
some glee to greet the softer scenery of the valley. In front 
rose a high rocky and wooded cliff. From the topmost 
branch of the tallest tree on its Summit, waved the Ameri- 
can flag, which some adventurous spirit had securely fastened 
there. In the rear, the gently swelling hills, tamed to the 
use of man, dotted with open woods where flocks and herds 
were wont to feed, rolled in park-like splendor away until 
lost in the blue line of mountains beyond. The right rested 



CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 157 

in the gorge at the head of the dell, down whose rugged sides 
the mountain torrent, which wound through the camp, leapt 
from rock to rock. The left was open to Tygart's Valley, 
with its beautiful river two miles away, with the Rich Moun- 
tain range in the distance. 

The pike to the Summit ran along the foot of the cliff in 
front of the camp, and then began its winding way up the 
mountain side. At short intervals a "clearing" for a 
mountain farm let the rays of the cheerful sun fall upon the. 
road, when the sun deigned to shine. Enormous overhanging 
rocks, covered with moss and vines, projected into the line 
of the road. From the excavations innumerable springs 
gushed out, whose waters crossed the road and fell down the 
steep declivities on the opposite side. About half way up 
the Summit a magnificent prospect breaks upon the sight. 
Rolling off for miles and seemingly running into a distant 
mountain range, appear a succession of cultivated hills and 
dales, interspersed with farm houses half concealed by the 
beautiful foliage. It is an elevated and varied plateau, high 
above the level of the streams. Approach it and what from 
the mountain stand point, appears soft as an Italian lansdcape 
is destitute of all beauty. The slopes which at a distance 
seem so gentry curved, present, on a close inspection, sharp 
angular points. No vehicle of any sort ever was driven 
over its uneven surface. The pack saddle carries the scanty 
surplus to market, and the grain to mill. Rude bridle paths 
traverse it, and these alone form the medium of communi- 
cation with the outside world. The tillable ground is con- 
lined to small portions of smooth surface where the washings 
from the stony pastures have accumulated and formed a soil 
deep enough for the plow and the spade. * Grazing is the 
chief business of the primitive inhabitants, and the best farms 
are owned by the wealthy landlords of the valleys be ow. 

The traveller, however, who pauses in his ascent to the 
summit of the now historical Cheat Mountain, to drink in 
the lovely vision which breaks upon his view at the half-way 
house, need not inspect the texture so closely as it was the 
duty of the soldier to do, and he can depart with the enchant- 
ing panorama graven upon his memory. This spot was in 



158 CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 

the summer evenings a favorite resort for those who could 
obtain passes to cross the lines of their respective camps. 

Passing on the winding way upwards, the character of 
the timber changes; soon the pine thickets shut out the 
light, and nothing is seen but the green leafy curtain on 
either hand, until crossing a brook at a sharp angle, the 
opening at White's house reveals the camp. The clearing 
composed some sixty or seventy acres on the slopes of the 
twin peaks between which the road ran. The tents were 
pitched on the slopes of the mountain. Their occupants had 
to stay their feet against rocks, when they lay down at night, 
to prevent them from sliding down the mountain while they 
slept. Where the road inclines to the south tall trees were 
felled to form abattis for a line of rifle pits which skirted the 
brow of the hill, and gave a glimpse of a clearing on a minor 
elevation beyond, and of the Allegheny range of mountains 
in the distance; but with this slight exception the camp was 
fenced in by the cheerless pine thickets. It was a dreary 
place for a camp. The clouds rested constantly upon and 
below it. Rain fell daily. The slightest breeze caused the 
trees to give forth a most melancholy dirge. When it stormed 
they howled as if all the demons of the mountains had con- 
gregated to frighten off the intruders who had dared to set 
foot on their domain. To add to the discomfort, the soil was 
a sort of bog turf which never dried out. It is true there 
was not much soil, but what there was soon worked into slush 
and soiled the rocks, which otherwise might have remained 
clean. 

Such was the situation of the camp on Cheat Mountain 
Summit when the Fourteenth Indiana and thirty or forty cav- 
alrymen first held it. Before the events narrated in this 
chapter had all transpired the scene had changed. The huge 
pines which had so long been their prison house fell before 
the woodmen's axe. The old mountain top was shorn of its 
luxuriant growth, and strong forts frowned defiance from the 
heights where for ages huge trees had bent to the gale, and 
sung the storm king to sleep with their plaintive melody. 

Of the south point of the mountain, we will hereafter have 
occasion to speak. We have endeavored to show the situa- 



CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 159 

tion of Gen. Reynolds' force when the operations in the Cheat 
Mountain region commenced. It will be seen, after the Elk 
Water camp was formed, that the camps were relatively to 
each other as the points of a triangle, and each guarding an 
important pass. The communications were kept open b}- 
unceasing watchfulness; and by incredible labor, shorter 
routes were made to forward reinforcements. It was ten 
miles from Beverly to Huttonsville, four from Huttonsville to 
the Pass, nine from the Pass to the Summit, and eight from 
the Pass to Elk Water. The front from Elk Water to the 
Summit was not traversed by any regular road, and was 
probably, by a straight line, twelve miles. The enemy had 
but one fortified position, about twelve miles distant by the 
Staunton pike, on the crest of the Alleghany range; but he 
was gathering forces at different points in front, and shifting 
his camps so as to confuse and puzzle his opponent. Gen. 
Lee was trying a game of strategy ! We will leave the two 
armies watching each other for advantages, while we devote 
a short space to incidents of mountain warfare of which this 
campaign was so prolific. 

SCOUTING. 

It is singular how wandering through the mountains 
became a passion with the men. For days and nights, and 
sometimes for a week, they would lie out in the deep soli- 
tudes which intervened between the opposing forces, watching 
for some sign of life in the enemy's camp, or tracking his 
scouts to intercept or circumvent them. An intimation that 
a few men were wanted to go in front, would at any time 
crowd the headquarters with anxious applicants. They had 
all been on outpost picket in turn, and became infatuated 
with the idea of scaling the rugged peaks which lifted their 
heads on every side, and of exploring the deep intervening 
valleys and ravines, where the silence of the grave seemed to 
reign. The regular scouts were regarded with a species of 
reverence. As they related their adventures around the 
camp-fires at night, the young soldiers sighed to emulate 
their exploits, and looked anxiously forward to the time 



160 CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 

when they could tell how they had groped their way alone 
through the laurel thickets. Many of the scouts scaled the 
summits of moss-covered rocks, slept for nights behind a 
log, watching the clear stars shining above them as they 
dropped to sleep, to find themselves swept from their resting 
place by the mountain torrent, which a sudden storm had 
sent upon them; and after days and nights of privation and 
suffering, deemed themselves sufficiently rewarded by the 
sight of an enemy's camp on a distant hillside. It might be, 
that some lucky chance would lead them to the discovery of 
an unguarded path, by which they could lead a party to sur- 
prise the camp they had discovered. Remote from the pomp 
of war, locked up in their mountain fastnesses, with no hope 
of an advance in force, these dream3 occupied the soldiers' 
thoughts. They were Western men. The rifle had been 
their early companion. The hunters' instincts were deeply 
implanted in their very nature. They had the self-reliance 
of frontiermen. They never thought of the possibility of 
getting lost; and as to the fear of an enemy, while there was 
a tree for shelter, that was not to be thought of. 

Happy, then, when a detail was made for a scout, was he 
who was counted in the number. A few hard crackers, and 
a slice or two of ham or bacon, was all the provision needed. 
The crystal springs, which everywhere gushed from the 
mountain sides, would supply the rest. With smiling faces, 
they would parade for instructions, and singly, or in small 
squads, plunge at once into the rocky thickets. Nothing 
more would be seen of them for days, when, one by one, they 
would drop in and relate each his story to the commandant. 
Doubtless some would select a cozy retreat, build a brush 
tent, and pass the time in fishing; but the great majority 
were anxious to win distinction, and faithfully performed the 
duty assigned them. Their stories sometimes partook of the 
marvellous. It would be strange were it otherwise. They 
rarel}^ saw a human habitation in their wanderings, and, 
when seen, their instructions were usually to avoid them. 
Their communings were not with man, but with nature, in 
her most sublime mood. 

It would be impossible, in the limited scope of this work, 



CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 161 

to notice one-tenth of the romantic and often perilous inci- 
dents of this campaign, or to dress them with word-painting 
to convey a just idea of the surroundings. The reader must 
bear in mind that two hostile armies were playing "hide and 
seek" among the mountains; that there was debatable ground 
between them, over which small bodies from both forces 
roved ; that this ground was rugged as nature, in her most 
forbidden temper, could clothe a hill, or scoop out a ravine, 
and dotted with vales, soft and smiling as the dream of a 
poet could picture. We must leave the colorings to the 
imagination of the reader, while we relate a few incidents 
which will recall to the mind of every soldier, who made the 
campaign in Western Virginia, something similar in his own 
history. 

Lieut. Milliken, with thirty men of Burdsall's troop of 
Ohio cavalry, was left with Col. Kimball's command on the 
summit. The infantry scouts had penetrated by mountain 
paths the enemy's encampment on the top of Buffalo Ridge — 
the summit of the Alleghany range. The cavalry was 
ordered to make daily visits to the Greenbrier running between 
the Cheat and Alleghany ranges. It was a dangerous service, 
for there were at least fifty places between the outposts of 
our army and the south end of the valley, where they could 
be ambushed by infantry, and be powerless to make a success- 
ful resistance. The little river — the Greenbrier — glides along 
the foot of the Cheat, where the pike crosses it. The descent 
of the road to the river is steep, and cut into the face of the- 
rock. Below the bridge is a ford, used by horsemen when 
the stream is not swollen. A high rock, covered with thick 
and tangled bushes, overhangs the ford. This gives the name 
"hanging rock" to the crossing. One day the dragoons had 
passed up the valley. No signs of the enemy were seen. 
Their pickets had been drawn back. The dragoons were 
returning gaily in the evening, and had stopped at the ford 
to water their horses, when a volley was poured down upon 
them from the " hanging rock." Three or four of their men 
reeled in their saddles and fell. The remainder dashed up 
the steep road to meet the assailants, but they had escaped,, 
and were probably secreted among the cliffs. 
Vol. I.— 11. 



162 CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 

The next day, a company of the Fourteenth Indiana, under 
Capt. Willard, was sent down the mountain to search for the 
party who had laid the ambush, Col. Kimball rightly judging 
that they were still prowling round the outlets of the valley. 
Willard left the pike at the Gum road — a mountain pass 
branching to the right about two-thirds of the way down the 
south eastern slope of Cheat. ^Scouts were sent out who dis- 
covered the bivouac of the enemy. Capt. Willard attacked 
them, killed and captured a number, and drove the remainder 
within the shelter of their fortified camp. 

From this time till the close of the campaign, the rugged 
country between the hostile camps on the summit of Cheat 
and the summit of the Alleghanies, was fought for by the 
scouts, and was the scene of many thrilling adventures. 

Col. Johnson, who commanded the Confederate camp on 
Buffalo Ridge, had, by authority of the State of Virginia, 
called out the militia of Pocahontas and the adjoining coun- 
ties. They were to report to him, and receive from him their 
orders. They were to repair to the designated rendezvous, 
armed with squirrel rifles, and were to be distinguished, 
while in active service, by strips of white cotton cloth, sewed 
across their hats or caps. The mountains were soon infested 
with them. Their orders were to lie in wait behind the 
rocks, and in the bushes, and shoot Union soldiers as they 
passed. When captured, they invariably told the same story, 
that Col. Johnson's orders were to spare no one wearing a 
Federal uniform; and whenever any such were seen, to shoot 
and run. To the credit of the regular Confederate soldiers, 
it must be said, they denounced these proceedings, and often 
refused to support the "bushwhackers" in their murderous 
plots. When Gen. Lee arrived and assumed command, he 
opposed the guerrilla S3'Stem of warfare, and held it in check 
in his immediate front; but around the foot of Cheat Moun- 
tain, the "bushwhackers" continued to rove. 

Shortly after their surprise at "hanging rock," Burdsall's 
dragoons were relieved by Bracken's Indiana cavalry. One 
detachment was sent to the summit, and scouted along the 
slopes of the Cheat and the Alleg'hanies. The other was left 
at the Pass, and ranged over Tygart's Valley, feeling the 



CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 163 

enemy's lines on Point and Valley Mountains. Their first 
expedition to the Alleghanies resulted in a thorough recon- 
noisance of the enemy's position, and the roads around it. 
Capt. Coons, with two companies of the Fourteenth Indiana, 
preceded the cavalry to the Valley, and drove in the enemy's 
pickets. The whole command then bivouaced at the foot ot 
the mountain, at the place where Camp Bartow was after- 
wards constructed. The cavalry, divided into small squads, 
penetrated every path leading -up and around the slopes, and 
captured a number of prisoners. Col. Johnson sent down a 
large force to cut off the reconnoitering party ; but, by skill- 
ful maneuvering, they, without injury, returned with their 
prisoners to camp. 

It became almost the daily duty of the cavalry, after this 
affair, to visit the valley and watch the movements going on 
between the camp on Alleghany summit and Gen. Lee's forces 
at Big Spring -and Hunters ville. They were frequently am- 
bushed on these excursions. On one occasion, when return- 
ing from a long scout, in the direction of Greenbank, a party 
of " bushwhackers," supported by regular Confederate troops, 
got between them and their camp at the summit, concealing 
themselves in the thicket at the Gum road, they poured a 
volley into the advance of the cavalry, mortally wounding 
three men. William Hanthorn was shot through the lungs, 
Harry Chayne through the thigh and shoulder, and the third 
through the bowels. Poor Chayne lingered for some months, 
bearing his sufferings with great fortitude, and finally died at 
Beverly, whither his comrades, with tender care, had carried 
him. The small squad of cavalry charged into the bushes, 
and drove the enemy through the woods until darkness put 
an end to the pursuit. 

With varied fortune these skirmishes continued, until Col. 
Johnson moved his camp to the base of the mountain and 
commenced to fortify that strong position. He moved in the 
night. When the next morning dawned the hill sides were 
dotted with his tents. Capt. Thompson, of the Fourteenth 
Indiana, with his company, was on a scout when the move- 
ment was made. Marching boldly through the little valley, 
he encountered, at the base of a hill, round which the road 



164 CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 

wound, what lie supposed to be a scouting party of the enemy,, 
and boldly charged them. They fell back behind the spur 
and he followed at a run. Turning the point, the Confede- 
rate camp, not over a mile and a half distant, burst upon his 
view. The long roll was beating and the men were swarming 
from their tents. He ordered his men to fall back firing. 
Shortly a troop of cavalry dashed over the fields to gain his- 
rear, and cut him off before he could gain the bridge at the 
"hanging rock." Fortunately he had left twelve resolute 
men at that point, who held the bridge and ford until Capt. 
Thompson and his command crossed. 

Dr. "William Fletcher and a loyal Virginian named Clark, 
who was acquainted with the country between Beverly and 
Staunton, and who had been with Dr. Fletcher in his adven- 
turous trips from Philippi and Bealington, were at head 
quarters. Gen. Eeynolds hearing that a large force of the 
enemy was in the neighborhood of Big Spring, directed Dr. 
Fletcher and Mr. Clark to go out on the Huntersville road 
and learn the situation. They were to ride to the outline 
pickets, leave their horses and proceed from thence on foot. 
With a few crackers in their pockets and their pistols in their 
belts, they started. They kept up Tygart's Valley river, 
passed the place where the Elk Water camp was afterwards 
established, and met the pickets some miles beyond. Leav- 
ing their horses with the pickets, they pressed forward. The 
country became more broken, the valley narrower, and the tur- 
bid little stream frequently crossed and recrossed the road. 
The cabins of the inhabitants were poor and the occupants 
not much disposed to converse with strangers. It was neutral 
ground, frequented by soldiers from both armies, and the 
people feared to commit themselves. Still rougher grew the 
road and more narrow the valley, until the scouts reached 
the little settlement called Mingo Flats, a plateau on Valley 
Mountain. Here they were told, in answer to questions, that 
no Confederate soldiers had been seen for some time. In 
reply to inquiries for lodging they were directed a little fur- 
ther on. They were weary and foot sore. The sinking sun 
was throwing the mountain shadows across their path. They 
quenched their thirst at the crystal springs which gurgled up 






-CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 165 

t>y the way side, and struggled onward. Trudging along 
wearily they mounted a high hill and turned to the right 
over a mountain pass. Two miles further, they noticed the 
tracks of horses .and looked cautiously around. A horseman 
in citizens dress appeared. He stated that the Confederate 
army had fallen back to Huntersville, and that there were no 
rebel troops at Big Spring. The horseman galloped on. The 
•echo of the horses hoofs on the rocky road had died away. 
They had commenced to descend a gentle slope. One hun- 
dred yards directly in front stood a large oak tree. The still- 
ness of the grave pervaded the scene. No sound was heard 
save the echo of the footsteps of the scouts, and the note 
of a solitary whippoorwill. Clark came to a halt and re- 
marked to his companion: "I see a man behind that tree f 
let us take to the woods and go round." Dr. Fletcher replied: 
"£To, I think you are mistaken. I have been able to make 
out any form I wish to, on dark and shadowy evenings." 
Clark stepped back to a line with Fletcher and the two ad- 
vanced. As they neared the spot "halt! halt! halt!" rang 
out from behind every bush and tree, and stump and stone. 
Oark was anticipating such a greeting, and jumped back 
with his revolver drawn. The ambush was well laid. A tall 
soldier stood in front of Dr. Fletcher with a squirrel rifle 
pointed at his breast. Putting a bold face on the matter Dr. 
Fletcher asked : " What are you stopping citizens here for, 
on the public highway?" 4l Surrender ! " was all the reply. 
Olark, who stood a little behind, whispered, "Run Fletcher, 
run." There was no chance to run with that rifle pointed at 
his breast, and the muzzles of a dozen others bearing upon 
fhim. Fletcher asked his challenger, "What will you do if 
we surrender?" "Only take you to camp, and then if you 
are all right let you go." Fletcher then whispered to Clark 
to run. "If he does/' said the tall Alabama soldier, "I will 
blow your heart out." There was no alternative. Fletcher 
threw his revolvers on the ground and gave himself up. 
Clark, being a little outside ©f the circle of pickets, could 
fiave shot one of them and escaped in the bushes, but he 
faiew the moment he pulled trigger, or jumped from the 
a-oad, the life of his friend was the forfeit, and he determined 
$o Buffer captivity wdtii him. 



166 CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 

The picket was under the command of Capt. Bird of the 
Sixth Alabama. To his questions, Dr. Fletcher gave his 
true name and rank, adding that he was out scouting under 
orders, and had walked into the ambuscade. No discour- 
teous expressions were used to him, but when Clark was 
spoken to, he was cursed as a traitor to his native State, and 
told he would be hung as a spy. The next morning they 
were sent under a strong guard to the advanced camp of 
Gen.. Lee, half way between Big Spring and Huntersville. 
Dr. Fletcher describes the camp as beautiful. The road to it 
from Big Spring was descending all the way. It lay in a 
beautiful valley at the foot of a steep hill. It was clean, well 
ordered, closely guarded, and contained, according to Fletch- 
er's estimate, six thousand men. From this place they were 
sent handcuffed to Huntersville. There were camps all 
through the valley and on the hills which encircle the town. 
Here they had an interview with Col. Gilham, of Virginia, 
with Gen. Loring, and finally with Gen. Lee. Dr. Fletcher 
estimated the force around Huntersville at twelve thousand 
men, and remembering the small force under Gen. Reynolds, 
and the unfinished state of his defences, he trembled for the 
safety of the comrades he had left behind. Brooding over the 
dangers which beset Gen. Reynolds and his command, he 
resolved at all hazards to attempt an escape that he might 
give warning. He did so, fled to the mountains, was wounded, 
captured and returned to prison. His narrative of this adven- 
ture,, and of the risk he ran of being hanged as a spy, with 
his trials and sufferings as a prisoner in Western Virginia and 
at Richmond, is highly interesting. We have not space to 
record it. After a long captivity he was released and had 
the pleasure of meeting his comrade and fellow prisoner, 
Clark, who, after a still longer eaptivity, was also released 
and returned to Western Virginia, where he afterwards acted 
as a scout under Gen. Averill. 

After the capture of Fletcher and Clark, our scouts 
found it almost impossible to get within the enemy's lines 
from the Elk Water front. Gen. Reynolds resolved to send 
a small party by another route. One of the most remarkable 
features of North- Western Virginia is the Cheat River. It 



CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 167 

has its origin in the Big Spring near which Gen. Lee's army, 
or a portion of it, was known to be encamped. The spring, 
in the highest plateau of these mountain ranges, gushes up in 
a volume of water thick as a man's body. It is the dividing 
point of the streams. The spring runs northward along the 
Cheat Mountain ridges, and receives constant accessions to 
its volume from other springs which burst from the rocks at 
almost every step. Where it crosses the Staunton pike, 
immediately below the intrenchments on Cheat Mountain 
Summit, it assumes the proportions of a river. The scouts 
of the Fourteenth regiment delighted to wander up the wild 
mountain stream. Lieut. Slocum, of the Fourteenth Indiana, 
who had frequently distinguished himself in scouting expedi- 
tions, was selected to lead a small body of picked men, by 
this watery path, to the enemy's lines at Big Spring. Hudson 
George, of the cavalry, a fine draftsman, accompanied the 
expedition to make drawings. The party started, and after 
days and nights of almost incredible toil, succeeded in reach- 
ing the camp at Big Spring to find it evacuated. They took 
sketches of the positions, and returned by the same route to 
camp, completely exhausted. Their feet were lacerated, and 
their clothes tattered. 

These incidents, a few of the thousands of this campaign, 
will give the reader some idea of the hardships endured by 
the Cheat Mountain army while waiting and watching on the 
outposts of Western Virginia. 

THE ADVANCE AND REPULSE OF GEN. LEE. 

The result of all these skirmishes, and laborious and often 
perilous scouting expeditions, strengthened the conviction 
that Gen. Lee intended, by an attack in the rear, to break the 
communication between the camps, for the purpose of over- 
whelming the force at one of the passes, and capturing or 
annihilating the garrison at the other. Captured prisonera 
did not hesitate to acknowledge that such was his design. 
They expressed their firm belief that our little army would 
soon be prisoners at Richmond. They had the most 
unbounded confidence in their General, and avowed that he 



168 



CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 



had ample force to carry out his designs. What these 
designs were, and how our army was to be captured they 
never told. A careful analysis of the reports of scouts led 
to the belief that six thousand men under Gen. Jackson, of 
Georgia, was in front of Col. Kimball on the Staunton pike, 
while Gen. Lee had fifteen thousand in front of Elk Water, 
in his several camps. So adroitly, however, and with such 
consummate skill, was this force maneuvered that when they 
broke camp at Big Spring and Huntersville, our most cun- 
ning scouts could never get near enough to discover the 
exact position of their camps, or ascertain where their main 
body lay. The volumes of smoke from their camp fires had 
to be taken as the index of their numbers. The mountain 
curtain which marked their movements was drawn closer 
and closer by doubling up outposts and picket lines, until it 
was impossible to peep behind it. In the meantime the 
Seventeenth Indiana, Col. Hascall, had arrived and taken 
part in the operations at the Pass, and had in the midst of 
terrific storms, made two night marches to the Summit, to 
repel a threatened assault upon the works. The Twenty- 
Fourth Ohio, Col. Ammen, and the Twenty-Fifth Ohio, Coh 
Jones, with Daum's Wheeling battery, had been added to 
the garrison at the Summit, and assisted in erecting the forts 
and field, works. The Sixth Ohio, under command of Lieut. 
Col. Anderson, was ordered up from Beverly to Elk Water; 
the Third Ohio and Loomis' battery had preceded them. 

As the month of August drew to a close, the storm 
thickened. Gen. Reynolds had not over six thousand men 
to defend his line of communication and beat back the 
assault in front. The privations and sufferings of the troops 
in the mountains had reduced the strength of many of the 
regiments nearly one-half. But what they lacked in number, 
was made up by the enthusiasm and devotion of the men. 
The General was constantly in the saddle, moving from camp 
to camp, inspecting the lines, cheering and encouraging the 
men. His unceasing vigilance was well known to the enemy. 
It is probable that expeditions were planned within the rebel 
lines to capture him, and that it was the starting of one, con- 
^sidered certain of a successful result, which at that time gave 



CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 169 

rise to the report in Southern prints, that " Gen. Reynolds 
was captured in Cheat Mountain while passing between his 
camps." Their skirmishers increased in number. Our out- 
lying pickets fell back mile by mile before them. At the 
summit, Col. Kimball's outer pickets were at the " deadening," 
about two miles in front of the intrenchments. He had 
blockaded the road between that point and the bridge, having 
removed the planking of the bridge, and built wings of logs 
as a protection for sharpshooters on each side of it. Hamil- 
ton's Valley, just below the deadening, swarmed with rebel 
infantry, whose jests and taunts could be distinctly heard at 
the picket post, from their bivouacs under shelter of the 
rocks and thickets below. It seemed, from the demonstra- 
tions, that the summit was to be the chief point of attack; 
but Gen. Reynolds arrived at a different conclusion. They 
might, by scaling the mountains, throw a force of infantry on 
the flanks or the rear of that post; but they would never 
attempt to attack it in front. He judged correctly, that the 
feint would be there, and the real assault at Elk Water. 
Accordingly, he instructed Col. Kimball to keep a strong 
force in the rear of his works, in the direction of the Pass, 
and took command himself at Elk Water. 

While Col. Kimball was thus closely beseiged, Jackson's 
whole force being under his outer defenses, a reconnoisance 
in front of Elk Water, made on September the fifth or sixth, 
in force sufficient to break through or drive back the net 
work of pickets, disclosed the fact that Gen. Lee's main force 
was at Mace's Farm, fourteen miles distant, with camps 
stretching behind Point Mountain. This mountain our 
pickets yet held; and from the time a forward movement of 
the enemy commenced, a regiment was kept there. The 
march to the picket post was along a ravine, formed by Elk 
Water Run, a turbulent mountain stream, hurrying its waters 
to the Valley river. The bed of the stream, filled with bowl- 
ders and shelving rocks, over which the waters rapidly 
rushed, formed the road bed for one-half the distance. Seven 
or eight miles from the debouch of the ravine, was an aban- 
doned pike, leading to the summit of Point Mountain, and con- 
tinuing along the crest of the main spur, which intersected the 



170 CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 

Huntersville pike ten miles in front of the intrenchments. 
The regimental marches up this turbulent stream were usually 
made at night. Numerous were the bruises and cuts received 
by the men as they moved in the dark over the rolling stones 
and shelving rocks. On the ninth of September, the Seven- 
teenth Indiana relieved the Sixth Ohio at Point Mountain. 
Col. Hascall, before starting out, remarked that his regiment 
had marched hundreds of miles in Western Virginia, and 
had always heard of the enemy in force a short distance 
ahead, but had never yet been able to find him. He began 
to doubt whether there was any considerable rebel force in 
the country, i It was late when the regiment arrived. The 
night was clear, and the stars twinkled brightly. Col. Has- 
call asked where the enemy were. Col. Anderson, pointing 
to the distant hills, replied, "they are there," and directed 
the attention of Col. Hascall to the smoke curling like mist 
above the crest of the hills. Hascall said, "I can not see it," 
Anderson dryly replied, " You will see it in the morning." 
The pickets were relieved. The men of the Seventeenth, 
like their Colonel, had little faith in the report that a large 
army was in their front. The remembrance of their tedious 
night marches to the summit of Cheat, and other points, for 
a fight, and their repeated disappointments, chafed them. 
They felt that a sortie from the enemy's camp would be a 
relief. The videttes danced on their posts, and fired into the 
thickets. The reserve bivouaced over more ground than 
there was necessity for occupying, and built roaring fires to 
moderate the cold mountain breeze. The enemy were not 
slow to accept the challenge thus thrown out. From behind 
the quiet dreary crests, a moment before so still that the very 
smoke seemed to steal upward, as if fearful of throwing a 
wave of sound upon the air, signal lights streamed, and bon- 
fires blazed. The rumbling of wheels, and the murmur of 
voices, soon followed on the clear morning air. The Seven- 
teenth had stirred up a hornet's nest at last. The officers 
prepared to meet an attack. The first impulse of the com- 
mandant of the nearest camp was to attack; but Qen. Lee 
was not to be turned aside from his long deliberated plan. 
He was sure of cutting off the force. The rumbling of wheels 



CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 171 

heard was the moving of detached forces to concentrate for 
the advance upon our main works. When morning broke, 
the hillsides were still dotted with tents, the teams were pass- 
ing to and fro to mill, as was their custom days before. The 
field-glasses "showed the sentries were on post; but the army 
was on its march to cut off* the audacious regiment which had 
dared to disturb their morning slumbers. 

The same evening that these events were transpiring on 
Point Mountain, Lieut. Col. Owen was sent, with five com- 
panies of the Fifteenth Indiana, one company of the Third 
Ohio, and a squad of Bracken's cavalry, along the Hunters- 
ville or Marlin pike, to feel the enemy. Their advance, eight 
thousand strong, were reported to be at Marshall's Store, 
twelve miles distant. Col. Owen advanced beyond the picket 
station at Conrad's Mill, and bivouaced for the night. At 
four o'clock in the morning he pushed on, throwing out 
Lieut. Driscoll, with ten men of the Third Ohio, and Lieut. 
Bedford, with ten men of the Fifteenth Indiana, to scout the 
laurel thickets in advance. Capt. Wing, of the Third Ohio, 
was in advance of the column. Immediately after passing 
through a dense thicket, which lined the road on both sides, 
the scouts commenced firing, having suddenly came so close 
to the enemy that a hand to hand scuffle ensued between 
private Edwards, of the Fifteenth Indiana, and a soldier of a 
£Torth Carolina regiment. At a small house on the road side, 
private Morris surprised four dragoons at their breakfast. 
The firing aroused the camp, three-quarters of a mile distant. 
The long roll beat to arms. The picket reserve exceeded the 
force of Col. Owen, who retired slowly with his command, 
firing by sections, countermarching and re-forming. The 
enemy did not pursue, but steadily moved his columns up, 
occupying the valley as well as the road which skirted the 
side of the mountain. It was highly important to hold the 
junction of the Huntersville and Point Mountain pikes, until 
the Seventeenth regiment could retire from their exposed 
position. Capt. Templeton, with two companies of the Fif- 
teenth Indiana, was sent there, supported by Major Christo- 
pher, of the Sixth Ohio, with two hundred men of that regi- 
ment. On the morning of the eleventh, Capt. Templeton'a 



172 CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 

pickets, under command of Sergeant Thompson, were sud- 
denly confronted, at a sharp turn in the road, by a solid col- 
umn of the enemy moving down in irresistible force. The 
Sergeant fell back, firing from the thickets, and lost two 
killed, two seriously, and one slightly wounded, and one 
taken prisoner. He brought his dead and wounded with him. 
Capt. Templeton dispatched a dragoon for reinforcements, 
and fell back on Major Christopher's post at the mill. In 
the meantime, a scout, who knew the country well, reported 
two regiments advancing by a mountain road — which inter- 
sects the pike in the rear of the mill — with the intention of 
cutting off Christopher and Templeton. The left wing of 
the Fifteenth Indiana, under Major "Wood, was hurried rap- 
idly up to that point, and orders sent the advance to retire. 
They reached the support under Major Wood in advance 
of the flanking force, closely followed by the solid column 
of the enemy's center, which now closed rapidly up, and in 
the evening General Lee's army was in position in front of 
the works at Elk Water. Colonel Hascall and his gallant 
regiment escaped by the Elk Run road, reaching the outer 
works as the enemy was massing his columns for the assault. 

Two companies, under Capt. Thompson and Lieut. Jones, 
had been detached to the junction of the turnpike, and there 
engaged the advance of the enemy, holding them in check. 
When the regiment was ordered in with all speed, it was 
supposed these companies, so far in advance, were hopelessly 
cut off. Lieut. Col. Wilder, however, refused to return with- 
out them, and dashing ahead, found them deployed in the 
thickets skirmishing as they retired, and brought them safely 
to camp. 

In the meantime a brigade of Arkansas and Tennessee 
troops, numbering twenty-eight hundred, under command of 
Gen. Anderson, had been toiling around the rugged and 
pathless slopes of the Cheat Mountain range, to reach the 
rear of the works on the Summit. This movement was the 
key to Gen. Lee's great strategic plan to entrap the Cheat 
Mountain army. If he could get this force securely posted 
on the Staunton pike between the Pass and the Summit, he 
could hold Kimball's garrison in their prison house on the 






CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 173 

bleak hill top, and, storming the works at Elk Water, sweep 
down the valley and dictate his own terms for a surrender. 
The march of Gen. Anderson's brigade over the untamed 
hills is described by the prisoners as one of the most arduous 
ever undertaken by a large body of troops. They had two 
nights of rain and were constantly wet. The air was cold. 
When they reached the path between the Summit and Elk 
"Water, in the elevated valley heretofore described, they were 
exhausted. They had been so long creeping in the darkness, 
through the thickets, that like mariners who had taken to their 
boats in a fog, they knew not where to go. They with bouy- 
ant spirits and light hearts had left their camp, confident they 
could fall upon Kimball's rear, while another force attacked 
him in flank, and drive him into the jaws of Johnston, who 
was holding the main road in front. The Arkansas men, 
and a few Texans, had burnished the blades of their bowie 
knives and loudly boasted of the number of stubborn Yan- 
kees they would slay. Their leader was sure he could hold 
the pike and isolate the camps. There is nothing like cold 
and hunger, and mountain marches, to take the braggardism 
out of troops, and reduce vain glorious boasters to the dimen- 
sions of ordinary men. When the Arkansas and Texan 
troops arrived at the path and the pike they had no inclina- 
tion to test the metal of their burnished blades even on a 
Yankee — nor had they any disposition to fight, except des- 
peration urged them to do so. They could not retreat in a 
body the way they came, for few knew how to get there ; 
their scouts who had crawled through the bushes and got a 
view of the works on the Summit, reported them nearly as 
strong in the rear as in front ; they feared to advance to the 
Pass as the notes of preparation came up from there, and 
they were uncertain as to the force the General had around 
him; to follow the path to the left would lead them directly 
to the Elk Water camp, where they feared to go, and they 
accordingly clung to their screen of wet bushes, more than 
half whipped by hunger, fatigue and the utter confusion of 
ideas, before a shot was fired. 

Thus matters stood on the evening of the eleventh. The 
bulk of Gen. Lee's force massed in front of the works at Elk 



174 CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 

Water, with his flankers feeling their way along Stewart's 
and Elk Runs to the right and left of our entrenchments; 
Gen. Jackson with three thousand men in front of the dead- 
ening at the Summit, two regiments creeping on Kimball's 
right, and the brigade of Gen. Anderson lurking in the 
bushes midway between the Pass and the Summit, ready to 
spring upon the pike and charge either to the right or the 
left. Thus far Gen. Lee's plan, so far as he was aware, had 
worked to a charm. His divisions were just where he had 
designed to placed them. He knew not the feeling of terror 
which took hold of the brave men of Anderson's column 
after their dreary mountain march. Intelligent prisoners 
afterwards related how, as they lay in their hiding places, the 
conviction crept over them that instead of surrounding our 
forces they themselves were securely trapped. They could see 
companies of our troops, deployed in the distance like regi- 
ments, marching along the path and the pike; to their right 
and rear were the strong works of Cheat, with its vigilant 
garrison; to the left and rear Elk Water, and in front the 
Pass; and miles away in their rear through the tangled 
bushes was all their hope of succor, and they dreaded that 
the Hoosiers, accustomed to the woods, had followed the 
windings of Cheat River and cut them off. 

Gen. Reynolds, sleepless and watchful, was aware that a 
large force was moving on the mountains. Their shifting 
bivouacs and stealthy watch fires had been noted, but he 
could not tell upon which wing of his army their weight was 
to fall. His headquarters were at the Pass — with the Thir- 
teenth Indiana, Col. Sullivan, two pieces of artillery, and his 
devoted cavalry escort — but he personally directed the move- 
ments at Elk Water. His labor at this time was herculean. 
So quietly and unostentatiously was it done, that only those 
of his own army, who were near headquarters, had any 
conception of it. He had the stores from the Pass removed 
to Huttonsville, putting the Tygart Valley river between 
them and danger of a raid, and he hastily constructed field 
works, while Col. Sullivan disposed his regiment along the 
approaches to the Pass to guard against surprise. 

On the night of the eleventh, or rather on the early morn- 



CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 175 

ing of the twelfth, one of those cold storms of wind and 
rain which visited the Cheat region so often in the summer 
of 1861, swept over the hills. The telegraph to the Summit 
ceased to tick after midnight. The operator supposed the 
wire had been broken by fallen timber, and early in the 
morning despatched men to repair it. The last message from 
the General to the Summit was one of warning. Lieut. Mer- 
rill, of the Engineers, passed the headquarters on his way up 
the hill at dawn. He was warned by the scouts not to pro- 
ceed, but he laughed at the idea of the enemy getting round — 
kept on, and was captured a short distance beyond the picket 
line. A picket post of the Thirteenth Indiana was attacked 
a short distance to the right in the direction of Elk Water, 
and still further on, Capt. Bence with a company of the Sixth 
Ohio, on picket, was captured with his entire command. 
These captures revealed the position of Anderson's force. 
The General was exceedingly anxious to convey orders to 
Col. Kimball directing the disposition of his force in the rear 
of his post. Two members of Bracken's cavalry, H. C. Britz 
and William Pulfer, volunteered to carry them. The orders 
were hastily sketched, and the cavalrymen putting spurs to 
their horses dashed up the mountain by the pike. In a short 
time Pulfer returned hatless, his clothes being perforated 
with bullets. They had dashed into a solid body of infantry, 
and strove to cut their way through. Britz was shot through 
the head, and having the despatches on his person the enemy 
if they read them, had the satisfaction of knowing the Gen- 
eral was advised of their movement and would fight them at 
every point. Three companies of the Thirteenth Indiana, 
under Capt. Clinton, were ordered up the pike to hold the 
road, while the remainder of the regiment were deployed at 
the head of the gorge or pass to watch the movements of 
Anderson. Col. Kimball did not of course receive the orders 
sent him, but his soldierly instincts led him to adopt the very 
measures indicated in those orders. 

On the evening of the eleventh, Capt. Coons, of the Four- 
teenth Indiana, with sixty men from the different regiments 
at the summit, and four cavalry men were sent to picket the 
bridle-path to Elk Water. It Was this little force, together 



176 CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 

with other small detachments from Elk Water and the Pass, 
marching to the several picket stations, that the enemy had 
seen when they came in view of the cleared ridge, and that 
had so alarmed them. Capt. Coons disposed his little picket 
guard in close proximity to the overwhelming force, but so 
quietly did the enemy lie in their ambush that he did not 
discover them until morning. 

On the morning of the twelfth one of Lieut. DelzelPs com- 
mand of Bracken's cavalry was started down the mountain 
with dispatches. A supply train of the Twenty-Fifth Ohio 
had started before day. The dragoon had proceeded only a 
mile and a half when he found the wagons standing in the 
road without horses or drivers and with evident marks of a 
struggle in the deep mud. He returned with all speed and 
reported the fact. Col. Kimball, accompanied by Col. Jones 
of the Twenty-Fifth Ohio, Lt. Col. Gilbert of the Twenty- 
Fourth Ohio, and Lieut. Delzell of the cavalry, proceeded 
with two companies of the Fourteenth Indiana and twelve 
dragoons to the point of attack. Capts. Brooks and Wil- 
liamson deployed their men as skirmishers in the thicket, and 
soon found the enemy in great force and drove them. One 
hundred men, under Capt. Higgins, made up of details from 
the Fourteenth Indiana, and Twenty-Fourth and Twenty- 
Fifth Ohio, with Lieuts. Green and Wood, were advanced by 
the pike to the Pass, to reinforce Capt. Coons, who was 
engaged on the Pass, and whom it was feared was cut off. 
Hastening on, Capt. Higgins soon met a cavalry soldier who 
reported a large force at the junction of the pike and the 
pass and that Capt. Coons was endeavoring to cut his way 
through. Major Harrow, with two companies of the Four- 
teenth Indiana, was coming up and Capt. Higgins moved 
cautiously on. He soon received a volley from the bushes 
which passed over the heads of the men, and they were 
ordered to charge the ambush, which they did in gallant 
style, routing the large force concealed there, who were 
pressed back by Lieut. Green upon their reserves in the val- 
ley, where Capt. Coons was fighting, and communicated the 
panic to that part of the line. Capt. Coons had stubbornly 
held the ridge, repulsing every assault upon him with fearful 
slaughter. 



CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 177 

The panic was now complete. Brooks and Williamson 
were driving them at one point, Higgins, Green, and Wood 
at another, Coons, with his unerring marksmen, was picking 
tHem off in scores whenever they attempted to assail the 
ridge he so gallantly held. A detachment of the Thirteenth 
Indiana, returning from a scout, ran into them at another 
place and poured in a galling fire, escaping without loss by 
dropping behind a ledge of rocks; the advance of the same 
regiment was in view hastening up the pike, Major Harrow 
was at the junction of the pike and path, and far over on the 
ridge, near Elk Water, a battalion of the Second Virginia, 
under Col. Moss, attracted by the firing from the picket post, 
had formed in line of battle. The bushes on every hand 
belched forth fire, and every opening in the trees glistened 
with bayonets. The enemy fled in dismay, throwing aside 
everything which would encumber their flight. 

No sooner had Col. Kimball made the disposition of the 
forces in his rear, described above, than he was informed that 
the enemy was advancing in force on his front and right 
flank. Company E of the Fourteenth Indiana, under Lieut. 
Junod, held the deadening as a picket post. He was sur- 
rounded, and in endeavoring to force his way through to the 
bridge was shot through the head and killed, private George 
Winder falling dead by his side. The men made their escape 
in the thickets and reached camp. Placing a strong force at 
the bridge, which, with its flooring removed and its heavy 
wings loopholed, could be easily defended, Col. Kimball sent 
Capt. Foote, with one company of the Fourteenth and one of 
the Twenty-Fourth Ohio, up Cheat river to feel the force on 
his right flank. Capt. Foote found the enemy two miles above 
the bridge and attacked them vigorously. They fled in con- 
fusion, making but little resistance, and left behind some 
prisoners captured by them in the early morning. This 
ended the fighting. Anderson's force was hopelessly routed. 
Pursuit would have been imprudent. Jackson still held the 
deadening in front with a large force. All day he waited 
there, his artillery in position looking for the signal from 
Anderson in the rear; but that signal he never received. 
The force engaged on Kimball's rear and flank, consisted of 
Vol. I.— 12. 



178 CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 

the Twenty-Third, Twenty-Fifth, Thirty-First and Thirty- 
Seventh Virginia regiments, and one battalion from the same 
State under Cols. Talliaferro, and Heck, and the First, Seventh 
and Fourteenth Tennessee, under Cols. Manny, Hadden and 
Forbes, the whole commanded by Gen. Anderson in person. 
Our whole force, actually engaged, did not exceed five hun- 
dred men. 

These skirmishes around the summit, so brilliant and so 
important in their results, were not known at head quarters. 
Gen. Reynolds, satisfied with the ability and zeal of Col. 
Kimball, knew he would hold his post. Leaving Col. Sulli- 
van, with the Thirteenth Indiana, to hold the Pass, he has- 
tened round to the Elk Water Front. It was towards even- 
ing when he arrived there. The dark masses of the enemy's 
columns could be seen from the outpost, three-quarters of a 
mile in front of the intrenchments, apparently resting on 
their arms awaiting an order to move. They had been in 
that position for some hours. A few skirmishers on their 
front and on their flanks, kept up a lively fusilade with our 
restless pickets, but not a sound came up from the long dark 
column of men. The artillery was strung along the road 
and the infantry in the meadow below. It was a beautiful 
picture as seen from some of the elevations which jutted out 
from the mountain range. On the one side, the Federal sol- 
diers stood upon their entrenchments peering through the 
winding valley to get an occasional glimpse of the enemy. 
From the main works but little of the movements in front 
could be seen, but from the lookout stations over the ravines 
and from the outposts the whole panorama was distinctly 
visible. Thus the two rival hosts stood for hours silent spec- 
tators of the skirmishing in the little arena between them. 
There were more amusing incidents than serious accidents, 
in the ring where the actors performed. Mounted officers, 
orderlies, or squads of dragoons, anxious to do something to 
attract the special attention of the vast audience, would ride 
up close to 6ome house or cluster of bushes from which a 
flash of musketry would occasionly issue. Then they would 
scamper away followed by a squad of sharp shooters who 
would keep up the chase until driven back by our own rifle- 



CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 179 

men going on the "double quick " to the rescue. Occasion- 
ally a horse would flounder in the mire compelling his rider 
to execute a feat of ground and lofty tumbling, and a laugh 
would come up from the sharp shooters as they hastened to 
the rescue. But the spectators on the parapets and hill sides 
soon tired of such scenes, and longed to see the threatening 
host advance. That host was evidently waiting for a signal 
to attack. 

Gen. Reynolds, accompanied by the Colonels of the several 
regiments and his escort, rode out among the skirmishers as 
the setting sun threw the shadow of the hills across the val- 
ley. As he swept the enemy's position with his glass, the 
rebel gunners sent a twelve pound shot, over the heads of 
their men at the cavalcade. It fell short. The General has- 
tily wrote a line and handed it to an orderly. In a few mo- 
ments Loornis' Parrot guns were out and hurling shell at the 
head of the enemy's column. Their long and quiet dream 
was broken. They hastily fell back out of range and partly 
out of view. Loomis turned his guns upon the houses and 
bushes which concealed the reserves of their flanking skir- 
mishers, and soon scattered them. Gen. Reynolds then 
became convinced that no attempt would be made upon Elk 
Water that night. He also felt confident that Kimball had 
baffled their designs on his position. Turning to Col. Marrow 
he ordered him to have his regiment, the Third Ohio, ready 
to march at three o'clock in the morning. It was important 
to open communication with the summit. The Third Ohio 
and the battalion of the Second Virginia were to take the 
bridle path across to the Staunton pike, and the Thirteenth 
Indiana, moving up from the Pass was to effect a junction 
with them and force a passage up the mountain. 

Late in the evening Lieut. Col. John A. Washington, of 
Gen. Lee's Staff, formerly proprietor of Mount Yernon, while 
reconnoitering our works in company with two other officers, 
ran into a picket post of the Seventeenth Indiana and was 
killed, three minnie balls passing through his breast. He fell 
from his horse ; his companions wheeled and escaped, one of 
them wounded. When approached he asked for water, which 
was instantly handed him, but before his lips touched the 



180 CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 

canteen he expired. When the body was brought to camp it 
was recognized by Capt. Loomis, Lieut. Col. Anderson, of 
the Sixth Ohio, and several other officers, who had known 
him in happier days. His remains were tenderly cared for. 
In the morning they were sent with a flag of truce to the 
enemy's lines, meeting a flag from Gen. Lee on its way to our 
picket line to inquire respecting him. 

The columns of Marrow and Sullivan marched at three 
o'clock on the morning of the thirteenth as ordered, the first, 
by the path, and the second, by the Staunton pike, and found 
the work they had been sent to perform already accomplished 
by the skirmishing we have already described. They found 
the road strewn with the debris of the routed army, and 
marched into the fortifications at the Summit without seeing 
a rebel soldier. 

Gen. Lee's forces were in position again in front of Elk 
Water when day dawned. Again there were long hours of 
waiting. Gen. Reynolds had not heard of the success on the 
mountain. Reports were received from men who had been 
cut olf from their commands, and who made their way into 
camp, that Gen. Anderson's forces were retreating in disor- 
der, but there was no report from the Summit. Gen. Lee 
had doubtless heard the same rumors, but still hoped for the 
signal of success from his flanking force. Gen. Loring was to 
have led the storming party. He sat on his horse at the head 
of the column — two drasroons on each side of him — stern and 
silent, chafing at the delay. For hours on the thirteenth he 
sat there as he had on the twelfth. At length an aid dashes 
up and delivers an order. It was from Gen. Lee, commanding 
him to fall back. Loring raved like a madman, and with a ter- 
rible imprecation vowed he would disobey the command. Put- 
ting spurs to his horse he dashed among the troops and by 
wild appeals fired their enthusiasm. He then called the regi- 
mental commanders and proposed to make the assault in 
defiance of orders to the contrary. The majority assented to 
it, and the fiery Loring was about to give the command to 
advance when a second imperative order from Gen. Lee 
checked him. Gen. Loring had been long in the Federal 
army, and was, when the war broke out, in command of one 



CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 181 

of our cavalry regiments on the frontier. He had distin- 
guished himself in Mexico where he lost an arm. He was a 
rigid disciplinarian, and accustomed to yield the same implicit 
obedience to superiors which he unrelentingly exacted from 
those under him. His habits of discipline prevailed, and he 
fell back. 

General Lee had by this time heard of Anderson's repulse, 
and he saw in that the failure of his grand strategic plan. 
The large bodies of troops reported marching on the moun- 
tains — Marrow's and Sullivan's columns — might mean an 
attack upon his flank, and prudence dictated that he should 
fall back. Loring still urged the storming of the Elk Water 
works — he was confident they could be carried. Gen. Lee 
admitted they might, but at a fearful loss of life, such as he 
was not willing to hazard. 

On the fourteenth Gen. Lee retired to his old position along 
the Valley mountain, and Jackson's force fell back to the 
Alleghanies from the front of Cheat Mountain, and the pro- 
ject of bursting through the Tygart Valley to the Ohio river 
was abandoned. 

The Confederate loss in this movement was never known 
in the North. They buried in the mountains most of their 
dead, and carried off a portion of their wounded. Their loss 
was estimated at one hundred killed, and ninety prisoners. 
Our loss was ten killed, fourteen wounded, and sixty-four 
prisoners. The combinations of the great Confederate strat- 
egist were foiled by the genius of the Federal commander. 

SCOUTING AGAIN. 

A series of skirmishes by small bodies of troops followed 
the withdrawal of Gen. Lee's forces to their old positions. 
The orders of Gen. Reynolds were to hold his line at all 
hazards. He was not prepared, if he had been permitted, to 
advance it. He could only harrass the enemy by reconnois- 
sances, and seek to cut off his detachments wherever they 
could be found. Our skirmishers followed up the enemy as 
they retired. A cavalry picket post was established at Point 
Mountain, and kept there until the swelling of the mountain 



182 CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 

torrents from the rains rendered it difficult longer to commu- 
nicate with the camp. It would be impossible to enumerate 
all the movements in front during the month of September. 
The men were not suffered to rest in camp while there was an 
enemy in front. Regimental marches to feel the enemy were 
made whenever the turbulent streams in front were fordable. 
We shall refer to a few of these. 

Two companies of the Third Ohio, accompanied by a 
detachment of cavalry under Sergeant Garner, were sent by 
an old Indian trail across the dividing ridge, Turkey Bone, 
to the Back Fork of Elk, to communicate with the outposts 
of Gen. Rosecrans on the Gauley. The trip was over one of 
the wildest regions of that wild country. The route lay up 
Elk Run to Brady's Gate, from whence the party, to avoid 
the scouting parties of both Lee and Floyd, plunged at once 
into the mountain wilderness, with nothing but the long dis- 
used trail to guide them. The cavalrymen had to lead their 
horses, and to help them up and down the steep and rocky 
slopes. The animals were useful to carry the men dry shod 
across the swollen torrents; but when the opposite valleys 
were reached, they were so exhausted and foot-sore that they 
had to be nursed instead of mounted. The expedition was 
four days out, and returned after passing round the flank of 
Lee's army without detection. 

On the twenty-eighth Col. Sullivan, with his own regiment, 
the Thirteenth Indiana, the Sixth Ohio, Lieut. Col. Ander- 
son's, a section of Loomis' battery, under Lieut. Gilham, and 
a detachment of Bracken's cavalry, marched from Elk Water 
to feel the enemy at Mingo Flats, one of their old encamp- 
ments on Valley Mountain, and to ascertain his strength. 
Leaving heavy pickets to hold the passes, and carry informa- 
tion should the enemy attempt to get round in his rear, Col. 
Sullivan cautiously approached within three miles of the 
enemy's pickets. A heavy storm which had been raging 
with fury, swelling the streams to angry torrents, compelled 
him to halt and bivouac. The storm subsided in the night, 
and the streams falling rapidly as they had risen, by day- 
light the troops were again in motion. Reaching the neigh- 
borhood of Marshall's Store, where the enemy's outer pickets 



CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 183 

were reported to be, Lieut. Shields, in charge of the sharp- 
shooters, was ordered to deploy his command and get round 
the post, while Col. Sullivan moved up with three companies. 
Advancing in this way — Shields deployed along the mountain 
slopes, and Sullivan in the road — Marshall's Store was reached 
and passed, without any signs of the enemy. Continuing on, 
the pickets were encountered and driven in, within half a 
mile of the elevated plateau called Mingo Flats. They were 
reinforced by three companies from the camp beyond. Col. 
Sullivan ordered up six companies under Major Foster, who 
drove them across the Flats to their works. The road from 
Marshall's Store was terrible. It had been much used by the 
enemy during the summer, and was almost impassable from 
deep mud. Lieut. Gilham succeeded in getting up one piece 
of artillery. Then disposing his forces to resist an attack, 
should the enemy leave his works to offer battle, Col. Sulli- 
van leisurely surveyed the position. Mingo Flats is a clear- 
ing of about two hundred acres on the mountain — flat, as its 
name indicates. The camp was beyond this clearing, at the 
base of a hill, protected by ravines and earthworks. Col. 
Sullivan estimated the force there at fifteen hundred infantry 
and a squadron of cavalry. 

Having accomplished the object of his march Col. Sullivan 
prepared to return to camp. The storm, which had only 
lulled, broke out with redoubled fury. To use an expression 
of one of the narrators, " the rain came down in great sheets 
of water." The streams were over their banks, and the 
ravines flooded. The road crosses the Tygart Valley River 
in three or four places, between the Valley Mountain and 
Elk Water camp. The command succeeded in crossing the 
first ford. By the time it reached the second, the water was 
over the narrow meadows that skirted the banks of the 
stream. Great trees were being whirled rapidly down the 
channel by the boiling and foaming waters. Some of the 
horsemen plunging in were swept away, and with difficulty 
rescued. Two or three men, who, contrary to orders, persist- 
ently attempted to cross were drowned. The troops had to 
bivouac on the mountain side, and wait for the waters to 
subside. This storm is memorable in that region. It was 



184 CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 

one of the most terrible that ever swept over it. In some 
places, particularly at the outlets of small runs, the face of 
the country was entirely changed by the force of the torrents. 
At Cheat Mountain Pass, where Gen. Reynolds so long held 
his head quarters, the little mountain brook we have hereto- 
fore described, forsook its original bed and worked out a new 
channel, carrying out nearly a mile of the Staunton pike with 
it. Here Mr. Howell, of Terre Haute, sutler to the Four- 
teenth Indiana, who had started for Beverly, was drowned 
in attempting to cross the stream on horseback. 

At Elk Water camp the valley was submerged. The Sixth 
Ohio had left their tents standing with all their baggage not 
required by men in light marching order. The turbid water 
was four feet deep all over it during their absence. When 
they returned all their camp comforts had been swept away 
by the angry flood. The water in twelve hours had risen ten 
feet in the valley, and some of the mountain rivulets were 
said to have risen several feet in the same time. 

The Fifteenth and Seventeenth Indiana regiments were out 
in a very exposed position during this terrible storm. They 
had marched for the summit without their tents, and were 
bivouaced on one of the slopes of the mountain, without any 
shelter except what the bending pines and vine covered rocks 
afforded. Their suffering — thinly clad as they were, without 
overcoats or blankets — was such as no pen can adequately 
describe. The Second Virginia was holding the bridle path 
on the ridge, between Elk Water and Cheat summit, and 
although exposed to the storm, they were above the turbu- 
lent streams, and suffered more with cold than by the con- 
centrated force of the waters. On Cheat summit the storm 
raged with greater fury than on the slopes of the Rich Moun- 
tain and Valley Mountain ranges. There it was intensely 
cold. Several small scouting parties were out, and were 
forced to the shelter of rocks over which the water poured 
in cataracts. There was no shelter for the animals on the 
summit, the brush stables having been cut down during the 
seige. Fifteen horses perished during the night. The gal- 
lant but ragged Fourteenth Indiana — the heroes of Cheat 
Mountain — whose name and fame will, while time lasts, be 



CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 185 

associated with that bleak and cheerless mountain peak, 
endured their full share of suffering during the terrible 
storm. 

But we must hasten on. Reconnoissances were pushed in 
every direction, of which those we have described are only a 
sample. The conclusion arrived at was, that a portion of the 
enemy's force had been removed from the Elk Water front, 
to some other scene of operations, and that Gen. Lee himself 
had taken his departure. 

The roads in the rear of both armies had been worn out 
during the campaign, and a sea of mud interposed between 
Staunton and Valley Mountain and the Greenbrier, on one 
side, and between Webster and Elk Water and Cheat Sum- 
mit, on the other. 

There was debatable ground between the fronts, over which 
scouting parties, or "movable columns," alone had passed, 
where the roads were good. The enormous trains to and 
from the base of supplies, had not cut them up. From Elk 
River to Marshall's store, on the Huntersville road, was a 
delightful ride to those who were willing to take the risk of 
a random shot from the bushes. Down the south-eastern 
slope of Cheat Mountain to the Greenbriar, and along the 
little valley to the foot of the Alleghanies, the Staunton pike 
was as firm as before the war. Either army had but to 
remove a few miles back from their original line, to place an 
impassable barrier to artillery in their front. This, the force 
left on Valley Mountain, seems to have done. The column 
in front of Cheat, however, still held their post at the "Trav- 
eler's Repose," at the foot of the Alleghanies. The position 
was fortified with great skill. Their pickets extended to the 
foot of Cheat, and since the advance, they had been stubborn 
m holding the valley. 

THE BATTLE OF GREENBRIAR. 

Gen. Reynolds was reinforced in the latter part of Septem- 
ber by the Seventh and Ninth regiments of Indiana infantry, 
one regiment from Ohio, the Thirty-Second, Col. Ford; by 
Howe's regular battery, and by a company of cavalry from 



186 CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 

Ohio, under Capt. Bobinson, and one from Pennsylvania, 
under Capt. Greenleaf. 

It had long been a cherished idea with Col. Kimball to 
drive the enemy from his position on the Staunton pike. He 
had frequently asked permission to march against the works 
on the Alleghany Mountain, when the enemy's principal 
camp was there, and afterwards to move against the fortifi- 
cations at Greenbriar, with such force as could be spared. 
But while the Elk Water front of our line was threatened 
by Gen. Lee, this favor could not be granted to the gallant 
Colonel. Having satisfied himself by reconnoissances in 
force, in the direction of Hunter sville, that Gen. Lee had 
abandoned all idea of forcing a passage down Tygart's Val- 
ley, and as the mud was impassable between his camps on 
that road and our forces, Gen. Reynolds resolved to throw a 
large force temporarily on the top of Cheat Mountain, and 
feel the position, which frowned in front, and which the 
rebels boasted was impregnable. 

It was with this view that the Fifteenth and Seventeenth 
Indiana had been ordered up the mountain; and other pre- 
parations made for a march on that line. The Thirteenth 
Indiana, Howes' and Loomis' batteries, and the cavalry, were 
moved there so soon as the swollen streams fell sufficiently to 
admit of their being forded. The temporary bridges erected 
during the summer had all been swept away by the floods. 
The storms followed each other in such quick succession, that, 
rapidly as the streams ran out, it seemed almost impossible to 
get three days' food for any considerable force, of men, and 
forage for animals, collected on the Summit. The road up 
the north-west slope of the mountain had become impassible. 
Where it passed into the pine thickets it had been worn three 
or four feet deep, and the mingled mud and rocks, in which 
the wheels sunk to their axels, so impeded transportation 
that it took several days to get a train through. 

After incredible labor, the ammunition, and three or four 
days supplies of food for men and horses, were landed on the 
Summit, and six thousand men, with three batteries of artil- 
lery, and three companies of cavalry, were resting on the 
cold bleak crest of the inhospitable Cheat, ready at a word 



CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 187 

to move down its eastern slope, where small skirmishing par- 
ties had so often gone. The clouds hung gloomily. The 
chilling winds moaned plaintively through the pine trees, 
and cut into the very flesh of the thinly clad soldiers. The 
sun might be shining cheerfully in the little valleys at the 
mountain base, but all the time preparations were going on 
for the reconnoissance, the Summit of Cheat was enveloped 
in heavy black clouds, or in a thick mist, which would soak 
those exposed to it thoroughly as a rain storm. The only 
chance for living through such weather was by building huge 
fires, and these it was difficult to have without exciting the 
suspicion of the enemy that a heavy force was concentrating 
to attack them. The march to Staunton and the occupation 
of the rich valley of the Shenandoah, had long been a favorite 
dream with the men. They could never become reconciled 
to the idea that they should be kept in those cold and cheer- 
less mountains, merely to hold a country which, in their esti- 
mation, was not worth the life of one brave man, while the 
garden of Virginia lay apparently within their grasp. They 
hoped to winter at Staunton, and they were willing — nay 
anxious, to be led across the intervening barriers, confident 
that they could fight their way to that goal of their hopes. 
As they gathered around their camp fires on those cold, damp 
October days and nights, and noted the preparations around 
them, they hoped it meant a march straight forward through 
those bleak hills to a more hospitable clime. Cheerfully they 
spoke of these things, and of their willingness to take the 
chances of obtaining supplies by the way, rather than winter 
where they were. But no permanent advance was intended. 
It was difficult to get subsistence to the army even to the 
western slope of Cheat, and beyond, it would have been an 
impossibility; yet the soldiers loved to indulge in the fancy 
that before the snows of winter whitened the hill tops, they 
would move onward and shake hands with the Union army 
of the Potomac, on the banks of the Shenandoah. 

The movement contemplated, however, was only a recon- 
noissance. Gen. Reynolds deemed it prudent to feel the 
strength of the enemy's fortified position, and ascertain his, 
force, before he matured his plans for its reduction. The 



188 CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 

reconnoissance terminated in a battle, although that was not 
the intention. 

On the morning of the third of October the troops com- 
menced their march down the mountain. A drizzling rain 
was falling. The Thirty-Second Ohio, Col. Ford, with one 
piece of Daum's Virginia battery, took the advance, so far as 
the Gum road. This road was a mountain path, which leaves 
the pike a mile above the valley, and winds through the hills 
to the Green Bank road, on the left flank of the enemy's 
works. It was a noted spot, where our scouting and small 
reconnoitering parties had frequently been ambushed, and it 
was important that it should be held by a strong and reliable 
force, to guard against an attack on the flank or rear of the 
advancing column. Col. Ford was to halt his command here 
and hold the road. It was about five miles by the pike from 
the enemy's works, and eight or nine by the path to the Green 
Bank road. 

After giving the advance under Col. Ford an hour's start, 
the reconnoitering column moved down the mountain in the 
following order : The Ninth and Fourteenth Indiana, Twenty- 
Fourth Ohio, Seventeenth Indiana, Loomis' battery, six ten- 
pound rifled Parrotts, Thirteenth Indiana, Howe's regular 
battery, four brass six pounders, and two ten pound howit- 
zers. The reserves — Fifteenth Indiana, Twenty-Fifth Ohio, 
Lieut. Col. Richardson, and Bracken's Indiana, Robinson's 
Ohio, and Greenfield's Pennsylvania cavalry companies — 
immediately followed. 

Col. Milroy prepared to encounter the enemy's pickets 
after passing the Gum road, and deployed two companies as 
skirmishers. He met with no opposition until he reached 
the first Greenbriar bridge just after daylight. A company 
was stationed there, which delivered a random volley and 
fled. One of Milroy's men was killed and another wounded. 
He crossed the bridge and halted until the column came up. 

The little valley of the Greenbriar, upon which the Union 
troops were now entering in force, is one of the most pictur- 
esque spots in Virginia. It is about six miles long and two 
wide. The cold pine clad Cheat is at one end, and the Alle- 
ghany at the other, the spurs from each interlocking on the 



CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 189 

sides, softening on the left to an open grove and thickly tan- 
gled with undergrowth on the right. To look upon the little 
dell from the road or the hill sides one wonders where the 
river which dances through the meadows enters, and where 
it takes its exit. The openings in the hills are so narrow that 
the trees interlock across the chasms, and it requires a critical 
survey to trace the stream. The pike runs through this vale, 
crossing the winding river at the foot of Cheat and at the 
foot of the Alleghany range. The enemy's works, which 
they had named Camp Bartow, were located where the pike 
crossing the little stream at a sharp angle, receives the Green 
Bank road, and commences its winding ascent of the Alle- 
ghany. A noted tavern called the ; ' Travelers Repose," and 
a mill stood near the bank of the river. The mill race run- 
ning on the bank eight or ten feet above the ordinary level 
of the river, skirted the right flank and two-thirds of the 
front of the works, forming a double moat for the first line 
of intrenchments. In the rear of the house and stables, the 
ground rising in terraces, was girdled with rifle pits. The 
defences on the left flank were screened by the thick timber 
which clothed the hill down to the water's edge. They could 
not be seen at any time during the battle, but they were after- 
wards found to be stronger than those in front and on the 
right. 

The valley is winding. The gently sloping hill on the left, 
as if to assert its mountain origin, about half way up the 
valley, throws out a rough spur, covered with dense under- 
growth, and the thicket extended to the river on the opposite 
side. This spur hid the terraced camp from our forces. It 
was to this thicket the pickets retreated from the bridge. A 
reinforcement of six companies had been sent out to assist 
them in holding it. Col. Kimball, with his Fourteenth Indi- 
ana, was ordered to charge it in line, while Col. Milroy, with 
the Ninth, and Col. Dumont, with the Seventh, marched by 
the flank along the river, where they would be prepared to 
give an enfilading fire and join in the pursuit. Steadily, as 
if on parade, the Fourteenth, with their ragged garments flut- 
tering in the breeze, formed across the road, and with a cheer 
moved up, preserving a beautiful alignment. The right wing, 



190 CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 

under Kimball, was on the level; the left, under Major Har- 
row, on the slope, facing the ragged spur. The Fourteenth 
had no desire to waste ammunition, and paid no attention to 
the random shots from the bushes. They reserved their fire 
until they entered the thicket, when Kimball gave the order, 
and a ringing volley started the rebels from their ambush. 
They broke and fled. The Seventh and Ninth Regiments 
were by this time on their flank, and poured a volley into them. 
They were thus driven to the hill on our left, and eagerly 
the Fourteenth clambered up the rocks after them, driving 
them from cover to cover, until the bugles sounded the recall. 
The number of the enemy killed in this charge was never 
known. Sixteen dead bodies were found in the bushes, and 
ten or twelve prisoners were taken. 

The approaches being thus cleared, Gen. Reynolds selected 
the ground for Loomis' battery. Loomis moved rapidly up, 
unlimbered his guns, and opened fire. The enemy replied 
from a battery near the house, and from some guns on the 
crest of the hill, concealed by the thicket which crowned it. 
In the meantime Capt. Howe had selected a spot within six 
hundred yards of the enemy's first line of fortifications, and 
dashed up to it over the meadows. Daum followed with his 
single gun. The infantry, except the reserves, advanced as 
supports to the artillery. In a few minutes the thirteen guns 
were pouring a tornado of shot and shell into the devoted 
rebel camp, tearing into shreds tents and wagons, and driv- 
ing the troops to the shelter of their ditches, or the woods 
in the rear. The enemy replied briskly, but at random, and 
did but little damage. Very few of their shells exploded. 
They were picked up all over the field. The roar for thirty- 
five minutes was terrific. The artillerists, on both sides, 
worked without cessation. Loomis advanced his battery 
and sent shells from his Parrotts into the wooded hill, where 
the enemy had masked one of his batteries. The view of 
the field during this cannonade was beautiful to those who 
loved the noise and roar of battle. The sun had broken 
through the clouds which had hung over the hills in the 
early morning, and glistened from the proud array of bayo- 
nets stretched across the meadows, and moving along the 



CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 191 

slopes of' the hill to the left. Our whole force was in full view 
of the works, the reserves having advanced beyond the knotty 
spur. The cavalry was in column on the road. The Four- 
teenth Indiana and the Twenty-Fourth Ohio, were advanced 
along the open woods to our left. The Ninth Indiana was 
watching our right flank, skirmishing with the enemy, who 
had sent out sharpshooters to annoy us from the thickets 
on the river hank. 

The fire of the enemy gradually slackened, it was then 
discovered that all the guns, except one, in his first tier of 
entrenchments were silenced. Upon this one gun the whole 
weight of our batteries was poured, but without effect. It 
continued to reply. The gunners got range on Howe and 
Daum. Damn's gun was disabled by a solid shot, and two 
of Howe's men, and several of his horses, were killed. The 
guns of both batteries were discharged simultaneously at the 
spirited piece, and forced it to retire to the shelter of a knoll, 
from" whence it occasionally emerged during the engagement, 
and delivered a shot. But its power was gone. It was 
conjectured that the skillful gunners, who handled it in the 
early part of the engagement, were killed, for its shots were 
henceforth harmless. During the cannonade Gen. Reynolds 
advanced so closely to the works that he had a full view of 
the position. He accomplished his object and wished to 
retire. But about this time a number of wagons were seen 
winding down the mountain, and it was reported heavy rein- 
forcements for the enemy were arriving by the Green Bank 
and Monterey roads. To give color to this story a rifle gun, 
not yet heard from, opened from one of the upper terraces. 
The enthusiasm of the Colonels, who had with deep interest 
watched the cannonade, was fired. They clustered around 
the General urging for permission to storm the works. The 
General positively refused, but consented to let them make a 
flank movement to our left, and attempt a dislodgment from 
that direction. The Seventh, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Indi- 
ana, and the Twenty-Fourth Ohio were selected, the Seventh 
leading. At the same time the Ninth Indiana was to move 
up on our right, and the Thirteenth Indiana and Twenty-Fifth 
Ohio in front. The cavalry was also put in position to charge, 



192 CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 

the moment the road was opened by the infantry. The ene- 
my observed the movement and prepared to check it. They 
massed their remaining guns under cover, and as the flanking 
column moved for their works, they hurled at it a perfect 
hailstorm of grape and canister. The Seventh staggered 
and threw the column into confusion. They soon rallied. 
Gen. Keynolds, who had yielded only to the importunate 
entreaties of his regimental commanders, sent a peremptory 
order for them to retire. 

Had the camp been stormed it would have been a barren 
victory. The roads in the rear were open, and there was no 
probability of capturing the men. They could escape over 
the hills from the pursuit of cavalry. The practiced eye of 
the General also discovered that the enemy, even in their 
retreat, could slaughter his men from the rocky and wooded 
hill sides. The batteries shelled the hills where it was sup- 
posed the reinforcements were, until their ammunition was 
exhausted, then they limbered up and leisurely retired. Our 
loss in the action was ten killed, and thirty-two wounded. 
The enemy's loss was heavy in the infantry fight at the out- 
post The Southern accounts state that our artillery firing 
was not destructive. Gen. Jackson, in his report, acknowl- 
edges a loss of six killed and eight wounded in the entrench- 
ments. His loss in the picket fight was over two hundred. 

Our troops were under the enemy's guns for four hours. 
With the exception of the slight disorder in the Seventh 
Indiana, they were cool and steady as the bravest veterans. 
The regiments supporting the batteries were required to lie 
down, and when the orders were given to retire many of the 
men, notwithstanding the furious cannonade, were sound 
asleep, and had to be roughly shaken to rouse them for the 
march. In one compan}^ of the Thirteenth Indiana a small 
squad had collected, and were deeply absorbed in a game of 
seven up, when Col. Sullivan rode along the line ordering 
them to fall in. The game seems to have been very exciting, 
for one of the men swore he had high, low and jack in his 
hand, and would take the penalty of a court martial before 
he would throw up. 

Leisurely the troops marched to the Summit, where bivou- 



CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 19.3 

acing for the night, the several regiments returned to their 
camps the day after the fight. 

THE ENEMY RETIRES. 

Gen. Reynolds returned to Elk Water and sent the Third 
and Sixth Ohio, who had been left to hold that post during 
the reconnoissance, to watch the camp at Big Spring. A 
portion of the Second Virginia, three pieces of Loomis' bat- 
tery, and Capt. Robinson's Ohio cavalry accompanied the 
expedition. Col. Marrow, of the Third Ohio, was in com- 
mand. In a drenching rain, as usual, the column took the 
line of march from Elk "Water. The next day it reached 
Mingo Flats, four miles from Big Springs, where the enemy's 
advanced camp had been found by the force under Col. Sul- 
livan. The place was deserted. The camp had covered an 
area of a thousand acres on a hill sloping gently from the 
center to a range of lofty hills, which, like giant sentinels, 
guarded it on every side. The autumn foliage of the oak,, 
with its variegated tints, crowned by the deep green of the 
pines waving defiantly above the battlemented rocks, made 
the scene indescribably beautiful. Here the infantry bivouaced, 
by the side of the clear streams gushing from the rocks, and 
Col. Marrow, with the cavalry, pushed on. Arriving at Big 
Spring, where Gen. Lee's headquarters had been, he found 
ruin and desolation in striking contrast to the grandeur and 
beauty of the scene which a distant view had presented. The 
enemy had evidently retired hastily and in disorder. The 
tents were standing, but cut into shreds; army stores, strewn, 
around, were trampled into the deep mud; the charred 
remains of barrels and boxes were everywhere visible; wagons 
with their axles cut and spokes broken were sticking in 
the mire; gun barrels, bowie knife blades, and pistol barrels, 
were found amid the embers of the fires which had consumed 
their stocks and handles, and great masses of cartridges were 
trampled into the muddy pools. The mud from this point 
onward was very deep. To escape with any of their stores 
the enemy had been compelled to cut trees and make cordu- 
roy roads. Frequently wagons were to be seen stuck immova- 
Vol. I.— IS. 



194 CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 

bly in the mud and abandoned. The sites of fifteen detached 
camps were counted between Big Spring and the crossing of 
Greenbriar river, not one of which had held less than a regi- 
ment — many of them had held brigades. 

It was ascertained that the rear guard of the enemy, on 
this line was at Huntersville, the sick and wounded at Warm 
Springs in Greenbriar county, and the main army on its 
march to some other scene of operations. 

This virtually ended the campaign of Gen. Eeynolds in 
Western Virginia. Gen. Jackson abandoned his camp at the 
Greenbriar, and fell back to the summit o/ the Alleghany 
range, unwilling to risk another bombardment in his strong- 
hold at Gamp Bartow. Had he remained, Gen. Eeynolds, 
with the force then at his disposal, and the knowledge he 
had acquired of the country, would have cut him off. 

Colonels Dumont and Milroy had in the meantime been 
promoted. The Cheat Mountain army was divided into three 
brigades. In the month of November the most of the troops 
were ordered to Kentucky. Gen. Eeynolds was ordered to 
report in person to Gen. Eosecrans at Wheeling, and Gen- 
eral Milroy, with one brigade, was left to hold the mountain 
passes. 

THE BATTLE OP ALLEGHANY. 

Gen. Milroy, on being assigned the command of a brigade, 
established his headquarters on Cheat Summit, and during 
the months of October and November scouted the hills and 
valleys with small detachments. The little valley of Greenbrier 
again became the theater of frequent skirmishes. Some of 
these were sharp and well contested. The evacuation of 
Camp Bartow left the Green Bank road open to our recon- 
noitering parties, and both flanks of the enemy's position 
were thoroughly examined. The General himself, with a 
small body of cavalry, advanced to the base of the steep bluff 
upon which the enemy's works were erected. Col. Edward 
Johnson, of Georgia, had been left in command when Gen. 
Jackson was ordered South. He had a force of twelve hun- 
dred Confederate troops, together with seven or eight hundred 



(MEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 195 

Virginia militia. Small detachments were also stationed at 
Monterey, Hun tersville, and other points inaccessible to any 
considerable Union force. Johnson felt secure in his moun- 
tain fastness. He disregarded the demonstrations of Milroy 
against his rock bound fortress, but indulged his troops in 
occasional skirmishes with the restless detachments of Mil- 
roy in the valley. Milroy chafed like a caged lion. Johnson 
was willing to accommodate him with small affairs, but when- 
ever a battalion moved down the valley, he drew in his pick- 
ets, and quietly watched from the heights. On one occasion 
only, when three or four companies had bivouaced near the 
deserted Camp Bartow, and built large fires, did he consent 
to march out. He did it so quietly, that the first intimation 
the detachment had of the presence of an enemy was a volley 
upon their flanks from the wooded hillsides. Our brave men 
finable to approach the concealed enemy, collected their 
wounded and retired. 

In the month of December Gen. Milroy succeeded to the 
command of the Cheat Mountain division of the army, and 
established his headquarters at Huttonsville. His force con- 
sisted of the Ninth and Thirteenth Indiana, the Twenty-Fifth 
aud Thirty-Second Ohio, the Second Virginia, Bracken's 
cavalry, and an artillery company without field guns, under 
Capt. Higby. The Ninth Indiana was stationed at the Sum- 
mit, the Twenty-Fifth Ohio and Second Virginia at Huttons- 
ville, with an outpost at Elk Water, the Thirteenth Indiana 
and the Thirty-Second Ohio at Beverly, Rigby's batttery at 
the Pass, and the cavalry scattered along the line, wherever 
there was a stream to cross, a scout to make, or a message to 
be carried. 

"With such of this small force as could be spared from the 
duty of guarding his long line — subject to incursions of guer- 
rillas from Hardy and Tucker counties — Gen. Milroy resolved 
to attack Johnson in his fortified camp at Alleghany. 

The Twenty-Fifth Ohio, under Col. Jones, and a detachment 
of the Second Virginia, under Major Owens, moved to the 
Summit on the twelfth, and three hundred of the Thirteenth 
Indiana, under Major Dobbs, and one company of the Thirty- 
Second Ohio, under Capt. Hamilton, marched from Beverly 



196 CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 

for the same destination. The roads in the valley were 
almost impassible. The deep mud was covered with a light 
frozen crust, which broke at every step. The provision traina 
had to be forced by the hands of the men to the foot of the 
mountain slopes. The mountains were covered with snow. 
The troops were exhausted when they reached the Summit, 
but were required, after a short rest, to resume the march. 
The Emth Indiana, Col. Moody, descended to the Greenbriar 
Valley on the morning of the twelfth, and skirmished with the 
enemy to retain possession of the temporary bridges over the 
river. By ten o'clock at night the whole force, numbering 
two thousand men, was concentrated at Camp Bartow, but 
many of them so exhausted that it was evident the mountain 
march before them would overtask their energies. The night 
was intensely cold. Gen. Milroy allowed the men to build 
fires and make coffee. Soon the mountain sides were red 
with flames. Some person set fire to the mill — the only build- 
ing at that time left standing in the Valley — and the flames 
from the dry timbers ascended toward the clear cold sky. 
To surprise the enemy was now impossible. From any of 
the heights overlooking the bivouac he could count our men, 
and distinguish the arm of service to which they belonged. 

Gen. Milroy called the commanders of detachments to his 
camp fire, unfolded his plan and gave his instructions. Col. 
Moody, with the Ninth Indiana and the detachment of the 
Second Virginia, was to march six miles by the Green Bank 
road, then turning to his right ascend the mountain and 
attack the left flank of the enemy. Their batteries were placed 
at the edge of the bluff commanding the Staunton pike. 
These Col. Moody was to charge and capture. The guide 
asserted that the road was clear, and the guns were unpro- 
tected by either abattis or earthworks. Capt. Rigby, with 
sixty unarmed cannoneers, was to accompany Col. Moody, 
and turn the guns upon the enemy when they were taken by 
the infantry. The brow of the hill was to be reached quietly, 
and the attack made at four o'clock precisely. Col. Jones, 
with the Twenty-Fifth Ohio and the detachments of the 
Thirteenth Indiana and Thirty-Second Ohio, was to move 
up the mountain by the pike to the foot of Buffalo ridge, 



CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 197 

turn to his left, scale the heights, and charge the right and 
rear of the works simultaneously with Col. Moody's attack 
on the left. The reserve under Major Dobbs, consisting of 
sixty-seven men of the Thirteenth Indiana, under Captains 
Clinton and Johnston, and forty cavalrymen under Captain 
Bracken, was to accompany Col. Jones' column to the foot 
of the bluff and turn to the right on the road, which was cut 
into the face of the hill at an angle of forty-five degrees, 
striking the summit and turning square to the left upon the 
plateau, at the point where the batteries were massed. The 
reserve was to wait on this road, where it was supposed they 
would be out of range of the batteries, which were so placed 
as to sweep the road beyond. Col. Moody took up his line 
of march about eleven o'clock, and at twelve the column of 
Col. Jones and the reserve moved up the mountain. It was 
a clear starlight night. At every step upward the cold 
increased in intensity. Silently and cautiously the command 
advanced. The measured tread of the men on the hard frozen 
ground was the only sound. The hill side gave no indications 
of a concealed foe. An ambush was expected by the men, and 
there were a hundred places before they arrived at the foot of 
the fortified ridge, which they proposed to storm, where their 
ranks might have been decimated by a single volley. The 
first picket post was met about one mile from Buffalo ridge. 
The Twenty-Fifth Ohio, being in advance, received their fire 
and had one man killed. The pickets fled over the hills, and 
reached their camp. From this time until the battle opened 
on the right an ominous silence rested over the hill soon des- 
tined to witness the hardest battle, for the number engaged, 
that had yet been fought in "Western Virginia. 

Col. Jones left the pike while the stars were brilliantly 
twinkling in the clear cold sky, and advanced up the steep 
and rocky face of the ridge. The distance to the summit, 
by the route traveled was about one mile. As the command 
.approached the brow of the hill the enemy's pickets were 
discovered, but they retired without exchanging shots with 
our men. A company of the Thirteenth Indiana, led by 
Lieut. McDonald, of Gen. Keynolds' staff, was in advance. 
They were ordered to follow the pickets at double quick. 



198 CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 

They soon reached the edge of the woods and were in full 
view of the camp. The enemy was formed and advancing. 
Lieut. McDonald deployed into line. Col. Jones formed the 
remainder of the command on his left, and the whole line 
opened fire. After a few rounds the enemy retreated in con- 
fusion. They were rallied, and again advanced, firing with 
great vigor. Then it was, that some of our men, startled at 
the bold front and rapid advance of the enemy, fell to the 
rear. Capts. Charlesworth and Crow, of the Twenty-Fifth 
Ohio, Capt. Hamilton of the Thirty-Second, Lieut. McDonald 
and Capts. Myers and Newland of the Thirteenth Indiana, 
rallied them, and the enemy, unable to face the storm of lead, 
again fell back. Their next effort was to turn the right flank 
of our line. In this they failed, but our men, in changing 
ground to meet the attack, fell into confusion, and it required 
extraordinary exertion on the part of the officers to again 
present an unbroken line. Three other attempts to drive our 
force from the woods were met and repulsed. The enemy 
then attempted a flank movement on the left. Col. Jones 
ordered a portion of the command to advance and attack the 
flanking party, which was done with a yell. They broke and 
our men pursued to the cabins within the camp enclosure, 
when they in turn were driven back. The firing until this 
time had been very heavy. Col. Moody's command had not 
appeared. Many of the men having expended their ammu- 
nition and become discouraged, left the field. The efforts of 
the officers longer to control them were unavailing. A little 
band of choice spirits however, presented a bold front to the 
advancing column. The artillery at this time finding their 
efforts on the reserve unavailing, turned upon the devoted 
band of heroes who still contested the field on their right. 
Their situation was desperate, and they fought like demons, 
driving the heavy column of the enemy towards their cabins. 
Col. Jones then gathered his little band and descended the 
hill. The enemy did not pursue, for Col. Moody's column 
about this time appeared on their left. 

While the fight on the right was progressing, and up till 
the moment that the last desperate charge was made upon 
the thinned ranks of Col. Jones, the batteries on the hill had 



CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 199 

been vainly striving to get range on the reserve. They could 
sweep the road up to the point where it turned to the right 
to ascend the ridge, but there from the configuration of the 
ground, they could not land a shot or shell. The persistent 
effort however, was annoying, and Gen. Milroy resolved to 
take it by a charge from the road. He had sent off all but 
sixteen men of his cavalry, to rally the fugitives from the 
right, and to form them if possible, a short distance in the 
rear, under the protection of a spur. Ordering Capts. Clin- 
ton and Johnson, of the Thirteenth Indiana, with their small 
command of sixty men, to deploy on the hill side and under 
cover of the timber get a position on the left hand side of 
the road facing the battery, Gen. Milroy put himself at the 
head of those sixteen horsemen, and dashed up the pike to 
capture the guns. By this time the Ninth Indiana, on the 
enemy's left, had opened fire. Milroy got right under the 
enemy's guns, which were placed on a perpendicular bank 
fifteen feet above the road bed, and protected by heavy tim- 
bers. The grape shot flew over the heads of the horsemen. 
The cannoneers, enraged that they could not depress their 
pieces, threw shot by hand, and hurled stones over the bank. 
In the meantime Capts. Clinton and Johnson had ascended 
the hill where they were met by the enemy's troops returning 
from the fight with Col. Jones on the right. By a rapid 
movement one battalion of this force was thrown in the rear 
of the little handful of the Thirteenth. Their capture seemed 
inevitable. Clinton and Johnson drew their men together, 
and charging with a shout upon the center of the enemy's 
line, broke through, and drove thirteen prisoners before them 
to the foot of the bluff. Milroy and his cavalrymen were left 
in the gorge. From the position he occupied no Union 
infantry could be seen. He was powerless there. The shots 
from the carbines of his men were wasted on the heavy tim- 
bers. The broken battalion through which Clinton and 
Johnson had charged was approaching. Gen. Milroy gave 
the order to gallop to the turn in the road at the foot of the 
bluff*. He was followed by a storm of grape and canister 
from the batteries, and by a volley from the infantry on the 
brow of the hill; but the iron and leaden hail sung its song of 
battle tar above his head. 



200 CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 

The figlit was over in this part of the field, and nothing 
remained but to collect the wounded, and carry them to the 
hospital established by Dr. Gall, of the Thirteenth Indiana, 
under the protection of a spur of a hill. The Doctor 
climbed the hill with Col. Jones' column, and remained 
under the leaden storm until the men of the Thirteenth 
begged him, for their sakes, to retire. At great personal risk, 
he sought the wounded, and had them conveyed to a cabin, 
where he assiduously labored in relieving their sufferings. 
The wounded had to pass for a quarter of a mile over a ridge, 
swept by the enemy's batteries. Four of his guns constantly 
played on this sole avenue of escape ; but Providence threw 
a protecting mantle over our wounded in passing over that 
ridge. JSTot one of them was hit. Several shells burst in the 
midst of men as they slowly toiled along with their precious 
freight of wounded men; but the shells were harmless. The 
cavalry were carrying the last of our wounded on their 
horses, when half way over the ridge, four shells fell in their 
midst. The only effect was to startle the horses, at which a 
loud laugh rung out from the enemy's camps. 

The column of Col. Moody was still engaged. Every shot 
and shout could be heard where Gen. Milroy stood. He was 
within half a mile of the position they occupied. A deep 
ravine, and an inaccessible bluff, interposed. It was evident 
Col. Moody had failed in taking the batteries; for now that 
the reserve was out of sight, and the exposed ridge no longer 
traversed by the wounded and those who were caring for 
them, the guns were all turned in the direction of Col. 
Moody's command. Gen. Milroy became uneasy for the 
safety of his men. His favorite Ninth, every man of whom 
he loved, might be in peril. To reach them by any road 
known to the guides or scouts, he must return to Camp Bar- 
tow and follow the route they had taken. This he resolved 
to do. Leaving Dr. Gall with the wounded, he started down 
the mountain with the cavalry. The distance he had to go 
was sixteen miles. He rode at the utmost speed down the 
steep hills, and up the rugged slopes. As he passed through 
Camp Bartow, where Col. Jones' column had re-formed, and 
was gathering up the stragglers, he gave orders, without 






CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 201 

drawing rein, for a train to be sent to Doctor Gall for the 
wounded, and for other wagons to follow him. One by one 
the escort fell off. Their horses gave out. Some fell on the 
rocky slopes, and injured their riders. Two miles on the 
Green Bank road, stragglers from Moody's column were met. 
Some were in charge of wounded comrades, who had been 
brought from the field; but the great majority had never 
been in the fight after the first charge was made on the bat- 
tery. They reported that the Nmth was still skirmishing in 
the woods on the bluff, but were in a position to retire at any 
moment. The roar of the enemy's artillery still reverberated 
through the hills, and the blue puffs of smoke could be seen 
on the left curling up over the summit. Gen. Milroy dashed 
on. When he reached the point where Col. Moody had left 
the road to climb the ridge, he suddenly checked his panting 
steed, and pointing up, exclaimed, "My glorious Ninth!" 
On the face of the hill, troops were seen slowly descending. 
The spaces between the companies, even at that distance, 
could be distinguished. The Ninth was retiring in perfect 
order, bearing with them their dead and wounded. It was 
not many minutes until the General was in their midst, and 
welcomed with lively demonstrations of regard. 

Col. Moody, after leaving the Green Bank road, had found 
the track he was to pursue exceedingly difficult on a night 
march. The ascent up the rugged bluff 1 was far more pre- 
cipitous than he expected to find it. The hour for the attack 
had passed when he reached its base. They heard the firing 
and hastened on. But with all their efforts, it was eight 
o'clock before they reached the brow of the hill. A sharp 
picket fight took place there. Col. Moody formed his line 
on a slight depression in the ground. Contrary to the repre- 
sentation of scouts, a thick abattis of timber extended three 
or four hundred yards in front of the intrenchments. CoL 
Moody ordered a charge. Gallantly his men rushed forward; 
and while struggling in the fallen timber, a murderous fire 
was poured upon them. Volley after volley followed. So 
thick were the obstructions, that Col. Moody at once saw 
that to continue the attempt to reach the works over the 
tangled heaps of logs and brush would insure the destruction 



202 CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 

of his command. The men lay down behind the logs, and 
kept up the light for four hours. Major Milroy now asked to 
lead a storming party. He walked back and forth along the 
line, encouraging the men to continue the fight. At one 
time he got close up to the works, and an entire company 
rose and fired at him. The shots passed over his head. 
Turning indignantly, he taunted the rebels with their bad 
shooting, and told them to fire low. A laugh from the rifle 
pits, and a promise to hit him next time, was the reply. 
Many of our men crawled close up to the works, and con- 
versed w T ith the rebels, daring them to take a shot singly or in 
platoons. The instances of individual daring were numerous. 
Joseph Gordon, of the Ninth Indiana, was killed while stand- 
ing on a log calling for an officer to lead a storming party he 
had improvised. But a second attempt to storm the works, 
with thinned ranks, and with the whole force of the enemy 
centered at that point, would have been murder. Col. Moody 
would not permit it. Judging that our left wing had been 
repulsed, he held the enemy from pursuit, and retired in time 
to reach the main road before nightfall. He drew off his 
men leisurely, and in splendid order. The enemy did not 
dare to pursue. 

For the numbers actually engaged, this was the bloodiest 
fight which had yet occurred in Western Virginia. Our loss, 
by the reports on file, was twenty killed, one hundred and 
seven wounded, and ten missing. The enemy report about 
the same. The losses on both sides were doubtless heavier. 

The reports of the battle, published at the time, in the 
papers North and South, were incorrect. The dispatches 
North claimed that the enemy was completely defeated, and 
that they burned their camp and retired to Staunton. The 
dispatches South boldly asserted that our troops were driven 
off in confusion, and pursued down the mountain with great 
slaughter. The truth is, the enemy defended their position 
with great valor, and at no period of the engagement did 
they show symptoms of deserting their post. Our attack 
was repulsed on both flanks, from the failure of the columns 
to begin the fight simultaneously, thus enabling the enemy 
to beat us in detail. The rebels did not pursue. Not a man 



CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 203 

showed his face outside the intrenchments, as our forces 
moved off. Dr. Gall, who remained on the pike, within a 
mile of the works until late in the night, was uninterrupted, 
and the wagons sent for the wounded returned without having 
been hailed, much less attacked. 

HUNTERSVILLE. 

The last expedition undertaken by Gen. Milroy, while in 
command of the Cheat Mountain division of the army, was 
entirely successful. It was planned with skill, and executed 
with ability. Learning that Gen. Loring had removed his 
headquarters from Huntersville to Staunton, and left a large 
amount of stores at the former place under a small guard, 
Gen. Milroy resolved to destroy them. To reach Hunters- 
ville the attacking force would be obliged to pass a road lead- 
ing directly to the enemy's camp at Alleghany, from whence 
they might be attacked on the flank, or if permitted to pro- 
ceed, their retreat could be cut off. Gen. Milroy, to prevent 
the possibility of failure, determined to divide his force into 
three columns. The Ninth Indiana, under Col. Moody, was 
ordered to bivouac at old Camp Bartow, and make a feint of 
moving up the mountain. A battalion of the Twenty-Fifth 
Ohio and a detachment of the Second Virginia, with Bracken's 
cavalry, were to move through Elk "Water, and by a rapid 
march reach Huntersville, destroy the stores and return. 
This column was under the command of Major Webster, of 
the Twenty-Fifth Ohio. A third column under command of 
Lt. Col. Richardson, was to follow Major Webster to the 
junction of the Green Bank road with the Huntersville pike, 
and hold that position until he returned. 

Major Webster made a rapid march. From the old camp 
of Gen. Lee at Big Spring, the road was blockaded with tim- 
ber. Without waiting to remove the obstructions, the teams 
were left with a small guard, and the infantry and cavalry 
went round the obstructions. The rebels, notwithstanding 
the celerity of the movement, were advised of the approach. 
On January fourth, Major Webster reached the Greenbriar 
bridge. The enemy was in position to dispute his passage. 



204 CHEAT MOUNTAIN CAMPAIGN. 

Intrenchments, evidently thrown up before the retirement 
of the rebel army, extended on each side of the bridge, 
behind which the infantry was posted. Their cavalry was 
on the opposite bank. They had no cannon. Major Web- 
ster rode forward and reconnoitered the works. His judg- 
ment was that the force behind the breastworks did not 
exceed three hundred men. Their cavalry could be counted. 
They nearly doubled our force. Seeking a ford a short dis- 
tance below the bridge, Major Webster ordered Lieut. Delzell 
to cross with his command, and charge the rebel cavalry, 
while he moved upon the intrenchments with the infantry. 
Delzell, followed by fifty men, dashed into the stream and 
was soon galloping up the meadow in line. Webster in the 
meantime was moving at double quick upon the breastworks. 
The rebel infantry gave one wild volley and broke for the 
hills. The cavalry, observing the flight of the infantry, 
turned and fled, before Delzell could get within striking dis- 
tance. The chase was exciting. Our cavalrymen, for weary 
months, had scouted the mountains, and skirmished amid 
rocks and tangled thickets and this was the first chance they 
had to air the heels of their horses on a clear turf in pursuit 
of an enemy. The rebel cavalry fled through the town of 
Huntersville, and the infantry were soon lost to sight among 
the hills on the opposite side of the river, where pursuit was 
hopeless. 

There was no opposition made to the entrance of our 
forces into town. A large amount of commissary and quar- 
termasters stores were found, which were burned with the 
buildings in which they were stored. The jail, so long used 
as a prison for Union citizens and soldiers, was also burned, 
but private property was respected. The command returned 
to Huttonsville without the loss of a man. 



REGIMENTAL HISTOBY. 



CHAPTER VIL 

THIRTEENTH REGIMENT. 

The history of this regiment is full of stirring incidents. 
So gallant has been their conduct, and so invincible have they 
been on the field of battle, that, by common consent, they 
have been named the "Old Guard;" which name they 
proudly cherish, and so far the "Old Guard" has never 
recoiled. 

Organized at Indianapolis in May, 1861, it rendezvoused 
at Camp Sullivan. It was raised as a State regiment, for one 
year, but when the proposition was made to volunteer for 
three years, it was unanimously adopted, and the regiment 
was transferred to the service of the United States. 

Two companies were recruited at Indianapolis; one in 
Miami county; one in Jefferson county; one in Howard 
county; one in Huntington county; one in Washington 
county; one in Ripley county; one in Johnson county; one 
in Bartholomew county. The following is the roster : 

Field and Staff Officers. — Colonel, Jere C. Sullivan, Madi- 
son; Lieutenant Colonel, Horace Heffren, Salem; Major, 
Roberts. Foster, Indianapolis; Adjutant, Charles H. Ross, 
Zanesville, Ohio ; Regimental Quartermaster, Thomas H. 
Collins, New Albany; Surgeon, Ferdinand Mason, Indian- 
apolis; Assistant Surgeon, Alois D. Gall, Indianapolis; Chap- 
lain, Joseph Cotton. 

205 



206 REGIMENTAL HISTORYc 

Company A. — Captain, Cyrus J. Dobbs, Indianapolis ; First 
Lieutenant, George E. Wallace, Indianapolis; Second Lieu* 
tenant, George H. Rupp, Indianapolis. 

Company B. — Captain, John M. Wilson, Peru ; First Lieu- 
tenant, William H. Shields, Peru ; Second Lieutenant, Wil- 
liam F. M. Wallick, Peru. 

Company C — Captain, John C. Burton, Brookville; First 
Lieutenant, Edmund Finn, Brookville; Second Lieutenant, 
James C. Rothrock, Brookville. 

Company D. — Captain, John D»P. A.M. Chauncy, Madison; 
First Lieutenant, Robert Scott, Madison ; Second Lieutenant, 
William C. Stineback, Madison. 

Company E. — Captain, Thomas M. Kirkpatrick, Kokomo; 
First Lieutenant, Barnabas Busby, Kokomo ; Second Lieuten- 
ant, 1ST. P. Richmond, Kokomo. 

Company F. — Captain, Henry A. Johnson, Roanoke; First 
Lieutenant, Isaac Delong, Huntington; Second Lieutenant, 
Harmon H. Hendricks, Huntington. 

Company G. — Captain, Stephen D. Sayles, Salem; First 
Lieutenant, Horace M. Attkisson, Salem ; Second Lieutenant, 
Edward M. Butler, Salem. 

Company H. — Captain, Wharton R. Clinton, Indianapolis; 
First Lieutenant, P. P. Price, Indianapolis; Second Lieuten- 
ant, George Seese, Indianapolis. 

Company I. — Captain, Benjamin H. Myers, Versailles; First 
Lieutenant, John R.Coverdill, Versailles; Second Lieutenant, 
John H. Roerty, Versailles. 

Company K. — -Captain, George W. Harrington, Columbus; 
First Lieutenant, Joseph B. Hunter, Columbus; Second Lieu- 
tenant, Daniel Stryker. 

On the fourth of July the regiment left Indianapolis for 
Western Virginia, arriving at Clarksburgh, Va., during the 
afternoon of the sixth. The next morning it marched for 
Rich Mountain, and reached Roaring Run, at the foot of 
the mountain, on the morning of the tenth. Llere it was 
assigned to Gen. McClellan's command. 

At daylight, on the morning of the eleventh of July, this 
gallant band, only seven days from their quiet homes, moved 
into battle. Preceded by the Eighth and Tenth Indiana, and 



REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 207 

followed by the Nineteenth Ohio, and a company of cavalry, 
all under command of Brig. Gen. Wm. S. Roseerans, the 
column moved along a narrow by-path. Quietly they 
pressed through the woods, over the mountain spurs and 
through deep ravines, until miles of wilderness were traversed. 
About one o'clock our pickets came in sight of the enemy, 
who at once opened on our advance with two pieces of artil- 
lery. The column pressed forward until within range of the 
enemy's rifle pits, when it halted and the different regiments 
took position. 

The enemy was posted behind breastworks on the Beverly 
pike, at the edge of a wood, in a small valley, between the 
Bummits of Rich Mountain. The Thirteenth was on the left. 
The right of our column opened fire, and the regiment moved 
slowly forward. Gen. Rosecrans rode up to the advance and 
ordered a charge. With a wild shout, the glittering bayonets 
of the Thirteenth plunged forward, led by Col. Sullivan. 
The contest was hand to hand, short, sharp, bloody and 
decisive. The enemy fled in terror from their stronghold. 
In less than three hours from the time the first shot was fired, 
our forces took the position and the enemy were fugitives in 
the mountains. The regiment lost eight killed and nine 
wounded. 

It was known that Col. Pegram, with a large force of the 
enemy, was strongly intrenched between the position of the 
regiment audits old camp, so the column halted for the night-. 

On the thirteenth the regiment marched to Beverly. Rest- 
ing a few days, it started, on the twenty-third, up Tygart's 
Valley. Moving up this valley, it passed through Huttons- 
ville, and at dark reached Cheat Mountain Pass. 

On the twenty-ninth of August, the regiment started on a 
Bcouting expedition. Following up a small stream, between 
two mountains, over rocks, brush and fallen timber, the men 
pressed on in the night, guided, at times, by the splashing 
footsteps of their comrades in the mud and water. At mid- 
night the regiment halted, having made a march of twelve 
miles. At three o'clock they resumed the march, and at day- 
light reached Brady's Gates, a small cleared spot on the top 
of a mountain, in an almost unbroken forest. £To enemy 



208 REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

was met, however, and, retracing their steps, through woods 
and mud, the regiment reached Cheat Mountain Pass on the 
first of September. On the third of September the regi- 
ment started on another scouting expedition and reached the 
top of Shaver Mountain, returning on the evening of the 
seventh, after having marched fifty-eight miles. 

On the eleventh of September it was reported that the 
enemy in force, under Gen. R. E. Lee, were moving on our 
positions at Elk "Water and Cheat Mountain Summit, and 
that a force of three thousand were marching round the 
mountain to flank the other camps, or attack us. Next day 
communications were cut off with the Summit. Gen. Rey- 
nolds moved his headquarters to Camp Elk Water. 

At daylight on the thirteenth Col. Sullivan started with 
the regiment to open communications with the Summit. 
Winding up the mountain road the regiment passed the 
camp lately occupied by the enemy, who had just been driven 
away. The enemy retiring from our front, the regiment 
returned to Elk Water, having had sixteen men taken pris- 
oners. 

On the twenty-sixth of September, the regiment moved to 
reconnoiter the enemy's position at Mingo Elats, and, after 
marching through a heavy rain, and fording several streams, 
reached their camp on the second day, to find it swept away 
by the flood. 

The first of October the regiment marched for Cheat Moun- 
tain Summit, arriving there on the second. Here it joined a 
force of six thousand men, under Gen. Reynolds, who was 
about to make a reconnoissance of the enemy's position on 
the Greenbriar River. Leaving the Summit early on the 
morning of the third, on the Staunton pike, our advance, at 
daylight, drove in the enemy's pickets. Crossing the river, 
and turning up a valley to the left, the column came in sight 
of the enemy's position. It consisted of strong fortifications 
at the head of the valley, flanked by steep mountains. Our 
artillery opened fire, and advanced within eight hundred 
yards of the enemy's works. The enemy's artillery replied 
with much spirit. The regiment supported Howe's battery, 
Fourth U. S. Artillery. The valley being narrow, the moun- " 



REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 209 

tains flanking it impassable, there was no room to maneuver. 
A fierce artillery duel took place, lasting until noon, when 
our whole force withdrew. The enemy was found to be very 
strong, in an impregnable position. The regiment lost one 
killed, and one wounded. The next day our forces fell back 
to Cheat Mountain. Soon afterward the enemy abandoned 
his position on the Greenbriar. 

The regiment went into camp near Huttonsville on the 
tenth of October. Lieut. Col. HefFren was transferred to the 
Fiftieth regiment. Major R. S. Foster was promoted to 
Lieutenant Colonel, and Capt. Cyrus J. Dobbs, company A, 
promoted to the Majorship. The men, after their hard 
marches, gained new strength by a short rest in their new 
camp. 

SCOUTING. 

On the twenty-ninth of October the regiment left on a- 
scouting expedition, through an unfrequented and unknown. 
part of this truly wild region. So rough were the roads that 
the rations were placed on pack mules. Passing through 
Huttonsville and Elk "Water, the regiment moved up Tygart's 
Valley, and turned to the right up Point Mountain, bivou- 
acing near Brady's Gate. Ascending Pilot Mountain, it 
marched all day along its ridge, part of the time on a rude 
mountain path. The country was wild and desolate; the 
roads were covered with briars ; and not a house was visible. 
Still the column pushed on. Crossing Holly River, on the 
first of November, it marched over several mountain spurs, 
and again came to the crooked Holly river. Following the 
course of this stream, on a foot path, through a narrow val- 
ley and an unbroken wilderness, save here and there a rude 
cabin, the column pushed on through the chaparral and 
unbroken woods. Presently our scouts were fired on, but 
the guerrillas were speedily captured. About two o'clock, 
November second, the command reached the forks of Holly 
River. A few miles off was the enemy's camp on the Big 
Elk River, under Gen. Floyd. Turning up the left fork of 
the Holly, the regiment climbed Brown's Mountain, and 
Vol L— 14. 



210 REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

marched along its summit; then, leaving the mountain, 
crossed the Little Kanawha, and at night arrived at a place 
called "Fort Pickens." Here, amid the wilds of nature, sur- 
rounded by rebels, with all the energy of the foe brought to 
bear against them, a band of mountaineers had erected a 
small block house, and were holding it against fearful odds. 
True to their country, the Union and the flag, they held their 
own against the guerrillas, and bid them defiance. Thus does 
the Union spirit live in many portions of the South. Bless 
the noble band among these desolate mountains, for they are 
truly a band of heroes! There were sixty of these hardy 
mountaineers; they lived and cooked in their small fort. 
They filled immense iron boilers with coffee, and treated the 
men of the Thirteenth like brothers. One gray-haired vet- 
eran of eighty, being asked if he was not too old to fight, 
drew himself proudly up, and, raising his rifle, said his eye- 
sight was good for two hundred yards. It made the hearts 
of our men strong to hear that brave old patriot speak. 

On the fourth of November, the march was continued 
through a thickly settled and fertile country. All this time 
our scouts were out, sometimes representing themselves as 
fleeing from the Union men, and getting loads of provisions 
for our hungry soldiers, sometimes telling Union citizens who 
they were, and gaining valuable information. 

Bivouacing on Buckhannon River, for a night, the column 
pressed on, and on the fifth reached Middle Fork Bridge, on 
the Beverly pike. The next morning the march was contin- 
ued, over Rich Mountain, and through Beverly. It had 
rained almost incessantly for several days. The roads were 
a floating mass of mud ; the fields, swamps ; sometimes the 
men went down to their knees in the sticky mud. It was 
struggle, splash and struggle. Over boots, and out of 
patience, in the bitter cold of November, our men moved 
resolutely forward, sometimes jovial and sometimes angry; 
hungry as men could be, yet on they pressed. The troops at 
Beverly fed the men as they passed through, and at sundown 
on the sixth they reached their camp, having traveled over 
one hundred and eighty miles in extent, broken up several 
nests of guerrillas, captured nine, and overawed these des- 



REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 211 

peradoes so thoroughly that no organized band could after- 
wards be raised. Such was the famous scouting expedition 
of the Thirteenth, through the mountains of Western Vir- 
ginia. A nine day's march with five day's rations ; a great 
extent of country explored; much valuable information 
obtained; and the loyal men encouraged. 

Col. Sullivan was appointed commander of the post at 
Beverly on the twenty-fifth of November, and the regiment 
performed guard and picket duty for three weeks. On the 
eleventh of December, Major Cyrus J. Dobbs, with about 
two hundred of the regiment, left camp for Cheat Mountain, 
to join Gen. Milroy in an expedition against the enemy at 
Camp Alleghany on the Staunton road. They bivouaced that 
night at Huttonsville, reaching Cheat Mountain Summit next 
day. After a short rest, the force moved on to Greenbriar. 
At midnight the column left Greenbriar, along the main road. 
The night was clear and cold; the roads rough. The column 
pushed steadily forward, and before daybreak on the thir- 
teenth, came in contact with the enemy's pickets, who fired 
and fled. Advancing rapidly, the enemy's camp fires were 
seen on the top of a high mountain directly in front. At 
daylight, leaving the main road, the column turned to the 
left, following a path which circled round and up the moun- 
tain. At eight o'clock it reached the Summit, near the 
enemy's works, consisting of a fort and rifle pits. Halting to 
form line of battle, it was fired on from an ambuscade. A 
charge was made, the enemy fled to their rifle pits, from 
which they poured forth a destructive fire. By manuevers, 
the enemy were three times drawn from their rifle pits, and 
suffered heavily ; but each time retreating to the cover of his 
works, he skillfully eluded an open fight. The fight lasted 
until noon, when, not having sufficient force to charge upon 
the works, our column withdrew. The attack was a gallant 
one, but failed for lack of proper support. The loss of the 
regiment was six killed, sixteen wounded, and one missing. 
Lieut. Jones was killed in this action. Leaving the battle- 
field, the regiment reached Beverly on the fifteenth. 

On the eighteenth the regiment left Beverly for the east; 
crossing the Alleghany Mountains, it arrived at Green Spring 



212 REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

Run on the twenty-second. In six months it marched five 
hundred and fifty-five miles. On the fourth of January, 
1862, it left Green Spring Run to reinforce our troops at 
Berkley Springs, but met the force falling back before the 
rebel General Jackson. Returning, it took its old position, 
and Gen. Lander took command of the department. 

On the thirteenth of February, the regiment started on an 
expedition against a rebel force at Bloomery Furnace. The 
attacking column moved along a by-path ; the .Thirteenth 
taking the main road. Upon reaching the Pass, our troops 
were found in possession, the enemy having fled. On the 
second of March, Gen. Lander died, and the Thirteenth acted 
as a guard of honor over his remains. On the fifth the com- 
mand left for Martinsburgh, arriving there on the seventh. 
Gen. Shields took command of the division to which the 
regiment was attached, on the ninth. Col. Sullivan com- 
manded the brigade, and Lieut. Col. Foster the regiment. 
On the eleventh the column moved towards Winchester, and 
the next day bivouaced one mile north of that place. 

On the eighteenth of March, Shield's division started on a 
reconnoissance towards Strasburgh, reaching Cedar Creek at 
night, across which a small body of the enemy fell back, 
burning the bridge. After an artillery skirmish, the column 
bivouaced. Crossed the creek at early dawn, the enemy fall- 
ing back. Pushed on two miles beyond Strasburgh, and 
halted for the night. The next day the command returned 
to Winchester. 

Near sundown, on the twenty-second of March, the enemy 
attacked our pickets on the Strasburgh road. The regiment 
was called out and remained on picket during the night. 
The next morning it marched nearly to Kernstown. With 
the exception of artillery firing, all was quiet till noon. At 
that time the fire swelled in volume, denoting a battle. At 
four o'clock the enemy unmasked his position on our right, 
and our infantry became engaged. The battle raged for 
several hours. The regiment held its post on the left for 
some time, when it was moved to the right. The enemy was 
posted in a wood. To reach his position, the regiment had 
to pass over an open field exposed to a terrific fire from shell, 



EEGIMKNTAL HISTORY. 213 

grape and musketry. As the command approached the edge 
of the wood, the word was given for a bayonet charge. The 
^ager line rushed upon the enemy, forcing him from his cover, 
and winning the battle. By night, our forces had driven the 
-enemy from the field, and held possession of every part of 
the ground fought over. Night rendering pursuit difficult, 
the regiment bivouaced in the woods. The loss was six 
killed, two officers — Major Dobbs and Capt. Sayles — and 
thirty-one men, wounded. 

On the twenty-fourth, the enemy was in full retreat, Col. 
Sullivan, with his brigade, in rapid pursuit. Gen. Banks 
took command of the troops at noon. The enemy's rear 
guard, consisting of cavalry and artillery, made a short stand 
at every favorable position, and somewhat retarded our pur- 
suit. At night the regiment bivouaced at Cedar Creek. 
The next day — the enemy still retreating — the regiment 
passed through Strasburgh, and encamped at the foot of 
Round Hill. 

On the first of April, the march was continued up the 
valley. A small force of the enemy's cavalry, with artillery, 
burning bridges and skirmishing, fell back as the regiment 
advanced. The regiment halted and encamped near Edin- 
burgh. 

On the seventeenth, at one o'clock, a. m., it moved up the 
valley, and at daylight reached Mount Jackson, the enemy 
still obstructing their advance. From Mount Jackson, the 
brigade was sent on a flank movement to the rear of New 
Market. After marching all day over muddy roads, the col- 
umn reached the west branch of the Shenandoah Eiver at 
dark and bivouaced. The next day crossed the river, and 
entered New Market. 

On the twenty-sixth, the regiment marched over Massa- 
nutten Mountain to Columbian Bridge, and took position on 
outpost duty. On the second of May, Col. Sullivan was con- 
firmed as Brigadier General. Lieut. Col. Foster succeeded 
to the Colonelcy, Major C. J. Dobbs to the Lieutenant Colo- 
nelcy, and Capt. John M. Wilson, of Co. B, was promoted 
to the Majority. 

On the seventh, the regiment started on a reconnoissance 



214 REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

to a place known as Summerville, or Dogtown, seven miles 
up the river, where the enemy was known to be in force. 
Crossing the river, the force moved up the eastern bank six 
miles, discovering the enemy's pickets, who fell back. Com- 
panies were posted on the left to protect our flank, our right 
being on the river. The remaining companies went forward, 
and, having succeeded in the reconnoissance, were falling 
back, when word came that a company of the First Vermont 
cavalry, which had accompanied the regiment, had been cut 
off. The Thirteenth moved to their assistance. Gaining the 
crest of a hill, it engaged the enemy for a short time ; but 
seeing him make a flank movement, the regiment fell back, 
the cavalry, meanwhile, escaped by swimming the river. 
The loss was four wounded, and twenty-four prisoners. 

On the twelfth, in light marching order, the regiment left 
the outpost, joined the division on the Luray road, and 
bivouaced near White House Bridge. The next day, passed 
through Luray, down the valley; and on the morning of the 
fourteenth, reached -Front Royal. The succeeding day ascen- 
ded the Blue Ridge at Chester Gap, and bivouaced on the 
eastern slope. The day following reached Gaines' Cross 
Roads, and on the seventeenth arrived at "Warrenton. The 
next day marched to Catlett's station, and halted for two 
days. On the twenty-first started for Falmouth, reaching 
there on the night of the twenty-second. 

On the twenty-fourth it was reported that Gen. Banks had 
been overwhelmed in the Valley of the Shenandoah, and the 
regiment was ordered to retrace its march to Front Royal, 
and try and gain the enemy's rear. The next day reached 
Catlett's Station, and, following the railroad to Manassas 
Junction, turned to the left and proceeded along the Manas- 
sas Gap railroad, passing through Thoroughfare Gap, and 
bivouacing near Rectortown. The day after the march was 
continued till midnight, the regiment halting at the foot of 
the Blue Ridge mountains. On the thirteenth passed through 
Manassas Gap and at night reached Front Royal. 

On the first of June, Gen. McDowell reached the command 
with reinforcements. During the morning firing was heard 
in the direction of Strasburgh. The command was ordered 



REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 215 

in that direction. It was soon ascertained that Gen. Fremont 
had failed to intercept the enemy at Strasburgh. The divis- 
ion then proceeded in the direction of New Market, in hopes 
of intercepting the enemy. On the second it passed through 
Luray and reached the Shenandoah, but the enemy had 
burned the bridges, and the river was not fordable. The 
brigade was then ordered to Port Republic. Reaching Rock- 
ingham on the ninth the Thirteenth met the brigade from Port 
Republic, who reported the enemy as having forced its way 
through, and being in rapid march to Staunton. The division 
then took up its march down the Valley, the Thirteenth cov- 
ering the movement. On the eleventh it reached Luray and 
went into camp. On the fifteenth continued the march, and 
on the seventeenth arrived at Front Royal. On the twenty- 
first again crossed the Blue Ridge, and on the twenty-fourth 
arrived at Bristow Station. 

On the twenty-eighth the regiment left for Alexandria, and 
on the thirtieth embarked on transports for Fortress Monroe, 
arriving there on the first of July. The next day sailed up 
James River, arriving at Harrison's Landing that night. 

All over the muddy flat around the Landing, in confusion 
and disorder, were scattered the weary veterans of the Army 
of the Potomac, crouching in the rain, without food or shel- 
ter, after seven days of terrible fighting. Through the rain 
and mud, each man with a sheaf of wheat on his back for a 
bed, the gallant members of this brigade pushed forward to 
the front. As they wound their way through the tangled 
mass of wagons and camps, 'cheers greeted them from their 
brother veterans. Through the swamp and up the steep hill 
they pushed, to the extreme front, where they entered on 
picket duty. Here it remained until the sixth, when it 
returned to the James River and went into camp. For two 
or three weeks the regiment worked on the defenses. On 
the fifth of August it went on picket toward Malvern Hill, 
remaining there till the fifteenth. 

On the sixteenth it left the deserted camps at Harrison's 
Landing for the march across the Peninsula. The whole 
Army of the Potomac was moving, and clouds of dust cov- 
ered every column. Crossing the Chickahominy on a pontoon 



216 REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

bridge, the regiment passed through Williamsburgh on the 
eighteenth, and on the twentieth reached Yorktown, where 
it camped. On the twenty-fourth it marched to Hampton. 

On the thirtieth embarked on a steamer, crossed Hampton 
Roads, ascended the ^Tansemond River to Suffolk, and 
encamped near that town. Gen. Mansfield was in command 
of the post. Upon the arrival of the brigade Gen. Ferry 
took command, and the force took the place of troops whose 
term of service had expired. 

During the latter part of September other troops arrived, 
Gen. Peck took command of the post, and Col. R. S. 'Foster 
was assigned to the command of a brigade of new troops, 
the command of the Thirteenth falling on Lieut. Col. C. J. 
Dobbs. 

On the second of October the regiment started on a march 
in a south-west direction, near the line of the Roanoke and 
Seaboard Railroad, the forces being commanded by Col. 
Spear, of the Eleventh Pennsylvania cavalry. Halting for a 
short time, near daylight on the third, the forces pushed on 
and confronted the enemy at Franklin, where the railroad 
crosses the Blackwater River. The artillery and skirmishers 
were engaged three hours, and our column withdrew, falling 
back on the Deserted House. The next day arrived in camp. 

On the twenty-fourth of October the regiment started on 
another reconnoissance. Marched some distance along the 
Franklin road, then turned to the right along the line of the 
Petersburgh railroad beyond Winsor. Turning to the left, 
about noon arrived near Blackwater bridge, where a small 
force of the enemy was found, and some skirmishing took 
place. "Next day returned to Winsor, and on the twenty- 
sixth arrived in camp at Suffolk. 

On the seventeenth another expedition was made to the 
Blackwater region. The enemy was found in small force at 
Joiners' Ford on the Blackwater. After two days absence 
reached camp, losing seven men who were taken prisoners. 
On the eleventh of December another march was made along 
the Petersburgh railroad. At daylight the next morning 
arrived at Miner's Ford on the Blackwater River. Here a 
small force of the enemy, posted in a stockade commanding 



REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 217 

the ford, made a gallant fight. Several attempts to cross 
were repulsed. Companies I and K crossed below, stormed 
the position, and took all in the stockade prisoners, losing 
one man killed. The regiment then returned to camp. 

On the fourth of January, 1863, it was transferred from 
Gen. Ferry's brigade to that of Col. H. S. Foster. The camp 
was moved to the south side of Suffolk. This was the front, 
under command of Col. Foster. 

On the twenty-ninth of January the column moved toward 
Franklin. A force of the enemy, under Gen. Prior, was 
known to be at the Deserted House, eight miles from Suffolk. 
The next morning, at half past three o'clock, the enemy's 
pickets were encountered, who at once fell back. A short 
distance further their camp fires were discovered across an 
open field, about eight hundred yards distant. The regiment 
filed to the right and formed in a wood, unmasking one of 
our batteries, which had hastily taken position. The battery 
promptly opened fire upon the enemy's camp, taking him 
evidently by surprise. The fire was soon returned, however, 
from several pieces of artillery, and was very fierce on both 
sides until daylight revealed the position of the enemy. The 
infantry was then formed for a charge on the enemy's line, 
the Thirteenth being on the right. The line moved forward 
slowly. The enemy fired one round of grape upon the 
advancing column, and then fled. When our advance 
reached the wood the enemy was a mile beyond. His rear 
guard made a short stand, but our artillery soon drove it 
from position. The pursuit was continued for six miles till 
a narrow bridge was reached at King Soil's Swamp. Here 
the enemy's cavalry made a final stand, until their main body 
were too far off* to be overtaken. The regiment then returned 
to Suffolk, having lost one officer— Lieut. Newsom— and ten 
men, wounded. 

On the tenth of April it was reported that the enemy, 
under Gen. Longstreet, was moving to attack Suffolk. The 
next evening the outer pickets were driven in, and the enemy 
appeared in front. The whole Union force prepared to meet 
the enemy. The Thirteenth was stationed along the line of 
breastworks east from Fort Union, on the south front. The 



218 REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

two following days the enemy invested our works from the 
Dismal Swamp on our left to the Nansemond River on our 
right. The regiment remained in the works until the six- 
teenth. The enemy did not make a direct assault during 
that time. 

On the eighteenth the regiment was ordered to take one 
of the enemy's batteries on the river bank, the gunboats 
failing to co-operate, the design was abandoned. On the 
twenty-fourth a reconnoissance was made on the Edenton 
road. Three miles out the enemy was found in force. Skir- 
mishing was- carried on day and night. Our gunboats and 
batteries kept up an almost constant fire. Reinforcements 
were constantly arriving, and our connection with Norfolk 
was uninterrupted. The enemy failed in every attempt to 
gain our rear. 

On the fourth of May the siege was raised. Col. Foster, 
with part of his brigade, at once started in pursuit of the 
enemy. The pursuit was continued about fourteen miles; a 
few stragglers were captured, but the main force of the 
enemy crossed the Blackwater River, before our force could, 
reach him. Our loss was one killed, Lieut. Couran, and 
eight wounded. The siege lasted twenty-three days. 

On the thirteenth the regiment moved up the Roanoke and 
Seaboard railroad, with a force commanded by Col. Foster, to 
protect the workmen while they removed the rails from the 
road. The next morning arrived at Carsville. Near night 
the working force was attacked by a small body of the enemy, 
but they immediately fled upon our approach. The iron was 
removed, and on the nineteenth the regiment returned to the 
Deserted House. Gen. Corcoran then took command of the 
expedition, and the next day it marched to Winsor on the 
Petersburgh road. From this road the iron. was removed and 
brought to Suffolk. On this expedition the force marched 
fifty miles, and removed, and brought into Suffolk, forty 
miles of railroad iron, without losing a man. 

On the twelfth of June left with a force under Gen. Cor- 
eoran to reconnoiter the positions of the enemy on the Black- 
water. Bivouaced at Hollins' Corners. Next day marched 
to South Quay, finding a small force of the enemy. Moving 



REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 219 

up the river camped that night at Carsville. Next day 
marched nearly to Franklin; then turned to the right and 
halted near Anderson's Corners. On the fifteenth marched 
to Blackwater Bridge; then back to Anderson's Corners; 
then to Carsville. The next day marched to Franklin, and 
saw the enemy on the other side of the river. Gen. R. Sand- 
ford Foster then took command, having received his commis- 
sion of Brigadier General, which he had so well earned. On 
the seventeenth fell back to Beaver Dam Church, and the 
next day reached camp, having marched eighty-six miles. 
No enemy being in force in front, and the troops being 
needed at other points, preparations were made to evacuate 
Suffolk. 

On the twenty -first of June, Gen. Foster took leave of the 
regiment. Lt. Col. Cyrus J. Dobbs was promoted Colonel, 
Major John M. "Wilson, Lt. Colonel, and Capt. John C. Bur- 
ton, company C, Major. On the twenty-seventh the regi- 
ment left Suffolk for Norfolk. The regiment, during the 
time its camp was at Suffolk, a period of ten months, marched 
four hundred and thirty-six miles. 

Upon arriving at Norfolk, the regiment was placed on the 
steamer Columbia, sailed down Elizabeth Eiver, and anchored 
in Hampton Roads. On the twenty-eighth started up Ches- 
peake Bay, to the York River, thence up the York River to 
the Pamunkey, and up that stream to White House, arriving 
there at night, when it landed and joined a force under Gen. 
Keyes, which had rendezvoused there. 

On the first of July the expedition started on a reconnois- 
sance towards Richmond, the main force moving on the York 
River railroad, while Gen. Getty, with his division and Fos- 
ter's brigade, made a detour to the right, hoping to destroy 
the railroad connections north of Richmond. The regiment 
crossed the Pamunkey River early in the morning and at night 
reached King William Court House. The next day moved 
slowly and cautiously and bivouaced at Rumford Academy. 
The next day marched to Enfield, then turned west to Mon- 
gohick; then south to Taylor's plantation, arriving there late 
at night. On the evening of the fourth recrossed the Pamun- 
key and reached Hanover Court House ; then moved along 



220 REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

the Virginia Central railroad to South Anna Bridge. Here 
the enemy was found in strong force ; therefore no attempt 
was made to burn the bridge. The regiment took position, 
in front, however, while details destroyed the track for some 
distance. At daylight the next day returned to Taylor's 
plantation, and early the next morning started on the return 
march, bivouacing that night at King William Court House, 
and arriving at White House Landing on the seventh, having 
marched ninety miles. The object of the expedition having 
been accomplished, White House Landing was evacuated. 

At noon the next day, started on the march down the Pen- 
insula, passing through New Kent Court House, Williams- 
burgh, Yorktown, and Big Bethel, arriving at Hampton on 
the thirteenth. The next day embarked on steamboat, 
crossed Hampton Eoads, went up Elizabeth River, disem- 
barked at Plymouth, and marched to Bower's Hill, eight 
miles distant, where the command went into camp, Gen. 
Foster commanding the post. 

On the twenty-ninth of July the regiment left for Ports- 
mouth. Here it embarked on the steamer Kennebec, and on 
the thirty-first left Fortress Monroe for an ocean trip to 
Charleston. On the second of August arrived inside the bar 
of Charleston, off Morris Island. The next day sailed down 
the coast to Stono Inlet, and disembarked on Folly Island, 
marched along the beach four miles and went into camp. 
Here it was busily employed in furnishing guards and pro- 
tecting the working parties in the trenches. On the seven- 
teenth acted as support to a battery, while the iron clads 
and batteries demolished Fort Sumter. 

On the morning of September seventh, this gallant regi- 
ment had the proud honor of being among the first to enter 
Fort Wagner, the last of the enemy's strongholds on Morris 
Island. 

During the year ending the first of September, 1863, the 
regiment marched five hundred and twelve miles, traveled on 
railroads thirty miles, and on steamers five hundred and 
eighty-four miles. Since it has been in the service it has 
marched nineteen hundred and five miles, traveled on rail- 
road seven hundred and thirty-three miles, and on steamers 



REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 221 

nine hundred and thirty-four miles, making a grand total of 
three thousand five hundred and seventy-two miles in twenty- 
six months. 

The number of men in the regiment on the first of Sep- 
tember, 1863, was six hundred and thirty-two. Officers, 
thirty-two. 

Here we leave it in its adventurous career, on the burning 
sands of Morris Island, South Carolina, in sight of the birth 
place of the rebellion. At another time its famous history 
may be continued. 

FOURTEENTH REGIMENT. 

The Fourteenth regiment was organized in April, 1861, for 
one year's State service ; and on the seventh of June, 1861, 
was sworn into the United States service for the term of 
three years, at Terre Haute, Indiana. It was officered as 
follows : 

Field and Staff Officers. — Colonel, Nathan Kimball, Loogoo- 
tee; Lieutenant Colonel, John R. Mahan, Greencastle; 
Major, William Harrow, Yincennes; Adjutant, John J. P. 
Blinn, Terre Haute; Regimental Quartermaster, Tousant C. 
Buntin, Terre Haute ; Surgeon, Joseph G. McPheters, Bloom- 
ington; Assistant Surgeon, George W. McCune, Montezuma; 
Chaplain, Thomas E. Webb, Terre Haute. 

Company A. — Captain, Lucien A. Foote, Eockville; First 
Lieutenant, Thomas G-. Williamson, Evansville ; Second Lieu- 
tenant, Tighlman A. Howard, Eockville. 

Company B. — Captain, Jonathan D. Wood, Vincennes; 
First Lieutenant, Lynch M. Terrell, Yincennes:; Second Lieu- 
tenant, William D. Lewis, Yincennes. 

Company C. — Captain, Lewis Brooks, Loogootee; First 
Lieutenant, William Houghton, Loogootee; Second Lieuten- 
ant, Harvey Taylor, Loogootee. 

Company D.— Captain, Elijah H. C. Cavins, Green county; 
First Lieutenant, Walter C. Lyman, Greencastle; Second 
Lieutenant, Balthazer Tremelin, Greencastle. 

Company j&.—Captain, Noah S. Thompson, Evansville; 
First Lieutenant, Nathan Willard, Evansville; Second Lieu- 
tenant, John C. C. Miller, Evansville. 



222 REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

Company F. — Captain, Jonathan B. Hager, Terre Haute ; 
First Lieutenant, Charles M. Smith, Terre Haute; Second 
Lieutenant, Edward P. Williams, Terre Haute. 

Company G. — Captain, John Coons, Vineennes ; First Lieu- 
tenant, William N". Denny, Vineennes; Second Lieutenant, 
William H. Patterson, Vineennes. 

Company H. — Captain, John H. Martin, Spencer; First 
Lieutenant, Dudley Rogers, Spencer; Second Lieutenant, 
Wiley E. Dittemore, Spencer. 

Company J. — Captain, Philander R. Owen, Clinton ; First 
Lieutenant, John Lindsey, Clinton ; Second Lieutenant, Wil- 
liam P. Haskell, Clinton. 

Company K. — Captain, James R. Kelley, Bloomington; 
First Lieutenant, Milton L. McCullough, Bloomington ; Sec- 
ond Lieutenant, Paul E. Slocum, Bloomington. 

On the 25th day of June, 1861, the regiment went into 
camp at Indianapolis, and in a few days was fully armed and 
equipped. It left Indianapolis for the seat of war on the fifth 
of July, crossed the Ohio River at Bellaire, Ohio, and took 
the railroad for Clarksburgh, Va. On the seventh of July it 
took up its line of march towards Rich Mountain via Buck- 
hannon, and arrived there on the morning of the eleventh — 
the day of the battle at Rich Mountain. The regiment was 
held in reserve in line of battle during the engagemeut, but 
was not in the engagement. It then moved on, with the 
army under Gen. McClellan, to Cheat Mountain Summit, in 
close pursuit of the retreating enemy, each day seeing his 
abandoned camp fires, but was unable to overtake him. The 
Fourteenth was left on the summit — the extreme outpost — to 
guard it; and for six weeks no other Union troops were 
nearer than twelve miles. In September other troops were 
sent to strengthen the position. Soon after the regiment 
established its camp on the summit, a series of scouting 
parties were sent out to learn the position of the enemy. 

Distinguished among the many intelligent scouts belonging 
to the regiment, was a private named Summerfield, whose 
adventures would rival the history of many of those whom 
our border warfare with the Indian tribes have made famous. 
He closed his career by a glorious death on the field of 
Antietam. 



REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 223 

Scarcely a week passed without a skirmish. Bushwhackers 
were constantly prowling around the camp, and firing upon 
the men. This resulted in a system of retaliation on the part 
of the Fourteenth. Pickets passing in rifle range of each 
other, were exposed to the shots of the opposing pickets. 
A butternut coat was a sufficient mark to draw the shot of 
the Federal soldier, as the blue coat was for the rebel. These 
shots on picket often brought out the whole command under 
arms like magic, each man eager for the fray. On the twen- 
ty-fifth of August, Dr. Joseph GL McPheters resigned, and on 
the fifth day of September, Dr. Geo. W. Clippenger was 
appointed Surgeon. 

On the night of the twelfth of September the enemy sur- 
rounded the camp in large force. At that time two other 
regiments (Twenty-Fourth and Twenty-Fifth Ohio) were on 
the summit, all under command of Col. Kimball. The first 
notice given of the presence of the enemy was by teamsters, 
who had started early in the morning of the thirteenth to 
Huttonsville for supplies. The enemy attempted to capture 
their train within half a mile of camp, and succeeded in cap- 
turing a part of it, which was afterwards retaken. Simulta- 
neously with the attack in the rear, the pickets in front were 
surrounded, some of them killed and wounded, and the rest 
dispersed in the mountains. The command was soon under 
arms, and detachments sent out in various directions to 
engage the attacking party. The enemy in the rear soon 
became panic stricken, and fled, leaving their dead and 
wounded, and large quantities of blankets, overcoats, arms, 
&c. In the front they remained in sight several days, but no 
general attack was made on the camp. The prisoners taken 
reported that they had ten thousand men around the camp, 
and they confidently expected that they would be retaken. 
This engagement made a strange and beneficial impression 
on almost every soldier. The night before the attack was 
one of those cold, rainy and stormy nights which are seldom 
experienced at that time of the year, except in a mountainous 
country. One brigade of the enemy, under Col. liust, of 
Arkansas, became lost in the mountains in attempting to get 
in the rear of the camp. The others were hungry and 



224 REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

benumbed with cold. Although they had fully four times 
the number of men that garrisoned the camp, yet they 
became panic stricken, and fled without making any material 
resistance after they were attacked. The impression made 
on almost every one was, that it was an interposition of 
Providence in behalf of the Federal arms. Hundreds of 
profane, as well Christian men, gave utterance to what seemed 
to be the universal belief. 

On the third day of October, the battle of Greenbriar was 
fought, under command of Gen. Reynolds, of Indiana. The 
expedition was intended to be a reconnoissance in force. Only 
a part of the troops were engaged. The expedition started 
out from the summit at one o'clock, A. m., on the third, and 
encountered and drove in the enemy's pickets at daylight. 
After the pickets were driven in, the Fourteenth took the 
advance on the left of the line of battle. They met a regi- 
ment of Arkansas troops, sent out to hold a position in front 
of their works, and drove them from their chosen position 
into their intrenchments, killing, wounding, and capturing 
fifty-three of them. An artillery duel of three hours and a 
half followed, when Gen. Reynolds withdrew his troops in 
good order, having accomplished the object of the expedition. 
This was the first artillery fire the Fourteenth was ever under ; 
and the small number of casualities resulting from it, caused 
very little uneasiness from artillery in subsequent actions. 

Thus ended the. severest campaign of the Fourteenth. Its 
severity consisted not in hard marches or hard fighting; but 
in the cold and rain of that dreary country, and in the 
suffering, induced from lack of sufficient clothing and rations. 
In midsummer, men, poorly clad, suffered more from cold 
than they would in a winter campaign with proper clothing. 
Ragged and hungry, the soldier walked his rugged and lonely 
beat day after day, for three months, without seeing but one 
human habitation. Not a corn field, wheat field, or orchard, 
was to be seen in this wilderness of mountains — nothing to 
disturb the dull monotony, save the occasional crack of the 
bushwhacker's gun. 

On the seventh of October, the regiment left the summit, 
and went into camp at Huttonsville, in Tygart's Valley, where 



REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 225 

it remained two months, during which time the health of the 
soldiers very much improved. In December they were 
ordered to that portion of Virginia, on the line of the Balti- 
more and Ohio Railroad, under command of Gen. Kelley, 
and arrived at Romney, Va., on the twenty-first. On the 
seventh of January, 1862, the regiment accompanied the 
expedition to Blues' Gap, under command of Lieut. Col. 
Mahan. Yery little fighting was done there. The rebels 
fled in dismay, leaving one piece of artillery, and several 
prisoners. 

About this time Gen. Lander was assigned to the command 
of that division of the army; and on the eleventh he evacua- 
ted Romney, and fell back on the line of the Baltimore and 
Ohio Railroad, at North Branch Bridge. On the twentieth 
Lieut. Col. Mahan resigned on account of ill health, and 
Major Harrow was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel, and 
Capt. Foote was promoted to Major. The latter part of 
January and the month of February were spent in gradually 
opening up communication on the railroad towards Martins- 
burgh, with an occasional expedition some distance from the 
road. 

On the thirteenth and fourteenth of February the regiment 
took part in an expedition known at that time as "Lander's 
Midnight Bloomery Dash." The troops started out on the 
evening of the thirteenth, marched within eight miles of 
Bloomery, and bivouaced until three o'clock, A. M., on the 
fourteenth. By some means the enemy were apprised of the 
movement before the attack was made, and sent the greater 
portion of their stores away. The cavalry first made the 
attack and were driven back, when the Fourteenth Indiana 
and Seventh 'Virginia came up, and the rebels were soon 
routed, with a loss of eight killed, and fifty-eight prisoners, 
twenty-six of the prisoners being 1 officers. Col. Baldwin was 
in command of the enemy, and was captured. 

After the death of Gen. Lander, Gen. Shields was assigned 
to the command of the division. The regiment arrived at 
Martinsburgji on the sixth of March. On the eleventh 
marched toward Winchester, and entered it on the twelfth, 
the enemy having evacuated it the night before. On the 
Vol. L— 15. 



226 REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

twentieth was in the reconnoissance beyond Strasburgh, and 
on the twenty -first returned to Winchester. 

The battle of Winchester was fought on the twenty-third 
day of March, 1862. The pickets were driven in on the 
evening of the twenty-second, and there was some artillery 
firing on each side. Gen. Shields was wounded by a piece 
of shell on the evening of the twenty-second. During the 
night the Federal troops were put in position, and the advance 
of the enemy fell back two miles. The Fourteenth slept on 
their arms during the night expecting the battle to open early 
next morning. The battle did not open until nearly noon, 
and then for several hours there was only artillery firing and 
skirmishing. Col. Tyler's brigade opened the infantry fight- 
ing about three o'clock, p. m. The Fourteenth was soon 
ordered to support him. They went into the battle at a point 
where the Eighty-Fourth Pennsylvania had just been repulsed 
with heavy loss. It was an unfavorable time for troops who 
had never been in a heavy infantry battle. Many of the 
wounded were running back through their ranks, some were 
writhing in the agonies of death, and others were dead. The 
frightened of other regiments rushed pell mell through their 
ranks. The enemy were intrenched behind stonewalls, and 
other cover, and it seemed like rushing into the jaws of death 
to charge them. When the Fourteenth come upon the line, 
all gave a "Hoosier Yell," and charged the enemy with the 
bayonet. The celebrated Stonewall Brigade — Jackson's 
Brigade — was in their front, but they faltered and fell back 
in disorder, while many of them fell with their backs to their 
enemy. The impression was that the whole force was in 
retreat. The Union troops rapidly followed, until they unex- 
pectedly encountered Loring's brigade under cover of a hill 
and stonewall. Here the fighting was desperate. The supe- 
rior number of the enemy would have repulsed the Four- 
teenth and the remnant of Tyler's brigade, had not the 
Thirteenth Indiana came gallantly to their support at the 
right time. After the Thirteenth came up, a volley and a 
charge along the whole line completely routed the enemy. 
Darkness put an end to the conflict. The loss of the Four- 
teenth was four killed and fifty wounded, among whom was 



REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 227 

Capt. Kelley, who was mortally wounded. At the last charge 
the Fourteenth captured one piece of artillery, which was 
presented to the regiment by Major General Banks for their 
gallantry, but it was never taken from Winchester, owing to 
the active campaign that followed its capture. Colonel, now 
General, Tyler said if the Fourteenth Indiana had not given 
that yell, his men could not have held their line five minutes 
longer; that "that one shout was worth more to him than 
one thousand men." Gen. Banks arrived at night after the 
battle, and on the twenty-fourth followed up the retreating 
rebels. There was some skirmishing daily for over a month, 
but no general engagement. 

On the second of April, Dr. Geo. W. Clippenger resigned, 
and on the twenty-first Dr. Anson Hurd was appointed Sur- 
geon. In May Colonel Kimball was promoted to Brigadier 
General, Major Foote resigned, and Lieut. Col. Harrow was 
promoted to Colonel, Capt. P. R. Owen promoted to Lieut. 
Colonel, and Capt. J. H. Martin promoted to Major. 

The Fourteenth remained in the Shenandoah Valley until 
the twelfth day of May, when Gen. Shields' division took up 
their line of march over the Blue Ridge, via Luray, Warren- 
ton, and Catlett's Station to Fredericksburgh. All expected 
to go with Gen. McDowell to Richmond, but immediately 
upon their arrival at Fredericksburgh, they learned that 
Jackson was in the Shenandoah Valley, and that Gen. Banks' 
army had been compelled to fall back on the line of the Poto- 
mac. They were ordered back to the Valley via Catlett's 
Station and Manassas Junction. On their march from the 
Shenandoah Valley to Fredericksburgh and back again, they 
marched from sixteen to twenty miles each day. 

On the night of the twenty-ninth of May, Kimball's brigade 
started from Rectortown on an expedition to Front Boyal, 
which place was then held by the enemy. They marched 
into Manassas Gap, within eleven miles of Front Boyal, and 
rested until daylight on the thirtieth, when they resumed 
their route. The enemy were evacuating the place when 
they arrived in sight, and the cavalry had a severe skirmish. 
The Fourteenth captured between fifty and sixty prisoners, 
and one piece of artillery, with four mules and harness. The 



228 REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

enemy on this occasion made no resistance, but abandoned 
everything and dispersed through the woods. This piece of 
artillery was given the regiment for their gallantry. It was 
the intention to have sent it to Indianapolis, but it afterwards 
exploded at Alexandria in firing at a target. 

The greater portion of June was spent in marching and 
countermarching over the road between Front Eoyal and 
Columhia bridge, above Luray. A large portion of this road 
was marched over four times during the month, many of the 
men willingly making the march with bare feet, over a stone 
pike, with blood dropping from their feet at every step. 
They confidently expected to capture Jackson and his army. 
They were in hearing of the enemy's guns while Fremont 
was pushing Jackson up the Yalley, and at one time a march 
of eleven miles would have enabled Shields' division to attack 
Jackson's rear, while Fremont was in his front. The soldiers 
were all anxious to make it, because such a march gave 
promise of success and victory. 

It was in this month, so replete with military blunders, that 
the Port Republic aiFair came off. While that battle was 
being fought, Kimball's brigade was on a forced march to 
assist them, but, notwithstanding their efforts, did not reach 
them nntil that gallant little army of two brigades was in 
full retreat. It was here the Seventh Indiana won immortal 
glory. Kimball's brigade met the retreating brigades at a 
point near Conrad's Store, and awaited the approach of the 
enemy several hours, but no enemy appeared. They then 
covered the retreat to Luray. 

On the thirtieth of June, the Fourteenth embarked at 
Alexandria for the army of the Potomac. They thought 
that "onward to Richmond " had emerged from the ideal to 
the real, but were soon doomed to a greater disappointment 
than ever. Disembarked at Harrison's Landing on the even- 
ing of the second of July, and went immediately to the front. 
On the third had a heavy skirmish, with considerable artillery 
firing, and drove the enemy. On the fourth were engaged in 
a light skirmish all day, the enemy trying to advance their 
lines. On the fifth had some picket skirmishing, after which 
everything remained quiet on their line while they were on 



REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 229 

the Peninsula. The brigade was attached to Sumner's corps, 
(second army corps,) and has, since that time, remained with 
it. On the eleventh of August Lt. Col. P. R. Owen and 
Major J. H. Martin resigned, and Capt. John Coons was pro- 
moted to Lt. Colonel, and Capt. E. H. C. Cavins was promoted 
to Major. 

Sumner's corps covered the retreat from Harrison's Land- 
ing. The regiment left the old camp on the sixteenth of 
August, and marched to Newport News, via Williamsburgh 
and Yorktown. On the twenty-sixth embarked at Newport 
News, and on the twenty-ninth disembarked at Alexandria. 
On the thirtieth marched to Arlington, and on the thirty-first 
to Centreville, but did not arrive until after the battles under 
Pope were over. On the second of September the army fell 
back under the defenses around "Washington, the Fourteenth 
being a part of the rear guard. The enemy hung upon their 
rear and flanks, throwing an occasional shell towards and 
among them, until dark. 

On the sixth of August the third division of the second 
corps was formed, and Gen. French assigned to its command. 
The Fourteenth was engaged in the battle of Antietam on 
the seventeenth of September. At that battle the line formed 
by Kimball's brigade moved into action very handsomely, and 
was the only part of the line that did not, at some time dur- 
ing the engagement, give way. Line upon line of the enemy 
was hurled against it, but each time repulsed with great 
slaughter. The battle flags of seven of the enemy's regi- 
ments were borne in rifle range of the Fourteenth, and each 
bearer was shot, while the colors of the Fourteenth floated 
triumphantly and defiantly throughout the engagement. The 
last effort made by the enemy, was by sending a column on 
their right flank, w^hen the Fourteenth Indiana and Eighth 
Ohio changed front and drove him from the field. For their 
gallantry and obstinate fighting on that day, G-en. French 
named the brigade "The Gibraltar Brigade." The Four- 
teenth fought for over an hour within sixty yards from the 
enemy's line. For four hours they fought on one line, and shot 
their sixty rounds of cartridges. The officers gathered cart- 
ridges from the boxes of the dead and wounded, and distrib- 



230 REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

uted them to the men in the thickest of the fight. The loss 
of the regiment in killed and wounded, was fifty-seven per 
cent, of the number engaged. The regiment was commanded 
by Col. Harrow. After the battle the enemy's dead were 
found in heaps all along their front. 

After the battle of Antietam, the army of the Potomac 
settled down to its characteristic quiet. A reconnoissance to 
Leesburgh, under Gen. Kimball, by his brigade and a regi- 
ment of cavalry, on the first of October, was the only episode 
to relieve the regular routine of picket and camp duty, dur- 
ing that month. They moved out from Harper's Ferry to 
Leesburgh, captured one hundred and fifty prisoners without 
any fighting, and on the following day marched back to camp. 
It was a hard march and came very nearly resulting in their 
capture, the rebel cavalry, in large force, having been only 
one hour too late. 

On the first of November the second corps took up its line 
of march from Harper's Ferry, along the valley east of the 
Blue Ridge towards Warrenton. The advance guard were 
skirmishing with parties of the enemy every day, but they 
gave way without making any decided stand. The Four- 
teenth had a skirmish on the second of November, and drove 
the enemy out of Pockford Pass, and held it for twenty-four 
hours until relieved. The enemy made several demonstra- 
tions towards retaking the pass, and were driven back. The 
second corps arrived at Falmouth on the seventeenth day of 
November, and the regiment was immediately sent up the 
river on picket. On the eighteenth the enemy's cavalry cap- 
tured a foraging train, near and outside of the picket line. 
The alarm was soon given, and the reserves of six companies 
were hastened to the rescue. They recaptured the train with 
a loss of only two horses. The rebel leader was wounded 
while charging in advance of his command. During the 
time the army of the Potomac remained on the Rappahan- 
nock, nothing outside of the usual routine of camp life 
occurred, in which the Fourteenth took part, except the 
battles of Fredericksburgh and Chancellorsville. 

The battle of Fredericksburgh commenced on the thir- 
teenth of December, 1862. The regiment was under com- 



REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 231 

mand of Major Gavins, Col. Harrow being sick, and Lieut. 
Col. Coons being absent on account of wounds. Kimball's 
brigade, the Fourteenth being on the left, was the first to 
assault the works. The troops moved out of the city by a 
flank movement, under a heavy, well directed and destructive 
fire from the enemy's artillery. One shell exploded in the 
ranks of the Fourteenth, killing four, and wounding eleven 
men. Many others cut great openings in their ranks, but 
each time they were promptly and fearlessly closed up. 
Under a front and enfilading fire, it formed in line of battle, 
and advanced so far as it was possible for a single line to 
advance, receiving the enemy's fire from the front, and from 
their left flank. 

For nearly an hour, the Fourteenth, unsupported, kept up 
this unequal contest. The first support that came up in less 
than five minutes broke and gave way in confusion. When 
entreated not to fall back, they answered that the whole line 
had given way, and the rebels were in the town. Then the 
question was asked, ""What shall we do?" The commanding 
officer said, "Remember Antietam, the Fourteenth never 
runs from the enemy, we will hold this hill till our ammuni- 
tion is exhausted, and then hold it with the bayonet." Soon 
the smoke cleared up, and on the right the Fourteenth saw 
that the "Gibraltar Brigade" still stood firm, and soon after 
they were supported by troops who stood. After expending 
all their ammunition, they fixed bayonets, and awaited an 
expected charge from the enemy ; but the charge was not 
made. Eleven brigades were sent in after Kimball's, none of 
which advanced the line beyond the point taken by his 
brigade. The regiment remained on the field two hours after 
the brigade had been ordered oft'. The order was not received 
until the battle was nearly over. It was very difficult to con- 
vey an order to the regiment. The loss of the regiment in 
this action, in killed and wounded, was thirty-four per cent of 
the number engaged. The dead of the Fourteenth, and of 
Kimball's brigade, were found nearer the enemy's intrench- 
ments than the dead of any other regiment. 

While the dead were being buried, under a flag of truce, 
Gen. Stewart asked one of the men what brigade made the 



232 REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

first charge, and said it was the most desperate charge ever 
made by any troops. Gen. Sumner said, before the com- 
mittee to investigate the causes of the failure at Fredericks- 
burgh, that he selected Gens. French and Hancock's divisions 
to make t-he attack, because their troops had never turned 
their backs to the enemy in battle. 

On the first of January, 1863, Dr. Anson Hurd resigned, 
and Assistant Surgeon Geo. W. McCune was promoted to 
Surgeon, and Dr. E. H. Sabin appointed First Assistant Sur- 
geon. In January Col. ¥m. Harrow resigned, and was sub- 
sequently appointed Brigadier General. On the twenty-first 
of January, Lieut. Col. Coons was promoted to Colonel, and 
Major Cavins promoted to Lieutenant Colonel. On the 
twelfth of February, Capt. William Houghton was promoted 
to Major. On the twenty-third of January, 1863, Maj. Gen. 
French presented to the color guard of the Fourteenth a fine 
breech loading rifle, as an evidence of his appreciation of the 
regiment in the battles fought under his command. 

The Fourteenth participated in the battle of Chancellors- 
ville, fought on the first, second and third of May. On the 
third of May the Gibraltar brigade, then commanded by Col. 
Carroll, was in line with Sykes' division on the left, and 
Hancock's on the right. At seven o'clock, a. m., the line 
advanced. The enemy was encountered after passing about 
seventy-five yards into the woods. After the third volley, 
they broke and fled, closely pressed by the Gibraltar brigade. 
An advance of two hundred yards further, disclosed a con- 
siderable force on the right of the brigade, while the Four- 
teenth, changing front, soon drove them out of their position, 
and across the Gordonsvillle plank road. On arriving at the 
plank road, the enemy was discovered again massed in force, 
with artillery so placed as to enfilade the line. The regiment 
fell back to the woods, and held the position there until 
relieved by fresh troops. They captured two pieces of artil- 
lery, but were unable to bring them off the field. They sent 
eighty-five prisoners to the rear. Later in the day, the 
brigade was moved further to the left, and took ground 
between the Eleventh corps and Hancock's division, where 
they constructed breast works. Here they were exposed to a 



REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 233 

heavy artillery fire. On the fourth, the portion of the works 
held by the regiment, was shelled by the enemy. On the 
fifth there was a spirited skirmish in front, but no further 
general engagement; and on the sixth the brigade returned 
to camp at Falmouth. The loss of the regiment, in the 
several days fight, was seven killed, forty-nine wounded, and 
eight missing. 

At this battle the enemy evidently thought that Carroll's 
brigade (Kimball's old brigade) was a part of their forces, 
and Carroll's men at first thought the enemy was another line 
of Union troops. After the first volley, the Fourteenth gave 
a Hoosier yell, and each volley was followed by a yell which 
told their friends in the rear they were driving the enemy. 
This little brigade, with less than one thousand men, unsup- 
ported on either flank, drove the enemy over the same ground 
over which they had driven line upon line of other Union 
troops. It can not be accounted for on any principle, except 
that they were, seized with a panic. Many officers tried to 
rally them; but a yell and a charge by the old brigade would 
cause five times their number to recoil and break. Prisoners 
since taken, say that Jackson's men were never before known 
to be in such panic and confusion. "While this brigade drove 
the enemy, Gen. Meade entreated Gen. Hooker to let him 
support Gen. French with his corps, but no support was sent. 
Many military men say if ten thousand troops had followed 
up that charge, it would have resulted in a signal victory to 
the Union army Col. Carroll was complimented on the field 
by Gens. Hooker, Meade, Hancock, French and others, for 
the gallantry of his brigade on that occasion. 

On the morning of the fifteenth of June the second corps 
left Falmouth, the other corps having left some days before. 
They had a hard and tiresome march, via Dumfries, Centre- 
ville, Gainesville, Edward's Ferry and Frederick City to Penn- 
sylvania. They marched by day and night, under the burning 
sun and in torrents of rain, arriving at Gettysburgh on the 
evening of the first of July. 

The battle of Gettysburgh was fought on the first, second 
and third days of July. The Fourteenth was supporting 
Woodruff's battery near the center of the Federal line, and 



234 REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

participated in the famous charge which drove the rebels 
with terrible slaughter from Cemetery Hill. With the Four- 
teenth it was a night tight. The moon had not yet risen, 
and the darkness was made more impenetrable by the dense 
smoke of powder. "When they moved up to support the 
battery on Cemetery Hill, the cannoneers were engaged in a 
hand to hand conflict with the enemy. The deep booming 
of artillery, the heavy rattle of musketry, the bursting of 
shell, the missiles of destruction which filled the air, the 
darkness of the night, and the lines of flashing guns, together 
with the great importance of holding this key to the whole 
position, made the scene one of thrilling interest. It was a 
headlong dash in the dark — a yell — and a few rounds aimed 
at the flash of the enemy's guns, and all was over for the 
night. When the moon arose and shed her sickly light over 
the field, none of the enemy could be seen, except their dead 
and severely wounded. The enemy seem to have realized 
the importance of taking this hill. Their correspondents 
poured out their vituperation on Gen. Anderson for what 
they conceived to be his fault in not taking it on the night 
of the second. A heavy mass of infantry formed in front of 
this hill on the evening of the third for the purpose of 
assaulting it, but when their masses on their right were 
repulsed with such great slaughter they gave up the assault 
on Cemetery Hill. Had they carried that hill — as they would 
have done had not reinforcements arrived just at the time 
they did — Gen. Meade would have been completely defeated, 
for this hill commanded his whole line. The loss of the 
Fourteenth was six killed and twenty-six wounded. 

The Fourteenth, with the exception of the right and left 
companies, was originally armed with smooth bore muskets. 
Whenever a capture of Enfield or Springfield rifle was made, 
they were retained, and the smooth bores turned over. After 
the battle of Antietam, it was found that the entire command 
had the improved arm without having made a requisition 
upon the ordnance department for them. 

We leave this gallant regiment in front in the Army of the 
Potomac. Its toils and marches, and daring feats may fur- 
nish another chapter at some future period. 



ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 



CHAPTER VIII. 



On the twenty-second of July, 1861, Gen. McClellan was 
called to Washington, and at once proceeded to reorganize 
the army. The disaster at Manassas was followed by a sea- 
son of extraordinary activity in raising troops. The States 
responded with alacrity to the calls of the General Govern- 
ment. Men volunteered for the three years service, faster 
than arms and equipments could be furnished. Gen. McClel- 
lan's great ability was demonstrated by the rapidity with 
which he brought order out of confusion. 

On the seventeenth of August he was assigned to the com- 
mand of the army of the Potomac, comprising the troops 
serving in the departments of Washington and north-eastern 
Virginia, in the valley of the Shenandoah, and in the States 
of Maryland and Delaware. It was an army formidable in 
numbers and magnificently appointed. The lines extended 
from Williamsport, on the upper, to Port Tobacco on the 
lower Potomac. The enemy had blockaded the Potomac by 
erecting batteries at Mathias Point, and their line extended 
from Aquia Creek to Leesburgh. They had formidable for- 
tifications at Manassas, at Centreville, and at Leesburgh. 
There was a long season of quiet along this line, broken only 
by a few skirmishes. On the eleventh of September, Gen. 
Smith, commanding the advance brigade on the south side 
of the Potomac, near Chain Bridge, was directed to make a 
topographical reconnoissance in the direction of Lewinsville. 

235 



286 ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 

Battalions from the Seventy-Ninth New York, the Thir^ 
Vermont, and the Nineteenth Indiana, with four pieces of 
Griffin's battery, and two companies of cavalry, were detailed 
for the purpose, and placed under the command of Gen. Ste- 
vens. The column proceeded to Lewinsville, a distance of 
four or five miles, reaching there at ten o'clock, in the morn- 
ing, and driving out a cavalry picket of fifty men. Cavalry 
and infantry pickets were thrown out on the diverging roads, 
to watch the enemy, and Lieut. Poe of the engineers and his 
assistants commenced his surveys and proceeded over an area 
of four miles square. At half past two o'clock, the recon- 
noissance was completed and the pickets called in. They all 
responded to the recall except a party from the Third Ver- 
mont, and one from the Nineteenth Indiana. They sent 
word they were watching the movements of a heavy column 
of cavalry, infantry, and artillery, who were coming from the 
direction of Fall's Church. No attention was paid to this 
report, and the column was formed for its return march, when 
the enemy, three quarters of a mile distant, opened a rapid 
cannonade upon them. The firing was continued for ten 
minutes, when two ten- pounder rified guns of Griffin's bat- 
tery were unlimbered, placed in position and replied. A 
rapid fire of musketry was also opened by the enemy, from 
behind trees and other places of concealment, but without 
effect. Our infantry did not waste their ammunition upon a 
concealed enemy, but quietly supported the battery. The 
enemy's infantry did not emerge from the shelter of the tim- 
ber, and after an artillery duel of an hour, our forces retired. 
The rebel cavalry made a demonstration as if to charge the 
rear of our column, but a few shells from Griffin's rifled guns 
induced them to desist, and shift their ground out of range. 
Our troops on this occasion behaved with great steadiness, 
and were highly complimented by the commanding general. 
The rebel force was commanded by Col. J. E. B. Stuart, after- 
wards so distinguished as the leader of the cavalry force of 
the Confederate army of the Potomac. The expedition accom- 
plished its object, with but little loss. Lieut. Hancock, of the 
Nineteenth Indiana, was taken prisoner, and remained several 
months in Southern prisons before he was exchanged. 



ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. £37 



BATTLE OF BALL'S BLUFF. 



The disastrous battle of Ball's Bluff, which for a period 
plunged the nation in gloom, grew out of one of those recon- 
noissances, so essential before any plan of attack upon an 
enemy's line should be determined. Gen. McCall was ordered 
to make a reconnoissance in force in the direction of Dranes- 
ville, and Gen. Stone, who commanded a portion of Gen. 
Banks' division, was ordered to send a small force in the 
direction of Leesburgh to distract the attention of the enemy 
while the column of McCall should make their observations. 
Our army on that part of the line was encamped on the 
Maryland shore. The Potomac opposite Leesburgh is crossed 
by two ferries, one called Conrad's, a little below Leesburgh, 
and the other Edward's, five miles above. Between the two 
ferries stretches a long narrow strip of land called Harrison's 
Island. Col. Devens was in command at that point and was 
ordered to send a few men across to reconnoiter, and hold the 
remainder in readiness to move at a moments notice. The 
scouts who had crossed returned, and reported a small 
encampment of the enemy about a mile from the river. Col. 
Devens, with three hundred men of his regiment, the Fif- 
teenth Massachusetts, crossed over to attack it. He had only 
three small boats, each capable of carrying ten men. It was 
nearly four o'clock when all were transferred to the Virginia 
shore. They ascended the bank known as Ball's Bluff, by a 
path discovered by the scouts, where they found an open field 
surrounded by woods, upon which they encamped, and were 
there joined by Col. Lee with one hundred of the Twentieth 
Massachusetts. Early on the morning of the twenty-first of 
October this little force pushed forward to the spot supposed 
to be the rebel encampment, and found that the scouts had 
been deceived by a row of trees on the brow of a slope, the 
uncertain light through which resembled a line of tents. 
Col. Devens left his command concealed in the woods, and 
with two or three officers and men, ascended the slope and 
obtained a view of Leesburgh and the country around. 
Observing but few tents, he determined to hold his position 
and send back for reinforcements. 



238 ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 

Gen. Stone, in the meantime, had made a feint of crossing 
a considerable force at Edward's Ferry, to favor the move- 
ment of Gen. McCall in the direction of Dranesville. The 
ruse was successful. Gen. McCall accomplished the purpose 
of his march and returned. The messenger from Col. Devens 
informed Gen. Stone of the supposed condition of affairs, 
and word was sent him to hold his position, and reinforce- 
ments would be forwarded to enable him to make a valuable 
reconnoissance. Col. Baker, of the First California regiment, 
was directed to move to Conrad's Ferry with his brigade at 
sunrise on the morning of the twenty-first. Gen. Gorman's 
brigade was sent to Edward's Ferry to make a demonstration 
on the Leesburgh road, and other movements were ordered 
to assist the force that had advanced from the bluff. To Col. 
Baker was given the direction of the force which w T as to cross 
the river to the aid of Col. Devens. He proceeded to the 
island and followed the same track at Ball's Bluff* which the 
first detachments had taken. 

As early as seven o'clock on the morning of the twenty- 
first, skirmishing commenced at the advanced position held 
by the Massachusetts men, and continued with varied success, 
the enemy advancing and retiring in turn till two o'clock. 
At this time the enemy appeared in force, and Col. Devens 
fell back to a position occupied by the First California regi- 
ment, which had crossed, and the line was formed by Col. 
Baker, who now assumed command. The attack was made 
with great vigor by the enemy, who rushed from the timber 
with a yell. They were met by a withering fire — wavered 
and fell back. They again advanced, and again a steady line 
of fire greeted them. Col. Coggswell, with the Tammany 
regiment, reached the field, and his men joined the line with 
a defiant shout. One piece of the Bunting battery, and two 
howitzers, came up, and poured a well directed fire into the 
rebel columns. But the rebels were reinforced, and again 
advanced with a shout. Their fire was destructive. The 
gunners fell, and the cannon was drawn to the rear. With 
terrible earnestness, the fight continued for an hour, when 
Col. Baker fell, pierced through the brain with a bullet. The 
enemy were pressing closely, and Col. Coggswell, who had 



ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 239 

succeeded to the command, made his dispositions to fall back 
to the river. The retreat was rapid, but orderly. The line 
was again formed near the river, and a hopeless contest kept 
up for nearly an hour longer, while efforts were being made 
to remove the wounded to the island. But, alas! no arrange- 
ments had been made for a defeat. There was but one boat — 
a scow — to ferry all that worn and weary crowd to the island. 
Our brave but unfortunate soldiers had to swim, surrender or 
die. The enemy, flushed with victory, continued to press 
them down the bluff. The men plunged into the stream. 
Many were shot while swimming. Some escaped along the 
bluff bank, and reached the Union camps after several days ; 
and others succeeded in escaping the shots which rained around 
them while struggling in trie water. The scow, overloaded 
with wounded, left the Virginia shore. In their desperation, 
men clung to it. In the middle of the stream, it sank with 
its precious freight of maimed and bleeding heroes. The 
scene was one to appall the stoutest heart. Still struggling 
on the bluff, were officers and soldiers fighting hopelessly 
against fearful odds to cover the escape of those who were 
struggling in the water, until they were shot down. "Fewer 
of the officers and men would have been killed," say the rebel 
accounts, "if they had not been too proud to surrender." 

Our loss in this disastrous affair, in killed, captured and 
wounded, amounted to nine hundred. The rebels acknowledge 
a loss of three hundred. 

Col. Baker, who fell, bravely fighting at the head of his 
command, was, at the time of his death, a member of the 
United States Senate from the State of Oregon. He was 
a chivalrous soldier, an accomplished gentleman, an able 
and eloquent speaker. When war was declared to exist 
against Mexico, he held a seat in Congress from the State of 
Illinois. He resigned, raised a regiment in his adopted State, 
and led it to the seat of war. At Cerro Gordo, he com- 
manded a brigade after the fall of Gen. Shields, and fought 
it in such a manner as to draw an especial compliment from 
Gen. Twiggs, his division commander. He was wounded on 
the Rio Grande. Returning home, he was again elected to 
Congress. Later in life, he emigrated to California, and from 



240 ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 

thence to Oregon, where his popular manners and surpassing 
eloquence soon gave him prominence, and he was elected a 
Senator in Congress. When the rebellion broke out, he raised 
a regiment, composed largely of returned Californians ; 
refusing a Major General's commission, he led it to the field, 
and, "foremost fighting, fell." 

On the thirty-first of October, Gen. Scott addressed a letter 
to the Secretary of War, asking to be placed upon the retired 
list, in consequence of age and increasing infirmities. The 
letter was placed before the President, and the request of the 
veteran soldier granted in full Cabinet council. Gen. 
McClellan was named as his successor in command of the 
army. 

BATTLE OF DRANESVILLE. 

The Pennsylvania reserve division, under command of Gen. 
McCall, was encamped beyond Langley's Church, the line of 
encampment stretching towards Lewinsville. The position 
held was the last point abandoned by the enemy, when they 
fell back from Munson's Hill and Pall's Church before the 
massive columns of the Union army, which had gathered 
along the line of the Potomac after the battle of Manassas. 
Between their picket lines, and those of the enemy, there 
was an open country not occupied by any military force. In 
this space, the village of Dranesville is situated. On the 
twentieth of December, Gen. McCall ordered Gen. Ord to 
march his brigade, as a foraging party, to seize a lot of forage 
known to be in the vicinity of the little town. The brigade 
consisted of the Sixth, Ninth, Tenth and Twelfth Pennsyl- 
vania regiments, the " Bucktails," a rifle regiment from the 
same State, a battery of Campbell's artillery, and a squadron 
of Bayard's cavalry. 

It happened that a foraging party had been sent out by 
Gen. Stuart from Centreville on the same day. The forces 
were about equal in numbers. The rebels had four regiments 
of infantry, one battery of artillery, and a squadron of cavalry. 

Gen. Ord left camp in the early morning. The march was 
slow and monotonous. The long line of wagons had to be 



ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 241 

flanked on the narrow and winding road by strong bodies of 
infantry; and it was essential to scout the woods in advance, 
to guard against an ambush. The column crossed Difficult 
Creek by a stone bridge about noon, and halted for dinner. 
The advance companies, approaching Dranesville, reported 
that a large body of rebels could be seen from a neighboring 
hill. Shots about the same time were exchanged by some of 
our flanking companies with the enemy's scouts. Gen. Ord 
immediately formed his line of battle. The enemy occupied 
the Centreville road. Their battery was in position to sweep 
it. The battery was flanked by infantry, and supported by 
infantry and cavalry. Their front line was in and near a 
house in afield in advance of and to the right of their position. 
Gen. Ord planted his battery on an elevation directly in front 
of the rebel guns, and opened &v^, advancing his infantry at 
the same time. The first half hour was what is termed an 
artillery duel. The rebels overshot our infantry line, and did 
but little damage. The practice of our gunners was perfect, 
and the rebel battery was soon obliged to change position, 
the most of their horses being killed by the unerring aim of 
our gunners. In the meantime, they tried a flank movement, 
with their infantry to the right of our line, advancing through 
the timber, and were driven back with great loss. The Buck- 
tails pursued them to the woods, and drove the scattering 
regiments to the shelter of their guns, which had been put in 
position again. The entire line was now ordered to advance, 
Gen. Ord leading. The command to advance was received 
with a cheer. Steadily they pressed forward into the timber, 
over gullies and ravines, tangled with thickets, the enemy's 
shell whistling above them. They passed the belt of timber, 
and emerged upon an open field, to find the enemy in rapid 
retreat, his battery being drawn off by hand. Gen. Ord did 
not deem it prudent to pursue, as the enemy might have 
easily been reinforced from either Centreville or Leesburgh ; 
and the topography of the country beyond was unknown to 
us. The enemy left their dead and wounded on the field. 
Gen. McCall arrived as the battle closed, and ordered an 
immediate return to camp. "We lost but seven killed and 
sixty wounded in the battle, while the enemy acknowledged 
Yol. I.— 16. 



242 ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 

a loss of forty-three killed, one hundred and forty-three 
wounded, and forty-four missing, making a total of two hun- 
dred and eighty. 

ADVANCE ON MANASSAS. 

On the twenty- seventh of January, 1862, the President's 
General War Order, number one, directing an advance of 
our armies on the twenty- second day of February, was writ- 
ten. The Secretaries of "War and of the Navy, and their 
subordinates, the General in Chief and other commanders, 
were to be held responsible for its observance. Especially 
were the army at and about Fortress Monroe, the army of 
the Potomac, the army of "Western Virginia, the army near 
Munfordsville, Kentucky, the army and flotilla at Cairo, and 
the naval forces in the Gulf of Mexico, ordered to be ready 
for a movement on that day. 

It was the tenth of March, however, before the advance 
movement was made on Manassas. On the eighth, the Pres- 
ident's General War Order, number two, was issued, dividing 
the army of the Potomac into four corps, to be commanded 
respectively by Gens. McDowell, Sumner, Heintzelman and 
Keyes. A fifth corps was formed of the forces on the upper 
Potomac, and placed under the command of Gen. Banks. 
Gen. Wads worth was made Military Governor of the District 
of Columbia, and commanded the troops designated for the 
defense of Washington. 

The heavy columns of ihe Federal army moved early on 
the morning of the tenth, and labored through the deep mud 
to Fairfax Court House. There rumors of the evacuation by 
the rebels, of Centreville, and even of Manassas Junction, 
reached them. Gen. Kearney, at the head of a portion of 
his brigade, pushed boldly forward and passing the deserted 
rebel camps, — which, like little villages, with tidy streets and 
neat, substantial weatherproof huts, were dotted over the 
hill sides, — marched into the intrenchments at Centreville. 
The evacuation was complete. Armament and stores were 
all removed. IsTo thing remained but their winter huts, and 
their long lines of intrenchments. It was evident the rebels 



ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 243 

had wintered under comfortable shelter, and that they had 
been prepared to make a stubborn and vigorous defense. 
The advance pushed on to Manassas Junction on the morn- 
ing of the eleventh. The rebel rear guard had just left it, 
destroying the railroad and burning bridges as they retired. 

The division of Gen. Banks advanced upon Winchester 
about the same time, and entered the town without opposi- 
tion, Gen. Jackson having retired up the valley as our army 
approached his stronghold. 

Gen. McDowell's corps occupied the country north of the 
Rappahannock, recently held by the rebel army. On the 
fifteenth of April, Gen. Augur's brigade was advanced to 
Catlett's Station. On the sixteenth the trains with King's 
division came up, and on the seventeenth, at dawn of day, 
the command of Gen. Augur started for Falmouth. Lieut. 
Col. Kilpatrick, with the Harris light cavalry, led the column, 
skirmishing with the enemy's cavalry as he advanced. Sev- 
eral dashing charges were made. During the night Col. Kil- 
patrick continued to harrass the enemy, and on the morning 
of the eighteenth drove a strong force from a barricade across 
the road, and dashed into Falmouth. The enemy retired 
across the river, burning the bridges behind them. Augur's 
brigade soon came up. The rebel troops hastily evacuated 
Fredericksburgh, and a deputation of citizens waited upon 
Gen. Augur and made a formal surrender of the city. 

Previous to the march on Fredericksburgh, the Army of 
the Potomac had been moved in transports to Fortress Mon- 
roe, where it halted for a short time. 

On the fourteenth of March Gen. McClellan, then at Fairfax 
Court House, Va., issued the following address to his army : 

Soldiers of the Army of the Potomac: 

For a long time I have kept you inactive, but not without 
a purpose. You were to be disciplined, armed and instructed ; 
the formidable artillery you now have, had to be created; 
other armies were to move and accomplish certain results. I 
I have held you back that you might give the' death-blow to 
the rebellion that has distracted our once happy country. 
The patience you have shown, and your confidence in your 



244 ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 

General, are worth a dozen victories. These preliminary 
results are now accomplished. I feel that the patient labors 
of many months have produced their fruit; the Army of the 
Potomac is now a real army — magnificent in material, admir- 
able in discipline and instruction, excellently equipped and 
armed — your commanders are all that I could wish. The 
moment for action has arrived, and I know that I can trust 
in you to save our country. As I ride through your ranks, 
I see in your faces the sure presage of victory; I feel that 
you will do whatever I ask of you. The period of inaction 
has passed. I will bring you now face to face with the rebels, 
and only pray that God may defend the right. In whatever 
direction you may move, however strange my actions may 
appear to you, ever bear in mind that my fate is linked with 
yours, and that all I do is to bring you, where I know you 
wish to be — on the decisive battle field. It is my business to 
place you there. I am to watch over you as a parent over 
his children; and you know that your General loves you 
from the depths of his heart. It shall be my care, as it has 
ever been, to gain success with the least possible loss; but I 
know that, if it is necessary, you will willingly follow me to 
our graves, for our righteous cause. God smiles upon us,, 
victory attends us, yet I would not have you think that our 
aim is to be attained without a manly struggle. I will not 
disguise it from you ; you have brave foes to encounter, foe- 
men well worthy of the steel that you will use so well. I 
shall demand of you great, heroic exertions, rapid and long 
marches, desperate combats, privations, perhaps. "We will 
share all these together; and when this sad war is over we 
will return to our homes, and feel that we can ask no higher 
honor than the proud consciousness that we belonged to the 
Army of the Potomac." 








*€ 



;0L. JOHN A.HENDRICK! 
22 L Re° . In di an a Vc L - 



PENINSULAR CAMPAIGN. 



CHAPTER IX. 

MARCH TOWARDS RICHMOND. 



On Friday, April fourth, 1862, the army of the Potomac 
commenced its march from Fortress Monroe towards York- 
town. The right was assigned to Gen. Porter's division. 
Near Big Bethel, the rebel pickets were encountered. After 
a slight skirmish they retreated. On the seventh the army 
arrived in front of the rebel works at Yorktown. 

The march up the Peninsula was attended with difficulties 
and privations which would appall the stoutest heart. For 
two weeks after the army landed, the rain poured down in a 
perfect sheet of water. The roads were turned into floating 
mud. Teams stalled, and men waded in mud. Transporta- 
tion of provisions and ammunition was almost impossible. 
Men built corduroy roads upon the floating mud, but the 
water floated their roads away. Generals bivouaced on the 
stumps of trees. 

In the midst of this dreary scene, all nature was beautiful. 
Gorgeous flowers sparkled in the morning sun; birds sang 
their sweetest notes; the budding beauties of spring were all 
around. The semi-tropical beauties of the forest budded 
amid the deluge. 

The army were without tents or shelter for two weeks, before 
they marched, and left at Newport News a large number of 
sick, many of whom, for lack of proper accommodations, died. 

245 






246 ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 

On the nineteenth of April a rebel fort was carried by a 
gallant charge of the Third and Sixth Vermont. On the 
twenty-seventh another fort was taken by company H, First 
Massachusetts. Constant skirmishing continued all the time, 
and batteries were rapidly erected. 

There were many instances of individual daring. One 
rifleman, called " California," kept the rebels dancing. He 
had a rifle pit, to which he went before daylight every morning 
as regularly as he would go to a day's work. His position 
commanded a heavy gun of the enemy. Whenever a head 
appeared at that gun, down it went with a bullet in it. One 
day the rammer got fast. Man after man mounted the para- 
pet to remove it, but each one fell before the deadly rifle of 
" California." 

The rebel army evacuated Yorktown on the third of May. 
Upon entering the works, four hours after their evacuation, 
everything was found in confusion. About fifty pieces of 
heavy artillery, spiked, also a large amount of stores, ammu- 
nition, and camp equipage were captured. 

Gen. Stoneman, with a large force of cavalry and artillery, 
was sent in pursuit, on the Williamsburg road. The gun- 
boats, with Franklin's division, went up the York Eiver to 
West Point, while Smith's division advanced on the left. 

BATTLE OF WILLIAMSBURGH. 

The defences held by the enemy at Williamsburgh con- 
sisted of nine forts. The central work was called Fort 
Magruder. A few hundred yards from this was a dense 
forest. A ravine approached the fort. In front was a level 
field. Along the edge of this field, by the side of a road, hid 
by bushes, were the rebel rifle pits. 

At about eight o'clock in the morning, May sixth, Gen. 
Hooker gave the order to drive in the rebel pickets. The 
fight soon became furious. Our musketry fire was terrible. 
Soon the enemy began to reinforce, and our ammunition to 
be exhausted. At about noon the enemy made a charge with 
a large number of fresh troops. They pushed back o.ur col- 
umn and captured three pieces of artillery. We had about 



ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 247 

eight thousand troops. The enemy twenty-five thousand. 
All through the fight the woods impeded our advance, for 
behind each tree was a rebel rifleman. But the woods afforded 
us some protection from the fire of their artillery. Hooker 
fought on, though the rebels were pouring like an avalanche 
upon him. 

It was now almost one o'clock. All through this gloomy 
morning had Hooker's division fought the battle alone. Our 
ammunition was exhausted, and empty guns could not keep 
back an enemy. Gen. Berry, of Kearney's division, wading 
through the mud, came with his column to the rescue. A 
wild cheer went up from the army, and with an electric yell 
his brigade formed a line and commenced a volley which no 
troops on earth could withstand; then, at a double-quick, 
they dashed with the bayonet at the confident foe, sent them 
reeling to their earthworths, pursued them into their strong- 
hold, and drove them out with cold steel. Again and again 
did the enemy endeavor to recover their lost ground, but each 
time they were repulsed with loss. 

It was now four o'clock, and the gallant Kearney, with 
Jameson's and Birney's brigades, came steaming through the 
mud to the rescue of the brave Hooker. They took the 
front, soon our line of battle was formed, and the enemy fell 
back from their earthworks to the cover of the forest. 

At dark our troops were in possession of the battle field 
and earthworks. They were ready to renew the fight on the 
morrow. Our men lighted their fires, cooked their coffee, 
and bivouaced in the rain. 

The morning came, but, in the mists of the rainy night, 
the rebel army quietly stole away from their position, and 
rapidly fell back towards Richmond. 

While Hooker was fighting on the left, Hancock was bat- 
tling on the right. His force was about iive thousand. They 
met the enemy and drove him back, making a gallant charge. 
Hooker, however, won the battle, having done all the hard 
fighting. The loss of our forces was three hundred killed, 
and six hundred wounded. 



248 ARMY OP THE POTOMAC. 

BATTLE OF WEST POINT. 

About the same time with the fight at "Willi amsburgh, 
occurred the battle of West Point. Gen. Franklin's division, 
which had sailed up the York river, reached the junction of 
the Pamunkey and Mattaponey rivers, and landed on the 
south side of the Pamunkey, near West Point. 

Upon landing, our troops camped in a large field, sur- 
rounded by a dense wood. During the night the rebel 
pickets annoyed our advanced line, and the next morning 
our forces were ordered to rouse the rebels from their hidine: 
places. 

The Thirty-Second New York led the advance on the right. 
The Fifth Maine on the left. Entering the woods they 
approached a ravine, at the bottom of which they were fired 
on by the rebel skirmishers. Up they charged driving the 
enemy from their position. Soon a second ravine appeared 
in view. In attempting to cross this our men received a 
destructive fire, but still pressed on, driving the enemy out 
of the tangled thickets which concealed him from view. 

This invisibleness of the enemy has been to us a terrible 
and destructive feature in this war. They have frequently 
selected their own ground, and then decoyed us into it. 
Most of the battles have been fought in woods and ravines. 
Upon the sides of these ravines the enemy have had their 
rifle pits and batteries. Often, in the battle, volleys are heard 
which make the very ground quake. The bullets quickly 
hiss. The shells sing their murderous song through the air. 
Yet amid the quivering branches of the leafy trees — for the 
trees are always leafy in the South — naught perchance may 
be seen, except a little bird, singing upon a bough in the 
intervals of the volley. The leaves rustle in the wind, and 
you look for the branches to part, and a mad foe to rush for- 
ward. Look until your eye-balls strain, but no foe is visible. 
The groans of the wounded and dying fall upon your ear. 
You look and wonder, a fierce volley now comes through the 
waving branches, comrades fall dead and wounded around 
you, and the earth and heavens seem to pour forth flame 
and death. A battery opens on a hill. The quick hiss of 



ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 249 

the grape shot decimates our ranks. Yet no foe can be 
seen. How dreadful and terrible this tramping on to almost 
certain death, we must learn from those who, with a prayer 
on their lips, have gone into these awful scenes, and have 
come safely out again. It is something which can not be 
described, and can be thought of only as a wild dream. 

At a third ravine the rebels had erected a breastwork from 
which they opened on our men with musketry, and grape, 
and canister. "We charged to within a few feet of this work, 
but were forced back. 

Soon our gunboats opened fire upon the enemy. The 
immense guns seemed effective, for a rebel battery, that had 
withstood all our attacks, was soon silenced. 

At four o'clock the infantry rallied for the final charge. 
Our artillery had damaged the rebels, and the time had come 
to decide the battle. The whole division advanced, the First 
New Jersey charging, at a double-quick, upon the rebel work 
in the center, our artillery, all the while, keeping up a heavy 
fire. Our shells burst in their works. The cheers of the 
troops announced the position was won. The battle was 
over, and the field was ours. We lost two hundred and fifty 
killed and wounded. Our victory opened the way to White 
House Landing, further up the Pamunkey. 

After these battles the army proceeded steadily towards 
Richmond. One column marching from the White House 
Landing, another by the way of New Kent Court House. 
Unimportant skirmishes occurred, and on the twentieth of 
May the advance reached New Bridge, eight miles distant 
from Richmond, driving the rebel pickets before them. 

In this connection it will be necessary to give a brief account 
of the capture of Norfolk, and the destruction of the rebel 
monster Merrimac. The blockade of the James river by this 
formidable vessel, prevented the army from advancing on Rich- 
mond by that route, and changed the whole course of the 
campaign. 

CAPTURE OF NORFOLK. 

The morning of the eighth of May broke brightly and 



250 ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 

beautifully upon the quiet bauks of James River as if the 
whole world were at peace. Not a cloud in the sky — scarcely 
a ripple on the waters. 

Early in the morning a heavy volume of smoke was 
observed stealing along from Craney Island, until, just as it 
reached Tanner's Creek, it changed direction, and moved 
towards Newport News. It was soon made out to be the 
steam tug J. B. White, which, with its owner and crew, had 
run away from the rebel stronghold, and brought us impor- 
tant information. 

At seven o'clock, the gunboats Galena, Port Royal and 
Aroostack, steamed up the James River, and commenced an 
attack on Day's Point, some miles up the river. 

At twelve o'clock, the Dacotah and Monitor approached 
Sewell's Point, the Dacotah opening the fight. She steamed 
up to the enemy's batteries, pouring in shot and shell like 
hail. The Monitor crowded herself off the beach, firing 
cooly and deliberately as if it were practice. In the mean- 
time, the Susquehanna, Seminole, San Jacinto and Naugatuck, 
drew near, and poured in broadsides. 

It seemed as if each sand hill was a battery ; for so fast as 
one was silenced, another opened. The enemy had one large 
battery, which kept up a terrible fire. On this work our fleet 
poured a concentrated fire for two hours. Our shot and shell 
tore up their breastworks, and burst among the gunners. 
Still they fought. ' Confusion was at last visible. A thick 
smoke soon burst out in a vivid flame. Our shells fired their 
barracks; yet, amid the raging fire, they clung to their artil- 
lery, while in the smoke could be seen the rebel flag. 

At three o'clock, the Merrimac, in all her huge proportions, 
with her bomb proof roof, and her long iron prow, hove in 
sight. The bombardment had almost ceased. A formidable 
monster was in the field. 

Our steamers retired in the direction of the Rip Raps, 
while the Monitor hugged close to Sewell's Point, at first 
retiring as the Merrimac approached, in hopes to get her out 
of the narrow channel, and from under the batteries of the 
enemy. But the Merrimac was cautious, creeping around 
like a mole, and looking like one. She came down to the 
Point, turned clumsily around, and put back again. 



ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 251 

The sun went down, leaving the iron-clad monsters watch- 
ing each other ; and the moon looked in quiet beauty upon 
the day's strife. Save the smoking ruins of the rebel bat- 
teries, all was peaceful as if there were no war. The morn- 
ing found the Merrimac standing picket, three miles from 
Se well's Point — the grand rear guard of the retreating enemy. 

At dusk the batteries on the Rip Raps opened fire, and the 
shells fell in the rebel works. The darkness added beauty to 
the scene. A quick flash, like lightning, was seen, and then 
a ball of fire. It was the bursting shell. 

All this time the rebels had been destroying property in 
and around Norfolk. Fires were burning on Craney Island, 
and at the Gosport Navy Yard. At times the whole island 
was enveloped in a dark cloud, bright flame shooting from 
beneath. 

Perhaps a grander spectacle was never witnessed. Cer- 
tainly no combat ever had a group of more interested specta- 
tors. It was a theater — nature furnished the scenery, and 
art the performance. An audience of twenty-five thousand 
looked upon the drama. In each breast was a feeling of 
retribution, for the waters rippled at their feet, in which was 
buried the gallant tars of the Cumberland and Congress. 
Hearts swelled with exultation as each shot told on treason. 

On May ninth, at midnight, Gens. Wool and Mansfield, 
and Gen. Max Webber, with his brigade, consisting of the 
Twentieth New York, Sixteenth Massachusetts, Tenth New 
York, Fifty-Eighth Pennsylvania, two cavalry companies, 
and a battery, took steamers at Fortress Monroe, and made a 
landing in "Wllloughby Bay, at a place called Ocean View. 

The Twentieth New York landed first, and, deploying as 
skirmishers, pushed rapidly forward, starting up a rebel cav- 
alry picket from breakfast, ; and following so rapidly as to 
occupy their barracks, and capture their dry goods. This 
was one mile from the landing. Our force pushed rapidly 
forward, until within three miles of Norfolk. At Tanner's 
Bridge a small force of rebels were met, with three pieces of 
artillery. The bridge was in flames. Part of the brigade 
countermarched on another road, and the rebels, seeing the 
movement, suddenly left. Our soldiers pushed forward, and 



252 ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 

at eight o'clock, Saturday night, the Sixteenth Massachusetts 
and Twentieth New York rushed through the intrenchments, 
and Norfolk was ours. The enemy had abandoned the city. 

There was a good road, about ten miles in length, leading 
from Norfolk to Ocean View — a fashionable watering place. 
Here the surf breaks heavily on the beach. By a singular over- 
sight, no cannon had been placed upon this naturally strong 
position. The formation of the sand banks, which are a 
peculiarity of the sea coast, made embankments unnecessary. 
In fact, they are natural fortifications. They rise abruptly 
from twenty to fifty feet on the ocean side, and descend as 
abruptly on the land side. 

When the rebels heard of our landing at what they sup- 
posed to be such an impossible place, their feelings of chagrin 
were indescribable. They telegraphed to Richmond that 
seventy-five thousand Yankees had landed, though there 
were not over five thousand. Then commenced the work 
of destruction and terror. For two days they were busy in 
destroying property. On Craney Island, they burnt buildings, 
machine shops, and founderies. They burnt the Gosport 
Navy Yard, blew up the dry dock, and destroyed the shops. 
They tried to burn the railroad bridge, but were prevented 
by the timely arrival of the Union soldiers. 

On Sunday the Federal troops marched through the city 
of Norfolk. The men sneered at our sunburnt volunteers,' 
and the women scowled. But what cared we? We were 
the victors, and could endure sneers. 

At daylight, Sunday, the rebel crew of the Merrimac, 
learning of the surrender of their harbor, and our possession 
of the entire peninsula, fearing the guns in front, and dread- 
ing a visit from the Monitor, abandoned, in utter desperation, 
their vessel, having previously applied a slow match to the 
magazine, which, upon igniting, shook the earth for miles 
around. Thus did the Merrimac — the great terror of our 
navy — commit suicide. 

Norfolk, with its narrow streets, and old-fashioned brick 
stores, resembled the lower portion of New York City. 
Nine-tenths of the stores were closed, and the dwelling 
houses seemed to lack inhabitants, though through the closed 



ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 253 

blinds, as the martial music preceded some new force of Union 
soldiers, might be seen curious eyes, sometimes stern, but 
oftener frightened. 

The scenery around the city was beautiful. A healthier 
location could not be found. The sea breeze cooled the air, 
and made the heat of the sun endurable. The river wound 
its way among capes and islands, its banks covered with 
pines, and adorned by many beautiful residences. A splendid 
building was the Naval Hospital. A very handsome garden 
surrounded it. The green lawn in front was soon covered by 
our troops, and Union music issued from its portico. 

THE SITUATION BEFORE RICHMOND. 

The line of defense against the further advance of the 
Union army towards Richmond, was the Chickahominy 
River. This river is formed by the junction of several small 
streams north of Richmond. Its general course is south-east. 
It is a sluggish stream, with swampy shores and low banks, 
which overflow after heavy rains. Its bed is full of stumps, 
and resembles our western bayous. Along both sides of the 
belt of wooded swamp, inclosing the Chickahominy, is a 
tract of level, open country, running back for a short dis- 
tance on each side. Beyond, on the Richmond side, are 
heavy pine woods, intersected with numerous winding paths, 
for it is an old country, having been settled nearly two hun- 
dred years. 

"With this difficult stream to cross, its fords guarded by the 
enemy's artillery and riflemen, and its woods swarming with 
troops, the army necessarily moved slowly. There were 
bridges to build under fire of the enemy, roads to make, 
transportation to accompany the column ; yet, by immense 
efFort, all this was accomplished, and after a few brilliant skir- 
mishes at Bottom Bridge, New Bridge and other points, the 
advance division of the army of the Potomac, under the 
-command of Gen. Casey, crossed the Chickahominy, within 
six miles of Richmond, near Fair Oaks Station. There had 
been heavy rains the day previous, the ground on which they 
camped was flooded, and being of a clayey texture rendered 



254 ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 

it impossible to move artillery. A more desolate country is 
seldom seen. Acres of trees had been felled to prevent the 
farther advance of our army. Every house was in ruins. 
The men, to quench their thirst, had to drink slimy water. 

On May thirtieth occurred a terrific thunder and rain storm 
which lasted all night, converting the spongy soil into a bog, 
and raising the waters of the Chickahominy so as to carry 
away two bridges Gen. Sumner had prepared for the passage 
of his column. The men having dug a few rifle pits, and 
felled timber, were exhausted by the storms of the night and 
the labors of the morning; and while cooking coffee and 
preparing dinner, the outer pickets were driven in. Thus 
began the battle of Fair Oaks, May thirty-first. 

BATTLE OP FAIR OAKS. 

It was noon, when the scattered fire of our pickets startled 
our camp. The One Hundred and Third Pennsylvania 
advanced to support the pickets. They went out quickly, 
and came in contact with the enemy's front line of battle 
before our men had loaded their guns. At once they received 
a full and destructive volley, which cut down one-fourth and 
demoralized the rest. They fell back in confusion, carrying 
with them discouragement to the forming columns, and were 
no more in the fight that day. 

That surprise, while it disorganized the regiment, proved 
the great error which had been committed, in allowing our- 
selves to be surprised, and in sending out a small force with 
empty guns. 

Gen. Casey's force hastily formed, and Col. Bailey, getting 
his artillery in position, opened fire as the rebel column 
poured through the woods in front. 

The rebel army had started from Richmond in three col- 
umns; one came down the railroad on the right, another 
attacked the camp through the woods, directly in front, and 
the third came down the Charles City road, on the left, but 
failed on account of the high water to take part in the battle. 
Their object was to crush Casey's force before reinforcements 
should cross the Chickahominy. From the proverbial slow- 



AEMY OP THE POTOMAC. 255 

ness of our movements, they had every reason to look for 
the success of their plan, and failed only from the facts that 
their left column did not connect, and that our surprised 
troops fought with a desperation wholly unexpected. Per- 
fectly informed of our position and force, they chose a point 
for the attack which could least endure it. They intended 
the blow to be desperate, and made it with their best troops. 
Eighteen thousand men, of high courage and discipline, of 
the rebel army, led by Gen. Longstreet, left Richmond that 
day and went out to battle. £Tever did courage and daring 
come nearer success. But they were beaten, and if our com- 
manders had known the state of affairs, we could have fol- 
lowed their shattered columns into Richmond. 

Gen. Casey's force, on that day, consisted of about six 
thousand effective men ; they were broken down by sickness 
and hard marches, and from the effects of the surprise, fought 
at great disadvantage. With this feeble division Gen. Casey 
had but a small force to meet the combined rebel attack. 
But no thought of yielding entered the mind of this old sol- 
dier, scarred with the wounds of many battles and familiar 
with danger. His troops were at once formed, his three 
brigades maintaining their positions on the right, left and 
center. 

Preparations were made to resist the attack. Spratt's bat- 
tery was posted on the right, Regan's next, near the Wil- 
liamsburgh road, Bates' battery on the left, and Fitch's bat- 
tery in the rear. 

The vigor with which the enemy pressed forward indicated 
the confidence of superior strength. Two rebel regiments 
pressed Gen. Naglee on the right; another felt Gen. Wassell 
on the center; and a third Gen. Palmer on the left, pouring 
in a fire hot and heavy, advancing with great resolution in 
face of a steady fire of canister and grape. The rebels had 
little artillery, and were evidently disposed to make good 
that deficiency by coming to close quarters, with their supe- 
rior force, to break down by numbers the skeleton regiments 
of the advanced column. 

Most of Gen. Casey's troops were thrown forward to the 
edge of the woods in front, to meet the advance of the rebels, 



256 ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 

a few regiments having been left behind the slight rifle pits, 
rifle pits but in name, for they were only two feet deep, and 
afforded no protection to the men. Besides this, their camp 
was on an open field, with no protection, while the rebels, as 
usual, advanced through timber. 

Thus a division, unused to war, was suddenly exposed, in 
an open field, to the heaviest fire, from a concealed enemy. 
Terribly the tempest raged ; musket balls filled the air like 
hail; officer after officer fell before the deadly fire; men were 
cut down like grass ; and the rebel column pressed on to vic- 
tory. They took possession of the camp and buried their 
dead on the battle field. 

For four hours Casey's men fought three times their num- 
ber, and yielded only half a mile to the enemy. Gen. Casey 
showed great courage and skill. Although he lost one-fourth 
of his division, he held the rebels in check till Couch's divis- 
ion advanced. 

The troops of Gen. Couch then advanced to the battle. It 
has often been our misfortune to put our troops forward in 
detached bodies, while the enemy massed his solid columns 
within supporting distance. 

A short pause took place between the retreat of Casey's 
division, and the advance of Couch. The troops of the latter 
were so drawn up that when the enemy pressed forward his 
right wing became first engaged. Here the Twenty-Third 
Pennsylvania regiment was posted. They reserved their fire 
until the enemy was close upon them, and then poured in a 
sheet of living flame. But the increasing forces of the enemy 
compelled them to fall back. Rebels seemed to spring from 
the very earth. From each bush, and brake and tree an armed 
warrior sprung. The bushes shook with their rustling move- 
ment. They sprung up, as if by magic, and, with triumphant 
yells, their columns swept onward. Our ranks broke like glass 
before their terrible fire; our shattered column fell back, and 
left the enemy in possession of the camp, the battle field, and 
its trophies. 

Col. Bailey, Chief of Artillery, who so gallantly opened 
the battle, was shot early in the afternoon. Major Van Val- 
kenburg was also killed, with many other brave officers and 
men. 



ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 257 

The rebel army camped on the ground occupied by Casey's 
division before the battle. All night they were burying their 
dead, and placing little shingle slabs, marked with the name 
and regiment of their fallen comrades. Sometimes they 
were buried singly, but oftener in clusters. Huge pits were 
dug in which the dead were tumbled without ceremony. 
For weeks after the battle the mounds raised over these pits 
swarmed with green carrion flies, and the sides of the mounds 
cracking open, exposed the decaying remains under their 
light covering of clay. 

Sometimes, in the bushes, the dead could not be found; for 
the battle was fought mostly in a thick undergrowth, although 
it culminated on the open field where Casey camped. Stroll- 
ing among these bushes, a few days after the battle, the bodies 
of dead soldiers could be seen. The dead lay with "their 
back to the field and their feet to the foe." 

THE SECOND DAY. 

Flushed with their victory on Saturday, the rebel army 
awoke with confidence on Sunday, to follow up their move- 
ments, sure of driving our column this time into, or beyond,, 
the Chickahominy. Our army was ready to meet them. 

During the night the divisions of Gens. Sedgwick and 
Richardson had crossed and taken position. Heintzelman 
was there with the fighting divisions of Hooker and Kear- 
ney. Sumner, French, Keyes, Meagher, and Howard had 
arrived, with part of their forces. 

The rebel army occupied a piece of woods and the open 
field of our camp ; their line extended from our extreme left, 
on White Oak Swamp, to the railroad near Fair Oaks Sta- 
tion, on our right. 

On our right, on the other side of the railroad, the divis- 
ions of Gens. Sedgwick and Richardson were posted, their 
left resting on Hooker's right. Hooker's division occupied 
the center, in the wood fronting Sneed's house, on the Wil- 
liamsburgh road, and Gen. Keyes the left. 

About seven o'clock in the morning the fire of our pickets 
denoted the advance of the rebels. Heintzelman sent Hooker 
Vol. I.— 17. 



258 ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 

to drive thern from the woods, from which the head of their 
column was emerging. Kearney was fighting desperately on 
the extreme left. Our whole line advanced delivering terrific 
volleys. Again and again, the enemy pushed forward. They 
gathered in masses in the woods and dashed at our batteries, 
but were swept back by the murderous hurricane of grape 
and canister. The rebels found it impossible to break our 
lines and we found it difficult to shake them off". 

The officers were all in their places, animating their men, 
who moved steadily forward, delivering their fire coolly and 
regularly. Thus continued the desperate struggle all day. 
The sun at last went down shining dismally through the sul- 
phurous smoke of the battle. Dark night came on only to add 
to the horrors. The enemy still gathered in masses in the 
woods, occasionally making a dash at our batteries, only to 
be driven back. Sheets of flame issued from the woods; 
storms of bullets tore through the leaves and struggling men ; 
the wild yells of the combatants drowned at times all other 
sounds, and it seemed as if human beings were turned into 
fiends. It was past eight o'clock w T hen the battle ceased. 
We held our position, but the enemy held his, and wa3 
consoled for his disappointment in not driving us from ours 
by the spoils of Casey's and Couch's camp. The battle begun 
in disgrace to us, and ended with a severe repulse to the enemy. 

The battle was over, but what pen can describe its scenes 
of agony? Friends and foes lay scattered over the field in 
their dying struggles. Here w T ere deserted camps — dead and 
dying filled its tents — horses, wounded and mangled rushed 
to and fro. Here were Union soldiers; there rebels. Every 
wound known to the human body was seen in ghastly reality. 
All wanted water, those who could, crawled through mud, 
and drank eagerly the slimy flood. Some screamed, others 
moaned, and a few turned their eyes upward and breathed a 
silent prayer. 

"While lying thus, between life and death, a thousand 
thoughts crowd in a moment's space, upon the busy mind. 
The dearest scenes of life pass vividly before you. All seems 
quiet and pleasant. No thought of pain, or of death; but 
an abandonment of mind, filled with beautiful scenes dearest 



ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 259 

to the heart. Is this death? Happy they who thus pass 
through the dark valley, leaning on the arm of their Saviour. 

Our loss, during the fight of these two days, was eight 
hundred and ninetv killed, three thousand six hundred and 
twenty - seven wounded, one thousand two hundred and 
twenty-two missing, most of whom were prisoners, total five 
thousand seven hundred and thirty-nine. The rebel loss was 
four thousand two hundred and thirty-three, killed, wounded 
and missing. The rebels claim to have taken ten pieces of 
artillery, six thousand stand of arms, five colors, and a large 
amount of camp equipage. 

The rebel army retired leisurely and in good order from 
the battle field of Fair Oaks, finding, from the rapidity with 
which the Union army received reinforcements, that they 
could not drive them back. 

Our forces did not pursue, but contented themselves with 
occupying the battle ground, building redoubts, aud con- 
structing rifle pits. In the meantime, the Army of the Poto- 
mac was reinforced by Wool's veterans from Norfolk, and 
McCalFs division. Most of our army was over the Chicka- 
hominy. The Williamsburgh road was open. B. Estvan, 
in "War Pictures from the South," says: 

"The nearer the Federal forces approached Richmond, the 
greater became the tumult and disorder there. The conduct 
of the Confederate Government on this occasion, instead of 
allaying, served to increase the confusion; for instead of 
making a decisive effort with the forces then at Richmond, 
they ordered all the public officials to pack up their effects, 
and hand them over to the charge of the ordnance depart- 
ment, and directed the magazines to be cleared, and their 
contents carried away farther South. President Davis him- 
self showed the white feather, for he hurried off with his 
wife and family to North Carolina; and, as may be supposed, 
that did not serve to allay the alarm of the people. In short, 
dismay and confusion reached their highest pitch. Gen. 
Winder's secret police lost all power of acting. The civic 
authorities of Richmond were anxious to do something, but 
were too bewildered to grapple with the mischief. A small 
number of desperate fellows from Baltimore took advantage 



260 ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 

of these circumstances, and, at a public meeting, which they 
convened, actually passed a resolution for burning down 
Richmond the moment the enemy should attack the town. 
The sick and wounded were conveyed into the interior; many- 
public buildings, as well as private houses, were made ready 
to be set fire to; and the distracted city was apparently on 
the eve of a great catastrophe." 

This statement, if true, confirms what has frequently been 
asserted, that after the battle of Fair Oaks, our army could 
have easily taken Richmond. 

From the second of June until the thirteenth, our army 
was busy digging, and felling timber, to prevent the rebels 
from taking us, while in the rebel capital all was confusion 
and terror, and its chief was sending messengers to every 
portion of the Confederacy to send to Richmond every regi- 
ment; to sacrifice all for the preservation of the threatened 
capital. Soon they were joined by a portion of Beauregard's 
army, which had slipped through Halleck's fingers at Corinth. 
While we were digging, and countermarching, and losing 
valuable time, the enemy were massing troops to overwhelm 
us. The series of battles came, alas! too soon. Gen. 
McClellan deemed it advisable to withdraw his army to the 
shelter of the gunboats on the James River. ■ 

Every few days, from the third until the twelfth of June, 
there was skirmishing along our line in front of Richmond. 
Occasionally a regiment was sent through the woods or 
swamps in front, to discover the position of the enemy, but 
were generally driven back with loss, after penetrating a 
short distance within the enemy's lines. 

The enemy seemed to be sleepless, and every night our 
entire front line was aroused by heavy picket firing. Falling 
in behind their rifle pits, the Federals waited sometimes all 
day for an attack. The Union soldiers were ordered out 
every night to construct rifle pits. Some, weary and sick, 
continued to dig, until death relieved them from fatigue. 

Thus dragged along the movements in front of Richmond, 
until June the thirteenth, when our sluggishness was startled 
by a bold and dashing movement of Gen. Stuart's rebel cav- 
alry on our rear. This feat was so daring that a detailed 
account will be interesting. 



army of the potomac. 261 

stuart's cavalry raid. 

The rebel force consisted of about twelve hundred cavalry, 
and a section of flying artillery, under command of Gen. J, 
E. B. Stuart. It quietly met beyond the Chickahominy, near 
Kilby's station, on the Richmond, Fredericksburgh and Poto- 
mac Railroad, and moved thence parallel to, and to the left 
of, the road. It proceeded by the way of Hanover Court 
House, where it encountered the pickets of McDowell; but 
they fell back towards Fredericksburgh, thus opening a gap 
in our lines. So soon as Gen. Stuart was informed of this 
overcaution of McDowell's pickets, he expressed great satis- 
faction, and dashed rapidly forward. The column proceeded 
by the way of Eden Church, and Haw's Shop. Between 
these places, they were encountered by the Fifth United 
States cavalry, and a spirited fight ensued, resulting in driving 
our men back. They then proceeded to Tunstall's Station, 
on the York River Railroad, on their route capturing wagons, 
and destroying property. One part of the force was detached 
to the Pamunkey River, where they destroyed two transports, 
and a large amount of stores. The railroad bridge over 
Black Creek was burned, thus cutting off the Army of the 
Potomac from its supplies. They then proceeded to !N"ew 
Kent Court House, and destroyed more stores. At a little 
before dawn, on Sunday, June the sixteenth, they arrived 
upon the banks of the Chickahominy, near Forge Bridge. 
The bridge had been destroyed. This was near Charles City 
Road, and under the fire of the Union gunboats on the James 
River. The stream was not fordable. What was to be done ? 
The Union forces were in rapid pursuit. Thousands were 
filling the woods and pushing on to capture their daring foe. 
First one horseman, then another, plunged into the flood — 
too deep; no ford to be discovered; no bridge. At last they 
thought of the old bridge at Jones' Ford; that could be 
repaired. At it they went, and soon accomplished the task. 
Then the daring band galloped up the Charles City Road, 
and entered the rebel lines. 



262 ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 

THE SITUATION. 

For nearly three weeks the opposing armies had looked 
upon each other without any decisive combat. But there 
was very little rest, for every night our pickets were attacked. 
Every day we had a hot sun or a drenching rain. The men 
were exhausted with work in the rifle pits. The immense 
labor imposed on the soldiers, with its constant alarms, 
reduced our effective force nearly one-fourth. The left wing, 
which was on the right bank of the Chickahominy, had 
intrenchments along its entire front, for it was exposed at 
any time to an attack from the whole rebel army. The right 
wing was on the left bank of the river, and reached to Me- 
chanicsville. Thus the army laid in the shape of a Y after 
the battle of Fair Oaks, and until the grand attack of the 
rebel army on the twenty-sixth of June. 

The right wing, consisting of McCall's, Morrell's and 
Sykes' divisions, about twenty-five thousand strong, was 
posted from Beaver Dam to New Bridge. The center, com- 
prising Smith's, Sedgwick's and BAchardson's divisions, 
reached from New Bridge to the York River railroad. The 
left wing, consisting of Hooker's, Kearney's and Couch's 
divisions covered the front from the railroad to the edge of 
White Oak Swamp. It was seventeen miles to the James 
river, and twenty-live miles to the Pamunkey, where our 
base was at the White House. White Oak Swamp covered 
our left, although several roads, between it and the James 
river, would have enabled the enemy to cut off any commu- 
nication in that direction, provided they moved in time. The 
effective force of our army was about ninety-five thousand 
men. 

In front of Kearney's lines was an* open space, partly swamp 
and partly felled timber, forming an abattis. In front of 
Hooker was a series of open fields and swamps; at their 
further edge thick woods. 

On the twenty- fifth of June, early in the morning, Heint- 
zelman's corps was ordered to advance and drive the enemy 
from cover. Pushing rapidly forward, Hooker's division 
drove the enemy from their rifle pits, and into the woods 



ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 263 

at their rear. The fight raged fiercely for a time, but the 
enemy, finding themselves in danger of being flanked on 
their right, by Gen. Kearney, fell back, and Hooker held his 
position. 

Gen. Kearney meanwhile had advanced through swamp 
and slashed timber a mile in front of his rifle pits. So soon 
as his force entered the woods skirmishing commenced, but 
the enemy was steadily pressed back, until his left came sud- 
denly in contact with a log house filled with rebels. A volley 
was poured into our advancing column, killing and wounding 
several men, but the line pushed rapidly forward and the 
rebels fled, leaving behind their haversacks and blankets. 

This log house had once been a school house. Near it was 
an abandoned dwelling surrounded by an orchard. To the 
right was a wheat field. To the left a meadow. Beyond 
heavy woods. 

Our advanced line took position along a fence in the wheat 
field, orchard and meadow, while the reserve lay down in the 
woods. Soon a shell burst in the road close to the house, 
and then a shower of grape hissed through the branches of 
the apple trees over the heads of our troops. We then dis- 
covered the enemy had batteries commanding the position. 
Presently a shell whizzed at right angles over our heads. The 
enemy had a cross-fire on our troops. Gen. Kearney quickly 
got a section of a battery in position and replied, and suc- 
ceeded in setting fire to a house in which their sharpshooters 
were posted, and had a lively skirmish. The fire of our bat- 
tery brought on a battle. 

BATTLE OF ORCHARDS. 

It was now about six o^clock. The reserve was resting in 
the woods, listening to the shells flying through the branches 
of the trees. It seemed too late for a general battle. An 
orderly ran up to Gen. Robinson, with information that the 
enemy were advancing in force across the wheat field. The 
Eighty- Seventh New York was in front, and its Colonel had 
sent the message to Gen. Hobinson asking for support. 

Col. Brown, of the Twentieth Indiana, whose regiment 



264 ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 

was lying in column of division, at once ordered his men to 
deploy, and they at once advanced. The fire grew fierce in 
front. The Twentieth, so soon as they reached the crest of 
a hill in the woods, were assailed with a heavy fire; with a 
yell and a cheer they gallantly charged the enemy. They 
were provided with patent water proof cartridges, which 
required no biting. Charging clown the hill they met the 
enemy at a fence in the wheat field. Then roared forth 
their fire. The battle raged furiously. The Twentieth, 
eager and enthusiastic, rushed like wild wolves upon the 
First Louisiana, Third and Fourth Georgia, and a North 
Carolina regiment, driving them like frightened sheep. In 
front of them was a rebel battery. Capt. Lytle seeing it 
waved his sword and ordered his men to take it. Just then 
the gallant Captain fell mortally wounded. Still our line 
pushed forward, the enemy giving way, when suddenly, from 
the sedgy pines on the right, a destructive fire enfiladed our 
line. The men hesitated. They could not fight an unseen 
foe. A fire now opened from concealed forces on the left. 
Rising from behind a fence in front, swarms of grey-backs 
appeared. The regiment fell back, losing one hundred and 
ninety-two in killed and wounded. The rebels reported their 
loss six hundred and fifty in killed and wounded. 

AFTER THE BATTLE. 

The dark night came on, and, although reinforcements 
arrived, it was too late to renew the fight. The forces slept 
that night in the woods and swamps, under the heavy fogs 
of June. The quiet of the night was occasionally broken by 
the fire of frightened pickets. The battle field was between 
the contending forces. All night long could be heard the 
groans of the wounded. From ditches and swamps came up 
their doleful cries, causing even the hardest hearts to weep. 
Their sufferings could not be relieved, for when efforts were 
made to remove the wounded, the rebel pickets fired on our 
details. A few of the most daring of the Twentieth, suc- 
ceeded in rescuing the gallant Capt. Lytle, who afterwards 
died in hospital at Washington. 



ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 265 

In the darkness some of our pickets killed their own com- 
rades. The dreary hours dragged along till the gray dawn 
stole slowly in, and found our men waiting anxiously for the 
events of the day. 

The sun arose, baking the fields into clay, its fierce rays 
scorching the wounded, who were dying for lack of water. 
The order came to fall back. 

INCIDENTS. 

In the rear of the column, at a turn in the road, behind a 
wood pile, lay two "blue coats'' apparently sleeping. All was 
now quiet in the woods, the insects were chirping, and the 
birds singing their morning songs. The dewy leaves fluttered 
softly in the gentle breeze. The sun, where it penetrated the 
leafy coverts, sparkled upon the glittering drops of water the 
dew had left upon the leaves. All nature was hushed, as if 
it were a Sabbath of quiet, Xo sounds of strife; no noise 
of tumult. The men were quietly sleeping. One lay close 
to the wood pile; the other a little further off. Quietly 
approaching, a Union officer gently laid his hand on the 
shoulder of one and bade him wake up; but he could not be 
waked. His pantaloons were tucked into his socks, his rifle 
was clasped in his hands; his overcoat was on; he was full 
rigged as a soldier, and yet he slept. Stooping down the 
officer looked into his face, and observed a bullet hole in his 
left temple. He slept his last sleep. He went to the other 
sleeper; alas! he also slept the sleep of death. Quietly as 
little children, they slumbered upon the green moss of the 
woods in front of Richmond. Xo friends will ever know 
where they lie. !N"o happy family on earth, will ever greet 
their return. A rifle, taken from one of them, had on the 
belt, "F. McCullouch, company F." Thus do our braves lie 
unknown among the swamps of the Chickahominy. But the 
sacrifice will not be in vain. They need no monument to 
perpetuate their memory, for their deeds will live in the 
hearts of a grateful people. Their little fatherless children, 
now too young to realize their loss, may pronounce the sim- 
ple and beautiful eulogy upon them, "My father fought and 
died for his country." 



266 ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 

1 

FURTHER MOVEMENTS. 

On the morning of June twenty-sixth, Heintzelman's corps, 
composed of the divisions of Hooker and Kearney, fell back 
from their advanced position to their rifle pits, redans and 
fortifications on the Fair Oaks battle field. Here they rested 
for the day. At ten o'clock the rebels sent up a balloon from 
which a view of our position was taken. 

At twelve o'clock there was heavy firing on the right. 
The troops of Gen. Hill had crossed the Chickahominy at 
Meadow Bridge, and attacked McCall, the advance of our 
right on the left bank. The fight was severe ; but our troops 
held a strong position at Beaver Dam. There McCall had 
cut an abattis and thrown up earthworks, which held the 
enemy till dark. This vigorous resistance compelled the 
enemy to throw numerous reinforcements across the river. 
During the night our troops fell back and took position at 
Gaines' Mills. 

In the meantime Gen. Jackson had crossed at Mechanics- 
ville Bridge, and, bearing in the direction of Coal Harbor, 
threatened our communications with the White House. Gen. 
D. H. Hill was crossing at New Bridge. So soon as Jackson 
arrived at Coal Harbor, Gens. Lee and Longstreet took com- 
mand of the three columns, and approached Gaines' Mills. 

One portion of our army was on the south side of the 
Chickahominy, fronting Richmond, and confronted by Gen. 
Magruder. The other portion, on the north side, had fallen 
back to a new line, and were confronted by the united forces 
of Jackson, Hill and Longstreet. 

As the rebels, who had advantage of position, greatly out- 
numbered the Federal forces, Gen. McClellan, — not having 
received the expected reinforcements, — made preparations for 
retreating to the James River, across White Oak Swamp, to 
Harrison's Landing, a distance of about seventeen miles. 
The battles which ensued, were fought to cover the retreat 
of the army and save its immense trains. There was but one 
narrow road to pursue. Its course was due south from the 
Williamsburgh road, through White Oak Swamp, to the 
Charles City Road, about eight miles from the James River, 



ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 267 

near Turkey Bend. Thence it took a south-westerly course 
to Malvern Hills, which was our last line of defense. 

The night of the twenty-seventh, the whole of the long 
train connected with the right wing of the army, crossed the 
Chickahominy by different bridges, and joined the long train 
which took its winding way towards the James River. 
Orders were given to destroy all the stores and magazines 
along the railway to the White House, and evacuate that 
position. 

BATTLE OF GAINES 3 MILLS. 

This battle was fought in a rolling country, heavily wooded, 
at intervals open, with a few cleared fields. There is an 
unbroken succession of undulating hills two miles round the 
battle field. The whole country, as seen from the north door 
of Gaines' house, is unbroken, open, undulating, and table 
land. The right of this table land descends from Gaines' 
house to the creek. To the left there are ravines, with dense 
timber further to the left; the front being mostly table land. 
To the southeast, there is a large tract of timber commanding 
all advances upon the main road, in which were posted our 
troops and batteries. 

At three, p. m., the enemy advanced, under Gen. Prior, and 
made an onslaught on our skirmishers posted in the woods, 
who fell back to the main column. Meanwhile, our batteries, 
from the high grounds, swept the whole face of the country. 
All that saved the rebel columns from utter destruction, was 
the gulleys and dips in which they screened their men. 

Suddenly, in front, appeared a large force of the enemy, 
who rushed down into a wide gulley, crossed it, climbed over 
the felled timber, under a fierce fire, and began to ascend the 
hill on which our batteries were posted. An incessant dis- 
charge of grape and canister swept their ranks. Twenty-six 
pieces of artillery thundered a leaden storm through their 
line. Yet on they came, with guns at right-shoulder-shift, 
ready for the charge. They had nearly reached our guns, 
when, springing from the low timber, which had concealed 
them, several regiments poured a deadly fire in their faces. 



268 ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 

This, they could not stand, and fell back in terror and dismay. 
Generals and Colonels had to march on foot, their horses 
having been shot. Regiments were commanded by Captains, 
and companies by Sergeants. 

Receiving new supports, they again, with savage yells and 
colors flying, advanced. A perfect hurricane of fire met 
them, yet on they came. Swarming from the woods — spring- 
ing from the solid ground — one interminable mass of foemen 
rushed upon us only to be driven back again with immense 
slaughter. Our infantry, from the woods, thinned their ranks, 
while our artillery, from the knobs, swept them from the 
ground. 

Finding they could not force our center, they massed their 
troops on our left, but were met by a gallant resistance. Sud- 
denly the roar of musketry increased in volume towards the 
extreme left. Jackson had got to our flank and rear, and 
was pouring in his fresh troops. 

It was now past six o'clock. The ringing volleys of musk- 
etry sounded like the reverberating thunder, while the louder 
roar of artillery was the thunder itself, followed by its vivid 
flashes, lighting up the heavens. For two hours our left 
withstood this terrible shock of battle. The columns surged 
back and forth. First one yielding, then another. Our 
reserves were exhausted. The enemy still poured in masses 
of fresh troops. At last our line gave way, and swept back 
over the river. We had about thirty-five thousand men 
engaged. The rebel force was estimated at sixty thousand. 
The loss was very heavy on both sides. At night our forces 
crossed the grape vine bridge, and moved down the Williams- 
burgh road toward White Oak Swamp. 

THE LEFT. 

While this fight raged on the right, all was calm and peace- 
ful on the left. They thought they were going into Rich- 
mond. They had heard nothing of defeat or disaster, and 
when at night the flashes of artillery, and the continued roar, 
told of the battle, they listened anxiously for the result, and, 
when the battle ceased, they anxiously looked for a messenger 



ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 269 

with good news. The first thing they heard was a band 
playing in front. A report rapidly spread that our right had 
gained a hill near Richmond, and were about to shell the city. 
The men fell into line, and gave long and continued cheers; 
and, for the first time, music poured forth its cheering and 
stirring notes amid the swamps of the Chickahominy. Out 
came the veterans from their tents, and cheered. Cheered 
till they were hoarse, and, turning in, went to sleep again, to 
wake up and find all delusion, and the whole Union army in 
rapid retreat. 

THE RETREAT. 

On the morning of June twenty -eighth, the left wing of 
the armv, which had been easterly waiting to receive the 
order of "forward march," was startled at the strange move- 
ment of our columns. All night long the rumbling of artil- 
lery had been heard, and the white tops of our wagons been 
seen disappearing through the woods and swamps down the 
Williarnsburgh road. Fatigue parties, too, were working at 
a second line of defenses, a mile in the rear of our first line, 
covering a turn in the "Williamsburgh road. This did not 
look like "onward to Richmond/'' 

Then came an order to draw six day's rations ; pack up 
everything the wagons could hold; burn and destroy what 
we could not carry. Each man in Heintzelman's corps drew 
one hundred and fiftv rounds of cartridges. The fighting 
division of the knightly Kearney was assigned as the rear 
guard of the Army of the Potomac. 

From early daylight immense trains of artillery, intermin- 
gled with infantry, and cavalry, stragglers, cooks, sick and 
wounded, and droves of cattle passed our camp at Fair Oaks 
and poured down the narrow road in our rear. At the sta- 
tion huge piles of army stores were burned, the smoke of 
which curled dismally upwards. The rising sun, shining 
through the dismal curtain of smoke, appeared to be stained 
with blood. The sick, who could walk, were ordered to a 
hospital in White Oak Swamp. One of the most heart sick- 
ening features of this retreat was to see those pallid, dying 



270 ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 

heroes, wandering helplessly and almost hopelessly along to 
some haven of rest. The government had not furnished our 
Chief with sufficient means for attending to the wants of our 
wounded, for there were at that time only a few two-wheeled 
ambulances attached to each brigade. These rude vehicles 
jolted so painfully that it was enough to kill a wounded man 
to ride in them. 

But the most awful feature was the fact, which soon became 
apparent, that our wounded and mangled heroes who lay in 
the hospitals moaning in agony, would have to be deserted 
and left to the enemy. How could men fight, when they 
knew this would be their inevitable fate, if wounded. Yet 
they did fight, and like a band of knightly heroes, hurled 
the enemy back from every position they occupied in defense, 
until worn out and almost dead with fighting and fatigue, 
they plunged down in the muddy flat of the James river, at 
the end of the Seven Day's Battles. Some reached there 
only to lie down and die. Numerous graves dot the plain 
where our weary army rested. 

The right wing of our army, after crossing the Chicka- 
hominy on Friday night, moved down the Williamsburgh 
road toward White Oak Swamp. On Saturday a force of 
the enemy attacked a position on Garnett's farm, near New 
Bridge. They were repulsed with heavy loss, and our forces 
fell back to Savage Station about six miles from Richmond, 
on the York River railroad. In the meantime, Jackson, 
moving between the Chickahominy and Pamunkey, captured 
the most of the Fourth New Jersey and Eleventh Pennsyl- 
vania regiments. 

At daylight on the twenty-eighth our whole line on the left 
were drawn up in line of battle, having left our intrench- 
ments in front, and fallen back to a position about a mile in 
the rear. Here small earthworks were thrown up, batteries 
masked in the woods, and infantry placed in the rifle pits. 
Before us were deserted camps. The thick smoke from the 
burning stores notified the enemy that we had undertaken 
some important movement. Behind us were the struggling 
masses of wagons, artillery, infantry, cavalry, sutler's carts, 
sick and wounded. In short, the paraphernalia of a large 
army. 



ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 271 

It was a melancholy and desolate scene. As the banners 
waved, and the smoke ascended, and the long lines of men 
were drawn op to cover the retreat, a feeling of desolation 
epread over the hearts of the Union soldiery. 

The enemy had thrown forces between our army and the 
Pamunkey to cut off retreat in that direction, and now they 
came pouring out from Richmond to complete their pro- 
gramme. 

BATTLE OF PEACH ORCHARD. 

At daylight, June twenty-ninth, one column came down the 
railroad from Richmond, and another down the Williams- 
burgh road. They had with them a railroad battery, mounted 
on a platform car. The Federal forces took position near the 
old battle ground of Fair Oaks, designated as Peach Orchard 
Station. The enemy opened with two batteries on our left, 
but their fire was ineffective. The rebel columns were per- 
mitted to come within three hundred yards of the Federal 
lines, when the whole terrible fire of our column burst upon 
them. They staggered, and before they could close up their 
broken ranks, our pieces again belched forth destructive fire. 
The enemy were fearfully cut up. For half an hour the fire 
was so rapid that it seemed the echo of one continued roar. 
They replied feebly, but were repulsed at every point with 
heavy loss. 

They tried to flank us on the left, but our lines were 
extended to a creek about a mile in the rear of Savage Sta- 
tion. Our line of retreat was covered on the Williarnsburgh 
road, and the enemy beaten back every time he made a new 
charge. To us it was a decisive victory, for it gave us time, 
and time was everything at this eventful crisis. The fight 
lasted from eight, a. m., till noon. Our forces fell back to 
Savage Station. 

THE BATTLE OF SAVAGE STATION. 

At Savage Station there is, on the right of the railroad 
facing Richmond, an open field of several hundred acres. 



272 ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 

It was surrounded on three sides by timber, with the road 
from Smith's old eamp debouching from the woods into the 
field at the west end. 

Smith's division took position on the north side, in the 
edge of the woods, and Sedgwick's division on the east side, 
in the woods. At the open side, towards the railroad, two 
guns were planted, while in front twelve brass Napoleons, 
hidden by bushes, were ready to pour grape and canister 
into the advancing foe. 

The enemy advanced rapidly, his skirmishers in advance 
of his main line. As they emerged from the woods into the 
open field, they caught sight of our two guns, purposely 
exposed, and having a mania for charging batteries, they at 
once advanced with great confidence and terrific yells. 

Their onset was met and repulsed. Like wild beasts they 
charged and poured in their fire. With cool, calm courage 
our veterans hurled in their faces a fire so terrible that their 
columns recoiled in confusion. Our Napoleons thundered 
through their ranks, while a whole division poured in a fire 
of musketry. 

In the meantime a rebel brigade was observed stealing 
down to the right, apparently with the design of flanking 
our troops by reaching a point on the Williamsburgh road. 
Two guns were quickly planted on the railroad, and swept 
with grape and canister their column, till it broke in confusion 
and fled to the woods. 

Heavy infantry fighting then ensued, in which parts of 
Sedgwick's, Hooker's, Kearney's and Smith's divisions were 
engaged. The enemy advanced with great confidence; but 
they were as confidently met by our cool soldiers. Their 
steady columns melted before the fire of four thousand mus- 
kets and the deadly hail of our batteries. 

Night came on, but put no end to the carnage. The steady 
roar of cannon, and the sharp, quick ring of musketry, now 
rolling in volleys, and anon reverberating as our men fired by 
file, proved that the bold rear guard was doing its whole 
duty. The dark night was lit up by the glare. The woods 
caught fire from bursting shells, and painted ruthless war 
upon the sky. The battle commenced about five, p. m., and 



ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 273 

lasted till eleven at night. It was one of the desperate bat- 
tles of the war. Our loss in killed and wounded was about 
one thousand. The enemy were repulsed, our trains saved, 
and at miduight our weary but resolute soldiers fell back to 
"White Oak Swamp. 

All through Sunday night our flank guard marched to the 
left, with the enemy following and evincing a disposition to 
harrass them. But the Union forces moved in good order 
down the single road which crossed the White Oak Swamp. 
Reaching the bridge, the column crossed, and, planting 
artillery on the hills, destroyed the bridge, and waited the 
approach of the enemy. 

A deep creek crosses White Oak Swamp, emptying into 
the Chickahominy. It was six feet deep at the point where 
our men built the bridge. As it is approached from Rich- 
mond, the road, skirted with woods, descends abruptly. On 
the opposite side, it winds around hills, shaped like bee-hives. 
This was our strong position of defense. The swamp could 
not be crossed, save by this road. Jackson was sweeping 
down on the left bank of the Chickahominy, threatening our 
line of retreat by the Charles City Road, and Magruder was 
pouring his veterans down the New Market road from Rich- 
mond. McClellan relied on our gunboats, and delay, to out- 
general Jackson, and knew that Heintzelman, Hooker, and 
Kearney, would attend to Magruder. How they accomplished 
their task, the battle of Frazier's Farm, or Charles City Cross 
Roads, will testify. 

Each bee-hive hill was planted with artillery, the light field 
pieces in front, the long range Parrotts in the rear. The 
infantry lay in front in rifle pits, supporting the batteries, 
while reserves were concealed by the woods. The Federals 
thus waited, on the quiet Sunday, for their eager foe. 

All this time the vanguard of the Union army was pushing 
forward to the James River. As the head of the column 
emerged from the woods, a body of rebel cavalry suddenly 
charged upon it. McClellan expected annoyance in his front, 
and had masked artillery behind bushes. As the grey coats 
yelled in anticipation of triumph, our cavalry fell back till 
they were in short range. Then, from out their hiding places^ 
Vol. I.— 18. 



274 ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 

belched death, like lightning, killing their Colonel and forty 
men, and utterly disorganizing the force, which, like wolves, 
fled through the forest, troubling us no more. 

THE ROUTE. 

After crossing White Oak Swamp Bridge, new roads were 
found through the forest, and the column pushed silently on. 

" One path was an old road for planters' use, overhung with 
trees, and cut up by time and rains. Darkness came soon 
•within its shades; and from the moment it grew dark, the 
immense line of wagons and troops began to hitch and halt. 
All night long these stoppages and delays occurred; and as 
•often as they took place, the foot-falls of stragglers, upon the 
dried branches of the woods on either side, could be heard; 
and when forced to the road, their stealthy march could be 
seen flitting by in the faint starlight, which stole through the 
tree-tops. 

" Halting and marching, waiting and moving, silent and 
listening, the great corps d'armee crept through the dark 
woods. To light a match, to fire the tobacco in a pipe, was 
a crime. Conversation, save in whispers, was interdicted. 
The armed thousands, and the batteries of cannon, and the 
immense trains of wagons, moved in darkness and silence 
over the sandy and tree-capped road. 

"Listening for -musketry in the rear; listening for cavalry 
on our flanks; halting and marching, sleeping and waiting — 
-silent as if in funeral procession, we walked and walked, till 
a hill-top reached, and a clearing in the east, enabled us to 
see the coming day. With the sunrise the progress was 
steady. At half-past seven in the morning of June thirtieth, 
the column came out of the forest upon the wheat and clover 
fields of the Ilaxall estate ; and, from the high ground which 
skirted it, the James River could be seen, and the masts of 
our iron-clad gunboats on its waters." 

But we must leave the right on the banks of the James 
River, at Malvern Hill, watching the roads debouching from 
Richmond, while we go back to the gallant band of heroes 
to the left and rear, who were the salvation of the army. 



AitMY W THE POTOMAC, 275 

•Sunday passed without a fight; our tired men retreating; 
the enemy following, shelling the woods as he advanced. 
$~ear White Oak Swamp was a general hospital, where all 
the Union sick and wounded, able to walk, had been sent 
previous to the retreat. The men had stretched a few tents, 
and were comfortable as circumstances would permit. But 
the enemy were upon them, and their tents had to be aban- 
doned. Some could not walk. They were worn out and 
dying; and although despair lent energy to many, yet all 
through the terrible battle of White Oak Swamp the fire of 
both armies tore through the woods, where they lay helpless. 
The pursuit and retreat were too rapid to allow of rest, or to 
remove our sick and wounded from the hospital in the woods. 
They fell into the hands of the enemy. 

. White Oak Creek runs through a belt of swamp timber, 
precisely as the Chickahominy flows through its encompassing 
morass. The creek is about six feet deep, and was bridged 
by our engineers. A strip of bottom land lies on both sides 
of the swamp, and on the north side a steep hill, crowned 
with a farm house. This was encircled by a line of rifle pits. 
An abattis stretched across the bottom land. Beyond the 
stream the country was undulating. ]SJ"ear the stream was a 
farm house; beyond which, ran a small creek, covered by 
thick woods. This was the right of our position. 

The house on the steep hill was the headquarters, for a 
time, of our Generals. Around its paling fence, on that 
Sunday night, many a weary soldier slept. One officer, 
severely wounded, lay on the grass in the door-yard. A 
woman bathed his wounds. Orderlies were flying to and fro. 
Artillery was taking position. Masses of infantry .were filing 
through the woods. Cavalry were scouting, and soldiers 
building their camp-fires. Across the swamp could be heard 
the sound of the enemy's artillery following our columns. 
The rear guard lay down to rest on that dismal Sunday night 
in doubt and uncertainty; for they had not yet reached the 
James River, and knew not that our advance was there. The 
army, save the pickets and sentinels, slept. The gray dawn 
of the next day ushered in another battle. 



276 ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 

BATTLE OP WHITE OAK SWAMP. 

At daylight, Monday, June thirtieth, the head of the ene- 
my's column, emerging from the woods, opened fire on our 
skirmishers. Under cover of a hill on the left bank of White 
Oak Creek, they threw artillery forward and opened a storm 
of fire from twenty-six cannon in seven batteries. Their fire 
was very damaging, blowing up several caissons, and creating 
much disorder among the troops and trains. Soon recover- 
ing, our batteries vigorously responded. An artillery duel 
took place. The enemy attempted to cross the stream, but 
were met and repulsed. Suddenly our long range Parrott 
guns opened fire, and the enemy recoiled. He attempted to 
gain the broken bridge, but so terrible was the fire of artil- 
lery and musketry that the head of their column melted 
away. Finding it impossible to cross, they sent a powerful 
force to our left, on the Charles City Cross Roads. While 
the battle raged on the right, the thunders of artillery and 
musketry rolled up from the left, reverberating from the 
waters of the Swamp, as if the Federal forces were sur- 
rounded by a line of fire. This battle has been called by the 
various names of Frazier's Farm, Glendale, and Charles City 
Cross Roads. It was a continuation of the battle of White 
Oak Swamp. The artillery still poured forth its terrible fire, 
from the hills on which opposing batteries were placed. 
Louder crashes opened the battle of Glendale. 

BATTLE OF GLENDALE. 

The battle was fought on a plane of sedgy pines, under 
cover of which our forces were disposed and our batterie3 
skillfully masked. At about four o'clock, a heavy force of 
the enemy, under Gen. A. P. Hill, comprising eight brigades, 
were observed quietly working their way down the New 
Market road, in order to get between McClellan's trains and 
his army, to cut him off* from the James River. 

Heintzelman's corps, consisting of the divisions of Hooker 
and Kearney, were in position and met the advance of the 
enemy with a terrible fire. Orders were sent to our advance 



ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 277 

to countermarch up the Charles City road, and Porter, Sum 
ner, and Keyes hastened to the rescue. 

Meanwhile the enemy hurled immense masses against our 
lines. McCall's division was routed, and broke in disorder. 
Following closely upon their footsteps came the howling 
masses of the enemy, pressing our columns into the woods. 
They were met by a front fire from the Sixteenth Massachu- 
setts, and a diagonal fire from the Sixty-Ninth Pennsylvania, 
which broke their advance and caused them to fall back. 
The firing from musketry and field batteries was now inces- 
sant. The enemy did fearful execution in our ranks. Some 
of our most valuable officers fell. Painfully the battle went 
on. The roar of artillery and musketry was so familiar to 
the soldiers, that to them it seemed to be the natural condi- 
tion of things that men should fight. 

The fresh. troops of the enemy pressed forward with great 
exultation. Column after column uncovered from the woods 
and poured terrible volleys into our lines. The bushes rustled 
with their thronging footsteps, and the sunlight gleamed from 
their almost countless muskets. Human nature could endure 
no more. Our line fell back, and the battle seemed to be lost. 
It was now five o'clock. The fate of the army was trembling 
in the balance, when a louder roar on our left spoke of a new 
ally. The gunboats had come to our rescue, and the battle 
was saved. 

When the gunboats opened their loud fire, the previous 
roar of field artillery seemed faint as the rattle of musketry. 
Their colossal shells shook the solid earth, and completely 
drowned the feeble chorus of battle. As the shells descended 
among the thronging masses of the enemy, whole ranks were 
scattered. Confusion and terror took place of confidence. 
The Galena poured whole broadsides of fire, her shells flew 
through the forests carrying death and destruction in their 
track. The Jacob Bell and Aroostock poured in their fire, 
the moral effect was most encouraging for the Union army. 
A saviour had come, and the army gathered new life. 

It was almost dark. The battle must soon be decided. The 
foe was gathering new force in front. Heintzelman collected 
Lis forces, and, with Kearney and Hooker, prepared to end 



278 ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 

the combat. The enemy advanced. As if lightning haci 
burst from the earth, a sheet of fire met them. They stood 
a little while. But Kearney, Grover and Sickles, rushed for- 
ward with their veterans. The enemy's lines gave way,, and 
could not be rallied. Of fourteen thousand men that left 
Richmond, it is said only eight thousand marched back. Our 
loss was three thousand five hundred. This battle saved the 
army. 

All that night the torches of the enemy could be seen in 
our front. They were gathering up the wounded. The cries 
of the wounded sounded most piteously from the deadly 
swamps, and the light of the lanterns cast a sickly glare 
where so many dead and dying lay. The unbroken, mourn- 
ful wail of human suffering was all that was heard from Glen- 
dale during that long and dismal night. 

During the night our army fell back, down the Quaker 
road toward Malvern Hill, about half a mile within the inter- 
section of the New Market or River road, and the Quaker road,, 
and two miles from the gunboats on the James River. Here 
the Union forces took position. This was where our army 
were to make the last desperate stand, and this was where 
the grandest battle of this campaign was fought on Tuesday,. 
July first, 1862, known as the battle of Malvern Hill. 

Before describing it, it will be necessary to show the plans 
of the Confederate leaders. 

THE SITUATION. 

If you take a map of Virginia, and run your eye along the 
line of the Virginia Central railroad, until it crosses the 
Chickahominy at Meadow Bridge, you will be in the vicinity 
of the position occupied by the Union army on the twenty- 
fifth of June, 1862. 

Tracing from this position a semi- circular line, which 
crosses the Chickahominy in the neighborhood of the New 
Bridge, and the York River railroad, you arrive at a point 
southeast of Richmond, a short distance from the James 
River, where rested the Union right. This was near White 
Oak Swamp. 






ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 279 

To give a familiar simile. Spread jour fingers so that their 
tips will form as near as possible the arc of a circle. Suppose 
Richmond situated on your wrist; the outer edge of the 
thumb the Central railroad; the inner edge the Meehanics- 
ville turnpike; the first finger the Nine Mile or New Bridge 
road ; the second the Williamsburgh turnpike, running nearly 
parallel with the York River railroad; the third the Charles 
City turnpike, which runs to the southward of White Oak 
Swamp; and the fourth the Darbytown road. Commanding 
these several avenues were the forces of the Union armv- 
The enemy's troops, with the exception of Jackson's corp3, 
occupied a smaller, but similar circle, immediately around 
Richmond; the heaviest body being in the center, south of 
the York River railroad. 

Such was the situation previous to Jackson's attack on our 
right. The plan of battle then developed was, first, to make 
a vigorous flank movement upon the extreme right of the 
Union army, which was near the Central railroad; secondly, 
so soon as we fell back to the next road, the enemy's divisions 
were to advance across the Chickahominy, change front, and, 
in co-operation with Jackson, who was to make a detour, and 
attack the Union army in flank and rear, drive us still further 
on, and, finally, when our army reached a certain point, 
known as "the triangle," embraced between the Charles City, 
New Market, and Quaker roads, ail of which intersect, these 
several roads were to be possessed by the rebel forces. Our 
army would thus be hemmed in, and compelled either to 
starve, capitulate, or fight. How so excellent a plan failed, 
can only be attributed to the splendid generalship of Mc- 
Clellan. 

The enemy, on Sunday, June twenty-ninth, learned the 
prompt and successful movements of Gen. McClellan. Then 
it was they first realized that he had stolen a march of twelve 
hours on Gen. Huger — who had been placed in position on his 
flanks to watch his movements — and had foiled their strategic 
plans, massed his entire force on the Richmond side of the 
Chickahominy, and was falling back on the James River. 

The Union army was now entering the triangle formed by 
the Quaker road, the New Market or Long Bridge road, and 



280 ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 

the Charles City road. Here, the plans of therehel Generals 
were to culminate, and our array to be destroyed or compelled 
to surrender. Jackson was coming up the Charles City road 
on our right. Longstreet, Hill and Magruder were pouring 
down the Long Bridge road on our flank, and D. H. Hill, 
"Whiting and Ewell were coming down the Quaker road from 
the direction of White Oak Swamp. 

The road to Malvern Hill winds along through a low flat, 
and then ascends a hill as it approaches the river. Winding 
down the side of this hill through a corn field, it debouches 
on an elevated plateau of about twelve hundred yards in 
length and three hundred and fifty in width, surrounded by 
a skirt of dense, dark woods. This plateau, when our army 
reached it, was covered with shocks of wheat. On our left, 
Turkey creek penetrated the county for a short distance, 
forming an almost impassible barrier. On our right was a 
swamp and heavy timber. Upon the crest of the hill a dwel- 
ling, known as "Crew's house/' was the center of our posi- 
tion. This hill we had lined with batteries, covering every 
square yard of approach. 

This house at Malvern Hill is, a quaint structure of the last 
century, built of red brick, and stands about one thousand 
yards from the James river, whose windings could be seen for 
several miles from its commanding position. Our gunboats, 
too, could be seen moving restlessly to and fro, ready to take 
part in the coming fight. Just below Malvern Hill was a 
small lauding, where tents were pitched to shelter our 
wounded, but thousands sought cover in the woods, and 
thousands more plunged into the waters of James river to 
refresh their tired frames. 

It was harvest time, when our weary columns poured down 
the Quaker road, and through the forest, upon the plateau of 
Malvern Hill. Here they inhaled the fresh breeze from the 
James river, and breathed new life. The wheat was cut and 
standing in shocks. Each artilleryman carried off a. bundle 
to feed his horses, or to rest upon. Presently the infantry 
arrived. Each soldier had a bed of wheat. They rubbed 
the heads of the stalks between their hands, and eagerly 
devoured the raw grain. Our army here prepared for a new 



ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 281 

battle. Our wounded and sick heroes were sent to the river; 
our artillery placed in position; our infantry covered; when 
the enemy's advance appeared and opened the battle of Mal- 
vern Hill. 

BATTLE OF MALVERN HILL. 

About four o'clock in the afternoon, the skirmishers of the 
enemy, coming out from the woods in our front, were met 
and driven back by our fire. Two batteries of their artillery 
immediately took position, and opened fire, while their 
infantry gathered, under cover of the woods, to charge at 
the proper moment. Their batteries were soon silenced by 
our concentric fire, and the men supporting them thrown 
into hopeless confusion. As the battle progressed, and the 
enemy advanced, the roar of our guns and heavy artillery 
was terrific. The concussion shook the solid earth, and 
reverberated in crashes over the waters and along the hills. 
The determined manner in which the enemy pressed forward 
showed that they intended either to capture the Union army, 
or drive it with great slaughter into the river. 

The fearful havoc of the rapidly bursting shells, from guns 
ranged to sweep any advance far or near, was terrible to 
behold. The burning sun which, for a few days had poured 
down its terrible heat, was now obscured by the smoke of 
battle. The enemy's guns poured their fire into our ranks, 
but more deadly, destructive and fatal was our reply. A per- 
fect tempest of iron broke over the field. 

At about iive o'clock, Gen. Magruder ordered his men to 
charge across the field and storm our batteries. The rebel 
column advanced in excellent order, and, for a few moments, 
our guns ceased playing. Gathering courage from the still- 
ness, the rebels broke into a full run, charging upon our bat- 
teries. Then our batteries opened, and the consuming fire 
of grape and canister seemed to lick up their forms like 
devouring flame. Their columns fell back in disorder to the 
woods. 

New troops were thrown forward, and again the enemy's 
line advanced. Their columns moved nearer and nearer, 



282 ARMY OF THE POTOMAC, 

partially lost to sight in the thick curtain of smoke which 
overspread the crimson battle field. Again our batteries 
belched forth their lightnings, and the whirlwind of death 
swept through the advancing masses of men. Back they 
rolled like a retiring wave, their cries dismally echoed 
through the woods, and plaintively quivered over the waters. 

A third column from the enemy's center moved upon our 
batteries. The dark mass disappeared in the cloud of smoke 
which hung over their comrades, yet on they moved. ISTo 
sound of drum cheered their advance; no cheer announced 
thei'r approach. At every step their ranks were thinned; yet 
on they rushed, till they gained the slope where our batteries 
hurled death into their ranks, then, with a yell of anguish, 
and of terror they recoiled. Recoiled, never to be rallied; 
back they fell, in terrible confusion, to the dismal forest. 

To add to the horrors of the scene, our gunboats, on the 
James River, which had been moving restlessly to and fro 
during the fight, at last, by a series of signal flags, got the 
proper range, and begun to throw immense projectiles into 
the enemy's ranks. One shell struck a gun of their batteries 
shattering it into fragments. By the explosion which instantly 
followed, seven men, standing near the piece, were killed. 
They fell without the movement of a muscle, stiffening at 
once into the stony fixedness of death ; one of them grasped 
the lanyard of his gun; another held in his hand the ramrod 
with which he was driving home the load in his rifle ; while 
a third with compressed lips, retained in his mouth the little 
portion of the cartridge he had just bitten off. The faces of 
the victims expressed in death the emotions which animated 
them in battle — indifference, hope, terror, rage, were there 
depicted, but no trace of suffering. They passed into eter- 
nity unconscious of the bolt which sent them there. 

It was now dark; the attack of the enemy's infantry had 
ceased, yet our gunboats continued to pour forth their fire. 
From the dark bosom of the river burst forth lurid columns 
of flame, while a semi-circle of light, like the path of a 
rocket, marked their course, and a bursting globe of fire, 
over and among the green woods, showed where they accom- 
plished their mission of death. Move back as the rebels 



ARMT OF THE POTOMAC. 2SS 

would, the deadly missiles followed them, plowing their 
way through the forest, shivering the trees in their course. 

The moral effect of these floating allies was most beneficial 
to McClellan. The enemy could not stand before the float- 
ing monsters of the James River, and fell back into the 
woods. All that dismal night, the shouts of the officers ral- 
lying their men, and the groans of the wounded, mingled in 
horrible discord, while from the thick clouds the rain poured 
down its glad flood upon the dead and dying. 

The last gun was fired at about ten o'clock at night, and, 
by general consent, both parties began to search, amid the 
dreadful slaughter, for their killed and wounded. Lanterns 
glistened over the ensanguined field. The cries of the woun- 
ded were heard amid the laughing corn, and the deep, dark 
woods. Friend could hardly tell friend, or brother recognize 
brother. 

CLOSING SCENES. 

, It was now midnight. Down in the little glade, by the 
river side, were gathered thousands of our sick and wounded 
heroes. Some were lying on beds of dry leaves; others in 
barns and stables. The terrible roar of battle had sounded 
in their ears ail the afternoon. From the receding fire they 
thought our forces held the hill, and they in gladness lay 
down to sleep. But word came that Jackson was coming up 
the Charles City road; that we were surrounded, and must 
fall back on Harrison's Landing, seven miles below. Then 
ensued another scene of terror. Those that were able to 
walk, dragged themselves wearily over hills, and waded 
through bayous. But, alas! many could not stir. These 
their weak comrades supported. Many and heart-rending 
were the scenes of suffering. There was one little boy, with 
fair, rosy cheeks, and light blue eyes, who lay exhausted. 
His comrades could not endure the thought that he should 
die or become a prisoner. So weary and wounded as they 
were, they tenderly carried him seven miles, through swamp 
and woods, till they reached the friendly transports at Harri- 
son's Landing. He was Allen Frizzell, drummer boy of the 



284 ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 

Twentieth Indiana. He still lives to bless his comrades for 
their kindness. 

All through that night our army moved along the road 
leading to Harrison's Landing. Through woods and fields 
poured the scattered columns. Alas! with all the punishment 
we had inflicted on the enemy, we were not the victors ; for, 
although they were beaten back, we had no adequate force 
with which we could successfully pursue the foe. The 
streams of infantry, cavalry, and artillery, w T aded through 
the rain and mud, every moment expecting an attack. At 
noon they reached the James river, and the disordered mass 
lay down in the muddy flat at Harrison's Landing. 

Thus closed the terrible battle of Malvern Hill. The battle 
field, and the surrounding region, seemed as if blasted by the 
lightnings of heaven. The splintered branches of a thousand 
trees told of the fearful havoc of the artillery. Houses were 
riddled, fences utterly demolished, and the earth itself plowed 
up. Thick and many were the graves. On the plateau, 
across whose surface for hours the utmost fury of the battle 
raged, the remnants of tender corn, which had grown up, 
betrayed no sign of having ever laughed and sung in the 
breeze of early summer. Everything but the blue heaven 
above spoke of the frightful carnival of death. 

Our loss in these battles, on our retreat to the James river, 
was, in killed and wounded, nearly as follows : Mechanicsville, 
one thousand; Gaines' Mills, three thousand; Peach Orchard, 
five hundred; Savage Station, one thousand; "White Oak 
Swamp, three thousand five hundred; Glendale, four hun- 
dred; Malvern Hill, two thousand. A total of eleven thou- 
sand four hundred. This does not include the missing, most 
of whom were taken prisoners. The rebel loss is supposed 
to have been about sixteen thousand. 

AFTER THE BATTLE. 

The lowering clouds gathered in the sky, while the battle 
raged at Malvern Hill. Night came on, and our weary men 
rested. The rain fell in torrents, refreshing the wounded, 
and washing the clammy faces of the dead. 



ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 285 

Our men slept in the rain. Sleep they Would, though a 
thousand batteries roared in their ears. Sleep standing; 
sleep on horseback; sleep anywhere; sleep everywhere. For 
battle fatigues, and fatigue induces sleep. Tired nature must 
have rest. It was midnight, when along the line passed the 
whisper, "Wake, men! Wake! The enemy are in our rear." 
It was difficult to wake them. Each man had to be shaken 
to rouse him from his deathlike slumber. But they must 
wake, and wake they did. 

The early, dismal dawn found our columns pouring down 
the road to Harrison's Landing. Cavalry were stationed at 
the crossing to show us whereto go. Men streamed along in 
lines, cavalry went by in squads, artillery filed along by sec- 
tions. Ours was an exhausted and tired army when it lay 
down to rest on the muddy plain at Harrison's Landing. 

When the army reached their camp that night, and in their 
weariness lay down to rest, their eyes met a body of veterans 
marching up the river bank. Who were these new troops 
that had come to us in our hour of great trial? From their 
swinging tramp, we knew they were veterans. Each man 
had a sheaf of wheat on his back for a bed. Away they 
went, with shouts and cheers. "Who are you?" was the cry 
that went along our line. "We are Western boys — troops 
from Shields' division" — was the answer. There were Gen. 
Kimball, of the Fourteenth, and Col. Foster, of the Thir- 
teenth Indiana. Six thousand men were marching to the 
front to take position. They swept past our camp, plunged 
through the muddy stream, climbed the hills, and took post 
for the night. 

This was July third. The reinforcements moved across 
Herron Creek on the extreme right. Soon after passing a 
swamp on the Charles City road, the skirmishers reported 
the enemy in front, who fired from the bushes upon our men. 
The enemy was posted in the woods on the right and left of 
the road, with four field pieces in position, in an open field 
commanding our advance. The brigade at once pushed for- 
ward, the Fourth Ohio on the right of the road, and the 
Fourteenth Indiana on the left; the Seventh Virginia, and 
the Eighth Ohio, in reserve, with orders to take the guns; 



288 ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 

but, before the guns were reached, a halt was ordered hy 
Gen. Ferry, commanding the division; and the enemy at 
once withdrew their pieces to a commanding position about 
half a mile to the rear, and commenced shelling our brigade 
and the mass of the army lying in the flat at Harrison's 
Landing. At this juncture, Tidbald's battery came forward, 
and, taking a position on the left of the woods, soon silenced 
the enemy's guns. 

About noon of the fourth of July, the enemy threw for- 
ward three regiments of Jackson's corps, who attacked our 
lines; but, after a short skirmish, he was driven back with 
loss. There was no further attack from the front while our 
army rested at Harrison's Landing. 

camp at Harrison's landing. 

The ground our army occupied was once the farm of the 
father of Win. Henry Harrison. Near the family burying 
ground, shaded by a grove of locust trees, stood the mansion. 
It was an old fashioned two story house — built of colored 
brick — with a hall in the center, the walls ornamented with 
choice paintings, and the floors covered with rich carpets, the 
chimneys heavily corniced. The garden around the mansion 
was surrounded by a row of thriving Swamp Elms. 

This described the farm as the army found it. Soon all 
except the lovely scenery was changed. A blacksmith's &hop 
was put in full blast at one end of the grave yard, and a tent 
filled with sick soldiers occupied one of its corners. Mules 
and horses were munching oats around the fence, and a com- 
missary dealt out food at the main gate. The rich carpets 
disappeared beneath a coat of mud, and the chimneys were 
crowned with signal stations. Out of the windows hung 
blankets, and out of the doors looked sick and wounded sol- 
diers. The house was a hospital, and its traitor owner in the 
rebel army. 

For miles, when the column marched in, a broad field of 
corn stretched along the river bank, which became in wet 
weather a muddy flat, in dry, a dusty, or, baked, clay field. 
The quiet river, too, seemed changed ; for, so far as the eye 



ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 287 

could reach, vessels of all sizes and kinds floated upon its 
waters. 

The river, at this point, bends in a curve much like a horse 
shoe, the open end being inland. This gave a large water 
front. On the hills surrounding this natural amphitheater 
the army was encamped. The hills stretched from water to 
water, in a semi-circle. Thus both flanks rested upon the 
river, covered by gunboats. 

The scenery upon the river bank is one of beauty. Woody 
promontories project into the water, and bushy islands lie 
scattered on its sparkling surface. Here a white sail nestled 
among the green islands, and there a gunboat floated like a 
grim sentinel upon the glassy river. Upon the land all was 
life. There was an interminable train of wagons, for they 
reached from the river bank to where the road disappeared 
in the woods. Tents covered the plain. Cavalry rode to and 
fro, and large droves of cattle moved towards the hills. The 
air was also filled with life. For look ! There goes the bal- 
loon k ' Intrepid." Earth, air, fire and water, all united to 
carry on the war. 

The camps were chiefly in the pine forests, that they might 
be shaded from the scorching rays of the sun. At night the 
whippowill sung his notes so regularly, and human-like, that 
it sounded like the signals of a scout, and the soldiers listened 
in their bushy houses till sleep turned the notes into a dream. 
At early dawn the air was vocal with music. The bugle no 
sooner sounded than the birds joined in the notes; then there 
was melody in the forest. 

On a bold promontory about six miles nip the river, on the 
opposite shore, was City Point — a collection of shattered 
houses — above which Malvern Hill towers up from the edge 
of the river. Still further up was the strange and mysterious 
Fort Darling, which bade defiance to our gunboats. 

The north bank of the river, on which was our supply 
depot, was covered w 7 ith the tents of the quartermasters and 
other officials. The banks were about twenty feet in hight, 
and very abrupt. Roads, which teams could travel, ran 
through these banks to the beach. 

The weather was sultry and sickly, the water bad. There 



288 ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 

were fine bathing places, however, within our lines, these our 
soldiers regarded as luxuries. The flies swarmed. 

For about a month the army remained quiet, at Harrison's 
Landing. On the night of July thirty-first, the rebels opened 
a heavy cannonade from a bluff on the south side of the river 
upon our camps and transports. Six of our men were killed 
and nine wounded. Our transports were scarcely injured. 
Our batteries soon silenced theirs, and, the next day our 
forces occupied the position. 

On the fifth of August, a small part of our force made a 
rapid movement and took position at Malvern Hill. It was 
held for one day, our forces retiring the next. 




/yyvYvvT^r^ 



: : : f. 






GEN. POPPS CAMPAIGN IS VIRGINIA. 



CHAPTER X. 



"While the Army of the Potomac was resting at Harrison's 
Landing, important events were transpiring in the valley of 
Virginia, which, connected as they afterwards were, with the 
history of that army, had an important bearing on its subse- 
quent movements. 

Major General John Pope, on the twenty-sixth day of 
June, 1862, by special order of the President, was assigned 
to the command of the Army of Virginia. His command 
embraced the first corps, under Major General Sigel; second 
corps, Major General Banks; third corps, Major General 
McDowell. Also a small force under Brig. Gen. Sturgis, 
besides the forces in the intrenchments around Washington, 
making an active force of about forty thousand men. 

These forces were soon placed in position to cover the Rap- 
pahannock from Fredericksburgh to Sperryville. Sigel on 
the right, Banks and McDowell in the center, and King's 
division on the extreme left, at Fredericksburgh. Iso impor- 
tant movement occurred until the middle of July, when Gen. 
Hatch, of Gen. Banks' command, moved from Culpepper — 
where he had taken position — in the direction of Gordons- 
ville, but, in consequence of bad roads, only succeeded in 
reaching Madison Court House, fifteen miles from Gordons- 
ville. Meanwhile the advance of Jackson's forces, under the 
rebel General Ewell, had reached Gordonsville, and defeated 
the proposed movement. 

Vol. 1.— 19. 289 



290 AEMY OP VIKGINIA. 

On the seventh of August, a large portion of the infantry 
and artillery of the army of Virginia — the name by which 
Gen. Pope's command was designated — were assembled along 
the turnpike from Sperryville to Culpepper. King's division 
still remained opposite Fredericksburgh. 

The cavalry forces were covering the front of the army. 
They were posted as follows: Gen. Buford, with five regi- 
ments, was at Madison Court House, with his pickets along 
the Rapidan river, from Burnett's Ford to the Blue Ridge. 
Gen. Sigel had a battery of artillery and a brigade of infantry 
supporting Gen. Buford. at a point where the road from Mad- 
ison Court House to Sperryville crosses Robertson's river. 
Gen. Bayard, with four regiments of cavalry, was in position 
near Rapidan Station, where the Orange and Alexandria rail- 
road crosses the Rapidan river, with his pickets extending to 
Raccoon Ford, east, and connecting with those of Gen. 
Buford on the West. From Raccoon Ford to the forks of 
the Rappahannock, above Falmouth, the Rapidan was lined 
with cavalry pickets. 

On the eighth of August, Crawford's brigade, of Gen. 
Banks' corps, were occupying Culpepper Court House, and 
Rickett's division, of McDowell's corps, had reached there 
from Waterloo, a small town in the Blue Ridge mountains, 
about six miles west of Warrenton. In the meantime Gen. 
Bayard was skirmishing with the advance of the rebel col- 
umn, and falling slowly back from Rapidan Station in the 
direction of Culpepper, the enemy advancing in heavy force 
on Madison Court House, from Gordonsville. 

At the beginning of the campaign, Gen. Pope had issued 
an order requiring the troops to Subsist off the country. The 
corn was in ear; the harvest waved over the plains in the 
beautiful valley of Virginia, and the hungry soldiers were 
not long in obeying the order. But, like all such orders, it 
goon spread into indiscriminate plunder. Everything was 
taken. The last cow, the last beehive, the last loaf of bread. 
Orchards were stripped, and property destroyed. The men 
helped themselves, and turned every citizen into an active 
enemy. 

Such was the situation previous to the battle of Cedar 



ARMY OF VIRGINIA. 291 

Mountain. Our troops had swept the country above the 
Kappahannock, and confiscated all food for man or beast. 
We secured the hatred of every man, woman and child, 
whom we had robbed. This may be one reason why the 
enemy were kept so well informed of all our movements. 

Early on the morning of the ninth of August, Gen. Banks' 
corps moved forward from Culpepper towards Cedar Moun- 
tain, or, as the rebels call it, Slaughter's Mountain. It is a 
sugar-loaf mountain, about eight miles from Culpepper, and 
two miles west of Mitchell's station, on the Orange and Alex- 
andria railroad. Our column advanced on low ground. In 
the rear, was Cedar river; behind which was a small wooded 
ridge. At eleven, a. m., a dash was made upon the enemy, 
stationed on a knoll, from which they were driven, and a 
small number of prisoners taken. This opened the battle of 
Cedar Mountain. 

THE BATTLE OF CEDAR MOUNTAIN. 

The column of Gen. Banks, in the hot sun and dust, moved 
steadily forward through a small piece of woods into a 
meadow, and formed in line below the mountain. The 
division of Gen. "Williams was on the right; Gen. Auger on 
the left and center; Gen. Green on the extreme left. Gens. 
Prince, Geary, Gordon and Crawford, occupied positions next 
to Gen. Green. 

In a few moments a line of fire opened from the enemy's 
batteries, concealed in the woods, in the mountain, extending 
along our whole line. Our line at once advanced. A desper- 
ate effort was made to drive the enemy from position, and 
capture his guns. But we failed. From behind fallen tim- 
ber, from ravines and. bushes, a heavy infantry and artillery 
fire swept the open meadow, thinned the ranks of our 
advancing columns, and compelled our forces to fall back, 
with great loss. 

Another column advanced. Upon emerging from the 
woods, across a new mown wheat field, they were met by a 
destructive cross-fire; but they pushed on, in the face of con- 
cealed batteries, until driven back by the murderous volleys 
and overpowering force of the enemy. 



292 ARMY OF VIRGINIA. 

It was now six o'clock; the battle had been going on, with 
slight cessation, since mid-day. Several divisions of infantry 
now made some most desperate bayonet charges upon the 
rebel artillery. They everywhere met a heavy infantry fire, 
slaughtering them fearfully. It was death to gain that hill, 
from the slopes of which the enemy poured forth his deadly 
fire. 

Our line again pressed forward through the dense woods 
up to the rebel batteries. The enemy fell back. The leaden 
hail poured through our devoted columns. Yet on they 
pressed till the slope was gained, when, from, out its deep 
recesses, came a living sheet of flame. Cannon poured forth 
grape; musketry flashed in the very teeth of our men. The 
woods swarmed with the concealed foe. Our Generals were 
wounded; our field officers disabled; yet on our column 
pressed, till the cartridge boxes were empty. Then, slowly 
retreating, we fell back to our first position steady as veterans, 
though we had lost the battle. 

The battle was over, with great loss to the Union army. 
The enemy's loss was severe, but not so heavy as ours. 
McDowell's corps had arrived to reinforce our tired men. 
But Hill's forces arrived at the same time to strengthen the 
enemy. 

Our tired troops fell back under cover of the woods to rest. 
It was night ; the moon was full — not a cloud in the sky. 
Presently the wagoners commenced building fires to cook 
their coffee. These were so many beacon lights for the 
enemy, who at once opened from several batteries upon our 
camps. This created some confusion, and caused our troops 
to change position. 

Suddenly, from out the dark woods, rushed a body of rebel 
cavalry, charging the staff of the commanding General. Our 
infantry replied. The General was placed between two fires, 
but fortunately escaped. 

Our killed, wounded, and prisoners, amounted to about 
eighteen hundred men. The enemy lost about nine hundred 
killed and wounded. 

The battle was a military blunder, and accomplished noth- 
ing. The hill, which was the strength of the position, had 



ARMY OF VIRGINIA . 293 

been passed by our scouts several days previous, and could 
have been in our possession without a fight. But the unac- 
countable delays, which have cursed everything near "Wash- 
ington, lost us not only the lives of many brave men, but the 
battle also. 

On the fourteenth of August, Gen. Reno, with eight thou- 
sand men, of the forces which had arrived at Aquia Creek, 
under Gen. Burnside, joined the army of Virginia. The 
whole force was at once pushed forward in the direction of 
the Rapidan, with the right, under Gen. Sigel, resting on 
Robertson's river, where the road from Cedar Mountain to 
Orange Court House crosses the river; the center, under Gen. 
McDowell, occupying both flanks of Cedar Mountain; the 
left, under Gen. Reno, taking position near Raccoon Ford, 
and covering the road from that place to Culpepper. 

On the sixteenth of August our cavalry captured the Adju- 
tant General of Gen. Stuart, and found upon his person 
papers showing that it was the intention of Gen. Lee to 
overwhelm the Army of Virginia, before it could be joined 
by the Army of the Potomac. 

Just after the battle, in a skirmish which took place, Ser- 
geant Thomas Harter — of Sharra's Indiana cavalry, which 
composed part of Sigel's body guard — suddenly appeared 
within our lines, bringing the important information that 
General Lee intended to make a move on our rear, and 
cut off Pope's army. The Sergeant left the company in the 
latter part of June, on secret service within the enemy's lines. 
He was arrested by the enemy shortly after penetrating their 
lines, and he was at once conveyed to Richmond and impris- 
oned. Being acquainted in the country, he was released on 
parole, and the better to disarm suspicion he enlisted in the 
rebel army. Here he gained the important information 
which saved our army from annihilation, and, deserting from 
rebel ranks, brought the news at the risk of his life to our 
General. J| 

Previous to this, however, Gen. Halleck had became con- 
vinced of such a movement on the part of the rebel General, 
and had accordingly ordered Gen. McClellan, on the fifth of 
August, to evacuate Harrison's Landing, and join the forces 



294 ARMY OF VIRGINIA. 

under Gen. Pope, via Aquia creek and Alexandria.' The 
march of the Army of the Potomac did not commence until 
August fifteenth. It was August twentieth when Kearney's 
division, the advance of the Army of the Potomac, reached 
Alexandria. Gen. Burnside, in the meantime, had removed 
his forces from Newport News to Aquia creek. It will thus 
be seen that the Army of the Potomac, Gen. Burnside's 
forces, and the Army of Virginia were now consolidated under 
command of Gen. Pope. 

On the eighteenth of August Gen. Pope became convinced 
that with his small force he could no longer hold his advanced 
position. He accordingly withdrew to the north side of the 
Rappahannock. Gen. Reno sent over his trains and took 
post on the bank of the river, leaving his cavalry at Raccoon 
ford. Gen. Banks crossed at Rappahannock Station on the 
Orange and Alexandria railroad. Gen. McDowell crossed at 
the same place. Gen. Sigel crossed near Warrenton. 

The topographical features of the country, at the head 
waters of the Rappahannock, gave the opposing enemy's 
force great advantages. The river was fordable at several 
points. The Blue Ridge mountains skirt the sources of the 
river, and, having several gaps, gave to the enemy who was 
well acquainted with the country, great advantages. 

Thus, while our forces were watching the line of the Rap- 
pahannock from Fredericksburgh to Waterloo, on the twenty- 
fifth of August, a large force of the enemy suddenly appeared 
at the junction of Carter's creek and Hageman's river, and, 
driving our pickets before them, crossed with cavalry, artil- 
lery and infantry. 

Starting from Jefferson, Culpepper county, the whole of 
Jackson's force, about eighteen thousand, with cavalry and 
artillery, while our forces were fighting at Rappahannock 
Station with Lee's main army, made a detour, and marching 
through Amosville, in Rappahannock county, crossed the 
Rappahannock river, within ten miles of the Blue Ridge 
mountains, and pushed rapidly north, Gen. Longstreet fol- 
lowing. At Waterloo the enemy had a fight with Gen. Mil- 
roy's troops, but although Milroy beat them back from the 
bridge, the column that had crossed kept rapidly on to the 
north. 



ARMY OF VIRGINIA. 295 

Over unfrequented country paths, and across open fields, 
the enemy's column marched forty -five miles in forty-eight 
hours, and pouring through Thoroughfare Gap pounced upon 
our unprotected rear. 

On the night of August twenty-second, a small cavalry 
force of the enemy, that had crossed at Waterloo "bridge, and 
been lying concealed in the woods near "Warrenton, suddenly 
appeared at Catlett's Station, and driving away the baggage 
guards, and scattering the green cavalry, destroyed the head- 
quarter baggage of General Pope. They disappeared sud- 
denly as they came, but created much panic at the time. 

In the meantime Kearney's veterans of the Army of the 
Potomac were pouring down the Orange and Alexandria 
railroad, to the relief of Pope's army. They were approach- 
ing on the cars when the raid took place at Catlett's Station. 
There were many trains on the road, filled with wounded 
from the battle of Cedar Mountain. 

Gen. Pope attempted to hold the whole line of the Rappa- 
hannock. He had already been flanked on his right by 
Jackson, and despatched the news to Washington ; but was 
ordered to keep up his line to Fredericksburgh, happen what 
would. He was told that if he could hold his line till the 
twenty-third of August, he would be reinforced sufficiently 
to resume offensive operations. On the twenty-fifth of August 
t T ,vo thousand fixe hundred men, under Gen. Reynolds, joined 
him, and the division of Gen. Kearney, four thousand five 
hundred strong, reached Warrenton Junction. 

Finding that the enemy still continued to move on his 
right, while heavy masses confronted him at Rappahannock 
Station, Gen. Pope massed his force, on the twenty-third of 
August, on the north side of the Rappahannock, and disposed 
it to meet the enemy. 

On the twenty-fifth of August the Army of the Potomac had 
arrived in the valley of Virginia. Masses of men swarmed 
at Aquia creek. Column after column poured through the 
streets of Alexandria. Every crooked road and by-path 
which led over Stafford Hills was crowded with troops. 
They swarmed in the woods and fields, and bivouaced in the 
sedgy pines. Their lines were interminable. 






296 ARMY OF VIRGINIA. 

The columns of the Union army marched on. Gen. Pope 
said " he wanted nothing but men and guns," and he got 
them ; but what use they were to him remains to be seen. 
Foragers scoured the country; stragglers eat up the green 
corn and stole the poultry ; cavalrymen confiscated everything 
a horse could eat. Masses of men choked up the roads, and 
trains of wagons got into the most convenient places for 
capture by rebel guerrillas. Still the columns poured on, 
few knowing^what the plans were, and fewer seeming to care. 

"While the tired and dusty heroes of the Army of the Poto- 
mac were pursuing their devious way among the hills of 
Stafford; winding through sedgy pines; climbing hills; pick- 
eting on railroads; sleeping in woods, and hunting up a fight, 
events of great importance were culminating. It will be 
necessary here to relate how the Army of the Potomac joined 
the Army of Virginia. How, in avoiding the rocks of Scylla 
they plunged into the whirlpool of Charybdis. 

MARCH ACROSS THE PENINSULA. 

For several days previous to the fifteenth of August, there 
were mysterious movements in the Army of the Potomac, at 
Harrison's Landing. The rumbling of artillery wheels was 
heard all night. At the Landing transports were loaded to 
their fullest capacity. 

At daylight, August fifteenth, Heintzelman's corps moved 
outside the breastworks down the Charles City Poad. The 
main body of the army marched directly along the bank of 
the James river, by the Charles City road, and crossed on a 
pontoon bridge at the mouth of the Chickahominy. This 
bridge was six hundred and sixty yards long. Thirty 
miles of trains and sixty thousand men passed over it. It 
was built by Capt. James C. Duane, U. S. A. The march of 
the main body was of course unmolested, for one flank was 
covered by the gunboats, the other by Heintzelman's vete- 
rans; their front by cavalry, and their rear by Pleasanton. 

Of course they foraged. The corn was in roasting condi- 
tion, and was stripped for miles. Every farm house was 
patronized by soldiers. Eggs and chickens, pigs and calves, 



ARMY OF VIRGINIA. 297 

rapidly disappeared. Horses and mules were confiscated. In 
every kitchen there were soldier cooks. 

The sick had been sent away in steamers; everything of 
value had been placed upon boats and transported down the 
James river, and nothing was left for the enemy. Even to 
their bush houses the soldiers applied the torch, and the last 
glimpse they caught of their old camp, it was crowned by a 
column of smoke. They left Harrison's Landing, with its 
suffocating dust and myriads of tormenting flies. 

The main column moved on down the Charles Citv Court 
House road. Soon the old county seat was reached, where a 
short time was spent in cooking coffee. This village con- 
sisted of a court house, a dilapidated tavern, and a jail. The 
tavern was a residence for owls and bats; the court house for 
straggling soldiers; the jail, with its iron cage, was empty. 

Early daylight revealed the James river to the right, and 
the Chickahominy in front, with gunboats to protect the 
pontoon bridge. The army halted at night in a field on the 
north bank of the Chickahominy, and at daylight took up 
its march, by the way of "Williamsburgh, to Yorktown. 
Reaching there, without any incident worthy of note, on the 
eighteenth of August, some portions of it marched down the 
peninsula to Fortress Monroe, while other portions- went to 
Newport Xews, where they took steamers for Alexandria 
and Aquia Qreek. 

Meantime Heintzelman's corps was marching inland, to 
protect the flank of the grand army, passing down the James 
river. Its march was a tour of romance, and its history is 
worthy of special note. Upon reaching Charles City Court 
House, it debouched from the main army and filed left until 
it reached Jones' bridge, where it took position, threw out 
pickets and halted for the night. 

All the night long the white tops of our wagons glistened 
in the moonlight; now winding up some hill, now disappear- 
ing beneath the overhanging branches of the woods, looking 
like a fleet of land ships, carrying the food for the veterans 
guarding them. 

They halted at Christian's Mill, about seven miles from the 
Charles City Court House, up the Chickahominy. Here was 



298 ARMY OF VIRGINIA. 

a ford, called Jones' or Providence ford, and here Stuart's 
cavalry crossed, on their return to Richmond, after their cele- 
brated raid, June fifteenth. Here stood an old mill, and a 
small bridge. To the right a mill pond ; crossing this bridge 
was a road which wound along the pond, and penetrated the 
open country beyond. To the right was an old brick house, 
on the summit of a hill. The line stretched along the river, 
reaching to the ford at which the teams were crossing, three 
miles on the left; the right was covered by the mill pond; in 
front, where the road emerged from the woods, a battery of 
artillery was masked; the center stretched from the mansion 
once occupied by the Christian family, to the old brick house 
on the hill. 

The door yard of this old Virginia mansion was shaded by 
locusts. Here two companies stacked arms as a reserve. 
The men helped themselves from corn fields; the negroes 
baked corn bread; the clear stream furnished water; the sun 
went down, and the full moon came up, shining upon the 
glistening bayonets ; looking upon the reclining forms on the 
green sward beneath the locusts; sparkling upon the water; 
while the hum of the summer insects, and the curious sounds 
of the denizens of the swamp, lulled the men to repose. 
This was the very romance of war. 

The old soldier has a sense of perfect security in the ene- 
my's country. Marching all day, though surrounded by 
hostile bands, he no sooner halts, than the camp fire is built, 
the coffee cooked, his shelter tent up, and down he lies, in 
blissful unconsciousness of danger, as though in his quiet 
home, far from the field of battle. 

Our forces were not attacked at Christian's Mill. They 
waited the greater part of the day; and in the shades of 
evening, took up their line of march towards the New Kent 
Court House road, reaching Burnt Ordinary at midnight. 
Here the column halted. 

The next day they marched through the streets of 
"Williamsburgh, with bands playing and colors flying. Soon 
York river was reached, .and our tired and dusty soldiers 
plunged into its refreshing waters. 

Upon arriving here, they learned that the main body of our 



ARMY OF VIRGINIA. 299 

army had preceded them down the Peninsula. Camping for 
the night, the next morning, August twentieth, Heintzelman's 
corps took steamers for Yorktown, where they arrived 
August twenty-second. 

The Army of the Potomac, on the twenty-third of August, 
had arrived at various points in Eastern Virginia to reinforce 
Gen. Pope's army. They numbered about ninety-one thou- 
sand veterans, but were scattered at widely different points. 

When the Twentieth Indiana was marching up the Orange 
and Alexandria railroad, from picket at Rappahannock Sta- 
tion, under orders to join their brigade in Kearney's division, 
to help Gen. Hooker in his desperate fight at Kettle Run, 
August twenty-seventh, having marched fourteen miles, they 
were greatly surprised to see a large number of troops quietly 
in camp, while the artillery of a terrible battle was sounding 
in their ears. Such an unusual scene at such a time caused 
inquiry. 

Stepping out from the ranks, an officer went into one of 
the tents, and asked, "What troops are these?" "We are 
Sykes' division, of Gen. Porter's corps." "Why don't you 
go into battle?" "We have no orders. We march ten miles 
a day, and then camp." This was at four o'clock in the 
afternoon of August twenty-seventh, while Heintzelman's 
corps were battling for life at Kettle Run and Bristow Station. 
The Twentieth rushed onward, some of its weary men falling 
exhausted by the way. 

From August twenty-first till August twenty-fifth, there 
was constant skirmishing along the line of the Rappahan- 
nock, from Rappahannock Station to Waterloo. 

Gen. Pope constantly watched this line, and reported to 
Gen. Halleck, that heavy columns threatened him at Rappa- 
hannock Station. Yet the Twentieth Indiana, which was on 
picket at that station, on August twenty-sixth, saw no force 
of the enemy in front. Co. G, of that regiment, under com- 
mand of Capt. W. C. L. Taylor, who was left behind on the 
morning of the twenty-seventh, in consequence of our rapidly 
moving up the railroad to drive Jackson from Manassas 
Junction, saw no enemy in front, when they withdrew from 
their picket line. 



300 ARMY OF VIRGINIA. 

It is evident Gen. Pope's lines were too extended, or he 
had a larger force under Lis command than he was capable 
of handling. Eor, on the twenty-fourth, he says, "lie was 
satisfied that no force of the enemy was on the north side of 
the Rappahannock," and just before that he reported as fol- 
lows : 

"During the day of the twenty-fourth, a large detachment 
of the enemy, numbering thirty-six regiments of infantry, 
with the usual number of batteries of artillery, and a con- 
siderable cavalry force, marched rapidly north in the direction 
of Rectortown. They could be plainly seen from our signal- 
station, established at high points along the Rappahannock." 

Rectortown is on the Manassas and Strasburgh railroad, 
an important point ; and a force of the enemy reaching there, 
would cut off our communications with Washington at 
Manassas, and threaten our rear. Gen. Pope was deceived. 
Although he fought his best, Jackson out-generaled him ; and 
Gens. Longstreet and Lee, following rapidly on, beat him in 
the series of battles which followed. 

Manassas Plains covers an area of perhaps sixty miles in 
extent. It is a series of hills and woodlands, dotted here and 
there with small villages, intersected by small streams, and 
abounding in clear springs. From its hills a battle can be 
seen in the distance, when you can not even hear the report 
of artillery. 

On these undulating plains have the principal battles in the 
valley of Virginia been fought. Bull Run is a small stream 
intersecting this valley, crossing the Centreville road. Cub 
Run is a branch of Bull Run. Several other creeks empty 
into it. The various battles in August were fought at Grove- 
ton, New Market, Gainesville, Hay Market, Kettle Ran, and 
on the old Manassas Gap railroad, and should have the gen- 
eral name of the Battles of Manassas Plains, and not that of 
Bull Run, as there was but little fighting done on that fatal 
battle ground. 

The cavalry force of the enemy that made the raid upon 
Catlett's Station, on the night of August twenty-second, was 
but a foretaste of what followed. Our General did not seem 
to note the danger. When Heintzelman's corps came down 



ARMY OF VIRGINIA 301 

the railroad that night, instead of posting his veteran force 
at Manassas, where the depot of our valuable stores and main 
supply was, he ordered the various regiments composing the 
command, to stretch along the line of the Orange and Alex- 
andria railroad, from Warrenton Junction to the Rappahan- 
nock river, a distance of at least fourteen miles. In fact, 
none of these scattered regiments were within supporting 
distance. 

Such was the situation, when, on the night of August 
twenty-sixth, Jackson's force, pouring through Thoroughfare 
Gap, captured Manassas, and cut the railroad at Kettle Run. 

Then Gen. Pope suddently realized his danger, and at once 
determined^ to abandon the line of the Rappahannock, and 
throw his whole force in the direction of Gainesville and 
Manassas Junction, in hopes to crush that portion of the 
army of the daring foe, which had passed through Thorough- 
fare Gap, before it could be joined by Gen. Lee. 

The column of the rebel Gen. Jackson, eighteen thousand 
strong, consisting of A. P. Hill's, Ewell's and the Stonewall 
divisions, with no opposition, moved rapidly through White 
Plains, Hay Market, Thoroughfare Gap, and Gainesville, to 
Bristow Station. At Bristow Station they captured several 
detached companies of Union soldiers; burned two or three 
railway trains, and Ewell's division took position on the 
railroad to capture any isolated regiment that might approach. 
Hill's division moved on Manassas Junction, driving away 
the cavalry stationed there, and capturing six pieces of artil- 
lery, three trains of cars loaded with Quartermasters' stores, 
and an immense stock of Sutlers' goods. 

Our cavalry had used their swift feet well; for they brought 
the news to Alexandria in advance of the telegraph. The 
First New Jersey brigade at once started to meet the enemy. 
Upon crossing Bull Run bridge, they were met by a heavy 
artillery fire, and compelled to fall back, losing many killed, 
wounded and prisoners. Here they were reinforced by the 
Eleventh and Twelfth Ohio, which held the enemy in check. 

Meantime, a fight was going on four miles west of Bristow 
Station. Ewell's forces, sweeping down the railroad, picking 
up detached companies of guards, suddenly came in contact 



302 ARMY OF VIRGINIA. 

i 

with the head of the column of Gen. Hooker, who had col- 
lected his troops at the first alarm. The fight began about 
noon, and lasted till dark, Ewell having been driven back 
along the railroad, in the direction of Manassas Junction. 
At night both parties rested near the field of battle. The loss 
on each side was about three hundred killed and wounded. 

The enemy, that night and the next day, held a grand 
jubilee at Manassas Junction. Their ragged and famished 
men helped themselves to every article of luxury or necessity. 
They had no wagons; they could carry nothing away. So 
they marched up, and ate, and filled their haversacks. Here 
was a starving man eating lobster salad, and drinking Rhine 
wine ; there a man in tatters luxuriating on canned oysters 
and rare fruits. ' It was a magnificent feast at our expense. 
At nightfall, the long trains, loaded with valuable goods, 
were fired. As the costly conflagration lit up the heavens, 
the rebel forces moved away. One division went towards 
the old battle field of Bull Run ; two divisions towards Cen- 
treville. 

Orders flew thick and fast. Gen. Pope seemed to think 
that the whole corps could move at once, however much the 
troops were scattered. Thus, Kearney was ordered to move 
his division at daylight, when, under previous orders, his 
command was stretched for fourteen miles — from Warrenton 
Junction to the Rappahannock river. Gen. Pope was great 
on orders, but still greater on dispatches. When the army 
was falling back upon Washington, we received newspapers 
containing official dispatches " that we had whipped the enemy 
at Bull Run, and killed, wounded and captured sixteen thou- 
sand of his men." The following is the official dispatch of 
Gen. Pope: 

" To Maj. Gen. Halleek, Commander in Chief: 

" We fought a terrific battle here yesterday with the com- 
bined forces of the enemy, which lasted with continued fury 
from daylight until after dark, by which time the enemy was 
driven from the field, which we now occupy. 

"Our troops are too much exhausted to push matters; but 
I shall do so in the course of the morning, as soon as Fitz- 



ARMY OF VIRGINIA. 303 

John Porter's corps comes up from Manassas. The enemy 
is still in our front, but badly used up. 

""We have lost not less than eight thousand men killed and 
wounded; and from the appearance of the battle field, the 
enemy has lost at least two to our one. He stood strictly on 
the defensive, and every assault was made by ourselves. Our 
troops have behaved splendidly. 

" The battle was fought on the identical battle field of Bull 
Run, which greatly increases the enthusiasm of our men. 

"The news just reaches me from the front that the enemy 
is retreating towards the mountain. I go forward at once to 
eee. 

"¥e have made great captures, but I am not yet able to 
form an idea of their extent." 

Gen. McDowell was ordered to push forward at daylight, 
August twenty-eighth, from Gainesville toward Manassas 
Junction, resting his right on the Manassas Gap railroad, 
and throwing his left well to the east. Gen. Reno was to 
march at the same time from Greenwich direct upon Manas- 
sas Junction, and Gen. Kearney, at the same hour, upon 
Bristow Station. 

Thus our army moved in three columns upon Manassas 
Junction ; halting occasionally, to give the enemy time to 
burn and destroy. The column moved deliberately on in 
pursuit of a flying enemy ; taking care, however, not to catch 
him. At length word was received that Jackson had left 
Manassas, then the column pushed rapidly forward and cap- 
tured the position. 

This was about noon, August twenty- eighth. The enemy 
retreated through Centreville. We immediately pursued. 
When Jackson reached Centreville he turned off to the left, 
on the Warrenton pike, towards Gainesville. By marching 
on the Manassas railroad, or, upon reaching ISTew Market, 
turning to the left, we might have intercepted Jackson at 
Groveton or Gainesville. "We did neither, but, slowly follow- 
ing his circuitous course, attacked him only when he took 
position. 

As the pursuing column was marching over the Bull Run 



304 ARMY OF VIRGINIA. 

battle ground, and winding among the hills approaching 
Centreville, towards sunset, away off to the left they saw the 
smoke of artillery, and evidences of a battle. It was King's 
division of McDowell's corps, fighting with Jackson's advance, 
which was retreating towards Thoroughfare Gap. 

Darkness ended the fight. Each party maintained its 
ground. There was no escape now for Jackson, provided 
McDowell and Sigel maintained their position between him 
and Thoroughfare Gap. But this they did not do. 

Gen. Pope says, "that he sent orders to Gens. McDowell 
and King, several times during the night of the twentieth, to 
hold their ground at all hazard." 

Gen. Sigel says, "that just as he was in position to fight 
the enemy near Buckland Mills, a short distance from Hay- 
market, he received orders to march to Manassas Junction, 
away from the enemy; and he reluctantly obeyed the order." 

Thus, amid the conflict of orders, Jackson held his position 
until Longstreet was enabled to reinforce him on the second 
day of the series of great battles. 

BATTLE OF GR0VET0N. 

Gen. Sigel pushing rapidly forward, on the morning of 
August twenty-ninth, found the enemy posted beyond Young's 
branch, near Haymarket. His left wing rested on Catharpin 
creek ; his front towards Centreville ; with his center he occu- 
pied a long stretch of woods parallel with the Sudley Spring 
New Market road ; his right was posted on the hills on both 
sides of the Centreville- Gainesville road. 

Gen. Schurz had the right; Gen. Milroy the center, and 
Gen. Schenck the left, and planted their batteries on hills in 
range of the enemy's position. The whole line advanced 
from point to point until involved in a desperate artillery and 
infantry contest. This fight was to prevent Longstreet from 
reinforcing Jackson. While the forces of Sigel were fighting 
Jackson's advance, those of Hooker, Kearney and Reno were 
closing on his rear. 

The enemy's forces fell back several miles under the fierce 
attack of Sigel, but were so closely pressed that they were 



ARMY OF VIRGINIA. 305 

compelled to stand and make the best defense they could. 
Accordingly they took position with their left near Sudley 
Springs, their right a little south of the Warrenton turnpike, 
and their front covered by an old railroad grade, leading from 
Gainesville in the direction of Leesburgh. Their batteries 
were numerous and well posted ; some of them were of heavy 
calibre. The mass of their troops were sheltered in dense 
woods behind the old railroad embankment. 

The left of the Union army fought with varied success 
from early dawn till ten o'clock in the morning, when the 
pursuing columns of the right got into battle, and then com- 
menced the deadliest conflict. 

The battle raged furiously, commencing on the left it 
extended along the whole line in front to the right. Gens. 
Sigel, Milroy, Schurz, and Schenck were battling terribly. 
About five o'clock, a brigade that held position along the 
line of an old railroad grade, which formed a natural breast- 
work, was startled by a heavy enfilading fire of the enemy 
on their left flank, sweeping the breastwork, and causing the 
whole brigade to break in confusion through the woods. 

Then Kearney came to the rescue. His division moved 
rapidly forward, to cover their retreat. But no enemy could 
be seen. The green leaves of the forest moved in the gentle 
breeze, eager eyes could not pierce their leafy cover. A 
moment before, the very echoes quivered with the roar of 
battle; now all was still, except the murmuring winds. The 
silence was thrilling as the roar of battle had been terrible. 
The division filed into a road running alongside of the rail- 
road grade. This had been the battle ground of the morn- 
ing, the killed and wounded lay thickly around. The grade 
varied in hight from three to six feet, and was a splendid 
natural breastwork, provided the enemy appeared in front. 

The troops were filing behind this breastwork, by the left 
flank, in column, when a fire from the enemy, fierce, terrible, 
and destructive, swept the inside of the breastwork, from the 
left, enfilading the whole line, throwing several regiments 
into confusion. Gen. Kearney at once ordered the line to 
change front to the left, and swept over the railroad grade at 
right angles. The line advanced, driving the enemy before 
Yol. I.— 20. 



306 ARMY OF VIRGINIA. 

them, but our forces were too light, and could not hold the 
ground. The enemy rapidly brought up heavy reserves, and 
our line was driven back. Gen. Stevens came to the support 
but did not have enough men to retard the advance of the 
foe. 

The enemy had sharp shooters posted in trees, to pick off 
officers. Owing to the thick foliage they could not be seen, 
nor could the sound of their shots be distinguished amid the 
roar of musketry. 

The firing grew fiercer ; bullets seemed to fly thick as hail. 
The men lay down to avoid the fire, suddenly through a gap 
in the woods, a rebel battery, on a hill side on our right, 
opened fire, enfilading the line, and a storm of grape swept 
through the ranks, making a noise like the rushing wind. 
We were flanked on both wings, and fell back over the rail- 
road grade, the surface of which was swept by the flanking 
fire of the enemy. 

The rebels seeing this retrograde movement, rushed for- 
ward with hideous yells, thinking our destruction certain. 
They pursued our forces through the woods, and, catching 
sight of our covering batteries on the hills beyond, charged 
upon them with great fury. But a storm of death met them 
from the mouths of our cannon, which hurled them back in 
disordered fragments. 

Again they formed, under cover of the woods, and advanced 
upon our batteries on the brow of the hills, only again to have 
their shattered columns driven back. A third time they 
appeared, in larger force, and advancing rapidly, approached 
within six hundred yards of our guns, when a perfect storm 
of grape and shell tore through their ranks, from a double 
row of batteries, and sent them shrieking to the woods. 
Yells and groans filled the air, and mangled limbs and bodies 
covered the hill side. 

Fresh troops now advancing rushed upon the enemy, com- 
pleting the discomfiture our batteries had begun. The enemy 
were driven from the woods, the railroad bank was repos- 
sessed, and the victory, for that day, was ours. Night closed 
upcfh the scene, and the weary combatants sunk to rest. 

The scene that night, when viewed from the hill top, com- 



ARMY OF VIRGINIA. 307 

manding the principal portion of the battle field, was beau- 
tiful. A thousand camp fires glistened in the woods and 
shone out in the cleared fields and upon the slopes of hills. 

Dusky forms flitted to and fro. Away to the south a brisk 
skirmish was going on; jets of flame, in long lines, told of 
volleys of musketry; occasionally a larger, brighter glare, 
spoke of artillery. These bright lines of fire looked very 
spiteful to soldiers who knew how deadly were their mis- 
siles. 

In melancholy contrast to this scene were our field hospi- 
tals. Here death waited for his victims. Under bushes, on 
the grass, in every conceivable place, our wounded and man- 
gled heroes lay. Surgeons were busy all night, but so numer- 
ous were the sufferers that proper attention could not be paid 
to all. Some lay quietly down on the green sward and died 
peacefully, as if going to sleep. Others moaned and writhed 
in agony. Thus the mournful night slowly dragged away. 
Our loss was about six thousand, in killed, wounded and 
missing; that of the enemy about five thousand. 

Day broke to see the gathering anew of armed hosts, and 
to witness a more furious battle than that of the day before. 

SECOND DAY. 

The heavy atmosphere and gray clouds in the east denoted 
rain. The dead of the previous day were on the field of bat- 
tle. All our wounded had not been removed. There was 
little firing in the morning, occasionally a battery in our front 
sent a stray shot towards the enemy. There was no reply. 
The silence was ominous. 

Directly in our front, and apparently in front of the center 
of the enemy's position, on the top of a hill was a stone 
church, partially hid by an orchard and forest. To the right 
the hill descends in gentle slopes ; to the left it winds away 
among other hills, till lost in the forests. 

As part of our army stood in position, dense columns of 
Federal troops were seen marching and countermarching, 
while clouds of dust in the distance, showed that new col- 
umns were approaching. A heavy force of infantry took 



308 ARMY OF VIRGINIA. 

position in column of division, just beneath the brow of the 
hill, in front of the stone church. 

Along the brow of this hill, at two o'clock, in the after- 
noon, the battle began. Stationed upon the ridge of the hill 
was our artillery. From fifty batteries great volumes of 
smoke leaped from heated guns. The air was filled with the 
fantastic white shapes which floated from the bursting shells. 
Men were leaping to and fro, loading, firing, handling the 
artillery. Occasionally a cry reached the ear, which spoke 
of disaster or death by some well aimed ball. The men 
gathered in little groups around their pieces, till the signal 
was given for firing. Then they scattered, leaving only the 
gunner, grasping the lanyard of his gun. The piece belched 
forth its smoke and fire and deadly missile; and then the 
little group gathered again, appearing in the distance like 
pigmies, while far off the white puff of the enemy's batteries 
showed an answering fire. 

Heavier grew the fire. Deadlier the shock of battle. The 
air was filled with cheers and yells, and cries of struggling 
men. Above all rose a dismal canopy of smoke, through 
which the sun shone like a ball of blood. 

Down in the green woods men were dying; along the 
banks of quiet streams soldiers lay dead. Shot and shell 
and death were everywhere; still the battle went on. 

A rebel brigade crossed the field. Suddenly a shell fell 
among them, another, and then another, until the thousands 
scattered like a swarm of flies, and disappeared in the woods. 

The fight was fearful, from two until Rve o'clock in the 
afternoon. Suddenly the storm burst with ten-fold fury 
upon our center. Battery after battery took position, only 
to be met by new batteries of the enemy. The storm of 
shot and shell filled the air with iron fragments. The roar 
of artillery eclipsed the thunders of heaven. The sulphur- 
ous smoke of the gunpowder, like a dismal cloud, obscured 
the sun. On the hill sides, in the woods and valleys, the long 
rolling crash of musketry filled up pauses in the deafening, 
roar, and showed that the enemy was making his crowning 
effort. 

Suddenly there was a lull; the artillery ceased its thunders; 






ARMY OF VIRGINIA. 309 

at intervals a single musket shot was heard; the smoke of 
battle curled upwards and mingled with the clouds. A 
strange hum buzzed over the battle field, lately so noisy, now 
fearful in its silence. 

A single cannon shot upon our left, then a terrible roar of 
musketry, mingled with cheers, announced that to be the 
main point of the enemy's attack. Swarming from out the 
woods the rebel hosts appeared in countless thousands. They 
captured our batteries, and poured a destructive fire into our 
supporting infantry. Our line gave way on the left at their 
fierce charge. Two brigades broke and could not be rallied. 
Soon the whole left wing of our army gave way. At first 
with great disorder. This was soon remedied. Then our 
forces fell back deliberately. 

The enemy pushed heavy masses of infantry after our 
retreating columns, and, planting his batteries upon hills, 
commanded the whole battle field. We were outflanked and 
beaten, partially by concentrated forces, but chiefly by supe- 
rior generalship. The loss on both sides was very heavy. 

During the night our army fell back on Centreville, Gens. 
Kearney, Reno, and Gibson bringing up the rear. Crossing 
Cub Run, Slocum's division of Franklin's corps, was met 
advancing deliberately to the field. But they halted so soon 
as they met the head of our retreating column, and camped 
for the night. The enemy did not pursue us; but contented 
himself with throwing a few shot and shell into our wagon 
trains. 

After midnight we reached Centreville. Every house and 
shed in it was filled with our wounded. Ambulances had 
been running all day, bringing them from the battle field. 
"Wagons were rumbling through the streets; soldiers hunting 
their regiments; orderlies galloping to and fro. Confusion 
made that night dismal. 

The morning of August thirty-first found the main body 
of our army within the intrenchments of Centreville. The 
scene at daylight was discouraging. It was raining, and 
round the camp fires were gathered crowds of hungry, tired, 
wet and wounded soldiers. Everything was dripping; the 



310 ARMY OP VIRGINIA. 

mist steamed from the horses and the clothes of the men. 
Soldiers were trying to find their regiments; artillerymen 
their batteries : here could be seen the forewheels of an artil- 
lery truck — the gun being in possession of the enemy. Every- 
where disaster stared in our faces. Meantime ambulances 
poured in along the Fairfax road from Washington, and 
everything having wheels was brought into use to remove 
our wounded. All that day there was a constant double 
stream of vehicles, moving in opposite directions, to and 
from Fairfax to Centreville. 

Winding along the muddy road, long columns of reinforce- 
ments appeared in sight. They were soldiers from Sumner's 
and Franklin's corps ; but, alas ! they were too late. A day 
after the battle. 

Gen. Pope, all that day, was engaged in getting the army 
in condition, resting the men, getting up supplies of provis- 
ions and ammunition. Fitz John Porter failed to assist him. 
Sumner and Franklin's corps had been delayed. Pope, sick 
at heart, applied for leave to fall back on Washington. 

The enemy's advance appeared in force at Cub Run, on the 
morning of August thirty-first, fired a few shots from their 
artillery, but made no attempt to cross. Subsequent events 
showed they were making a bold movement on our right. 

The army remained at Centreville all day, covering the 
movement of our army trains and ambulances. The New 
Jersey brigade was posted about two miles west of Fairfax 
Court House. About sundown a body of rebel cavalry 
appeared on a cross road near Fairfax, with two pieces of 
artillery, and captured a few wagons. They were soon driven 
off' by the Jerseymen. 

While we were waiting at Centreville for the enemy to 
attack us in the fortifications, they were moving slowly 
along the Little Eiver pike to our right. They knew the 
strength of our position too well to attack us at Centreville. 
A reconnoissance developed this fact, and troops were at once 
pushed forward to Fairfax Court House, Chantilly, and Ger- 
mantown. Just before sunset, September first, the enemy 
attacked us on our right, as our column was moving on the 
Centreville road. 



ARMY OF VIRGINIA. 311 

BATTLE OF CHANTILLY. 

General Reno occupied the right; General Stevens com- 
manding the second division on the left, immediately moved 
against the enemy, leading his troops in person. While 
doing this he was shot dead by a bullet through the head, 
and the troops fell back in disorder. The movement of Gen. 
Stevens had been intended to cover the right of Reno's other 
division, which was in danger of being flanked. "When the 
brave Stevens was killed, and his troops driven back, there 
was danger that our right wing would be turned, and the 
whole force destroyed. Unable to send forward regiments to 
occupy Stevens' position, Reno himself was falling back, and 
the whole line seemed likely to be lost. 

At this critical moment the fighting division of Kearney 
appeared upon the field, and at once rushed into the battle. 
Gen. Kearney, penetrating too far in the enemy's lines, was 
instantly killed. Gen. Birney then took command, and 
ordered his own brigade to charge. This was done gallantly, 
and decided the contest. The rebels broke and run, making 
no effort to renew the fight. The field was held by our men 
for the night. 

A terrific thunder storm raged while the battle was going 
on, the crashes of thunder drowning the roar of artillery and 
musketry. 

Thus was fought the battle of Chant-illy. In it we lost 
two valuable officers. Gen. Philip Kearney, the knightly 
hero, who had cheered his division through the bloody bat- 
tles of the Peninsula, and who was a meteor in every fight, 
and defied death in every encounter. General Stevens, 
too, fell. He had been with Burnside in his battles, and waa 
a brave and gallant soldier. 

On the second of September the whole army fell back to 
the intrenchments in front of Washington. Part of the col- 
umn proceeded on the Washington road, and part on the 
Alexandria road. The enemy moved north towards Lees- 
burgh, and made no pursuit. Halting in front of Washing- 
ton, the army was reorganized and Gen. McClellan again 
appointed Commander in Chief. 



312 ARMY OF VIRGINIA. 

Gen. Kearney's old division went into camp at Arlington 
Heights. It was the first time in four months they had slept 
under tents. They rested there for one month. It seemed 
but a few day s — so welcome was Rest. It was a great bles- 
sing to the tired soldier, and only next to Home. It meant 
new health, energy, life and joy. Only those who have been 
in battle, know the terrible drain upon the mental and physi- 
cal energy of man. The soldiers were resting, therefore 
happy. During the long Indian summer days they lay under 
their shelter tents, smoking the soldier's pipe of enjoyment. 
Ah ! those were happy days for the veterans. 

When Gen. Pope took command of the Army of Virginia 
he issued the following address, which caused much feeling 
in the army of the Potomac, as it was regarded as a reflec- 
tion upon the conduct of Gen. McClellan in his campaign 
before Richmond : 

"To the Officers and Soldiers of the Army of Virginia: 

"By special assignment of the President of the United 
States, I have assumed command of this army. I have spent 
two weeks in learning your whereabouts, your condition, and 
your wants; in preparing you for active operations, and in 
placing you in positions from which you can act promptly 
and to the purpose. 

" I have come to you from the West, where we have always 
seen the backs of our enemies— from an army whose business 
it has been to seek the adversary, and to beat him when found, 
whose policy has been attack and not defense. 

"In but one instance has the enemy been able to place our 
Western army in a defensive attitude. I presume that I have 
been called here to pursue the same system, and to lead you 
against the enemy. It is my purpose to do so, and that 
speedily. 

" I am sure you long for an opportunity to win the distinc- 
tion you are capable of achieving — that opportunity I shall 
endeavor to give you. 

" Meantime I desire you to dismiss from your minds certain 
phrases which I am sorry to find much in vogue amongst 
you. 



ARMY OF VIRGINIA. 313 

" I hear constantly of taking strong positions and holding 
them — of lines of retreat and bases of supplies. Let us dis- 
card such ideas. 

" The strongest position a soldier should desire to occupy 
is one from which he can most easily advance against the 
enemy. 

"Let us study the probable lines of retreat of our oppo- 
nents, and leave our own to take care of themselves. Let us 
look before us and not behind. Success and glory are in the 
advance. Disaster and shame lurk in the rear. 

" Let us act on this understanding, and it is safe to predict 
that your banners shall be inscribed with many a glorious 
deed, and that your names will be dear to your countrymen 
forever." 

• Here Gen. Pope's campaign in Virginia ends. E"ext fol- 
lows the fortunes of the favorite commander of the Army of 
the Potomac, Gen. George B. McClellan. 

The people of the loyal States were thrilled with pain on 
account of the disaster of the Union army at the second 
battle of Manassas Plains; but gathering new energy from 
misfortune, prepared to meet the shock of battle upon the 
soil of Maryland. The North freely poured forth her men 
and treasure. The President's call for new troops was 
promptly answered. "With an elasticity which nothing could 
subdue, the Union army marched forward to meet the inva- 
ders. The rebel leaders had made their boast that they would 
dictate terms of peace to the loyal North on their own soil. 
That threat they fondly hoped to execute. Their victorious 
army had unresisted crossed the Potomac, and were rapidly 
marching on the Capital. But a new power was in the field. 
They were at last to feel, the vengeance of a free people. 
"With all their skill, daring and strategy they, with great loss, 
were hurled back into the desolated war fields of Virginia. 

The army gathered new life after crossing the Potomac. 
The pure air of the North invigorated the men. The pleas- 
ant country roads, neat farm houses, shady lanes and rural 
scenes, brought to the memory of many a veteran the dear 



314 ARMY OF VIRGINIA. 

home he had left to fight the battles of his country. From 
the gently rolling slopes and crowning hills of Maryland our 
men looked upon a scene of peaceful beauty. Industry was 
unharmed. The locomotive sped on its way unassailed, no 
secession, no guerrillas, no ruin here. The night closed in 
quiet. The morning broke with no wild alarm. The chim- 
ing bells of Sabbath sounded musically upon the ear, indica- 
tive of that peace and rest which all need. Fron out the 
doors of cottages and farm houses, poured gray hairt 1 men, 
lovely maidens, and little children — all eager to bless the 
sun-burnt veterans of the Union army. It was a march of 
triumph. Garlands of roses decorated the bayonets of our 
men. "Wreaths of flowers hung upon the necks of the horses. 
The people laughed and wept for very gladness. Thus the 
column moved on, till battle and misery changed the lovely 
scene and filled the land with mourning. 






7 






Ui^y 



CAMPAIGN IN MARYLAND. 



CHAPTER XI. 



On the second of September, Gen. McClellan was placed 
m command of the fortifications of Washington, and of all 
the troops for the defense of the Capital. The various gar- 
risons were at once strengthened, and the troops disposed to 
cover all approaches to the city. 

Meantime, the enemy had crossed the Potomac near Lees- 
burgh, and threatened to invade Pennsylvania, or capture 
Baltimore. His forces had already occupied Frederick, Md., 
and Washington was in danger. New troops had been called 
for by the President, and thousands were rushing to defend 
the Capital. 

The First and Ninth corps, under Gens. Reno and Hooker, 
forming the right wing under Gen. Burnside, were ordered 
to move on the fifth of September. The First corps was to 
move by the way of Brookville, Cooksville and Ridgeville, 
to Frederick; the Ninth corps by Damascus, on New Market 
and Frederick. The Seventh and Eleventh corps, under 
Gens. Sumner and "Williams, on the sixth, moved from Tenal- 
lytown to Rockville; thence by Middleburgh and IJrbana, to 
Frederick; the Eleventh corps moving by a lateral road 
between Urbana and New Market; thus maintaining the 
communication between the center and right wing, and cov- 
ering the direct route from Frederick to Washington. The 
Sixth corps, under Gen. Franklin, moved to Darnestown on 
the sixth ; thence by Dawsonville and Barnsville on Buckeys- 

315 



316 ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 

town, being in position to support the center. Couch's divi- 
sion moved forward to Poolsville. The troops were thus in 
position to cover Baltimore and Washington; our line extend- 
ing from the Potomac river, near Poolsville, to New Market, 
near the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, our front facing north- 
west. 

Through every country road in Maryland, in the direction 
of Frederick, our columns pushed. The veterans were 
greeted with a hearty welcome as they toiled along the dusty 
roads. At many a farm house gate were gathered loyal citi- 
zens, cheering, waving handkerchiefs, and furnishing our 
soldiers with food and water. This was so entirely different 
from the sullen manner we had been received in Virginia, 
that it tended much to cheer the spirits of the troops. 

On the twelfth a part of our right wing entered Frederick, 
after a brisk skirmish at the outskirts of the city. The next 
day the main body of the right and center passed through 
the town. The entrance of the Union army into Frederick 
was a perfect ovation. The people were wild with joy. They 
showered flowers upon the bayonets of our heroes. Every 
house opened its doors and received our troops with enthusi- 
astic welcome. 

On September thirteenth, our advance, consisting of Plea- 
santon's cavalry and horse artillery, after skirmishing, cleared 
the main passage over the Catoctin Hills, leaving no serious 
obstruction to the movement of the main body until the base 
of the South Mountain range was reached. 

BATTLE OP SOUTH MOUNTAIN. 

The enemy occupied the sides and summit of the spur of 
the Blue Ridge Mountains, called the South Mountain. The 
range, near Turner's Pass, averages in hight one thousand 
feet, and forms a strong, natural military barrier. Through 
this Pass lies the turnpike which leads from Middletown to 
Hagerstown. The passes through this range of mountains 
are not numerous, and are easily defended. Turner's Pass, 
through which lies the National road, is the most prominent, 
and therefore was chosen as the route for the main body of 



ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 317 

our army. The mountains in the immediate vicinity are 
steep, and on account of loose rocks, difficult of ascent. 
They are covered with thick woods, affording good hiding 
places for an enemy. 

Early on the morning of the fourteenth, Gen. Pleasanton, 
with a cavalry force, reconnoitered the position of the enemy, 
whom he discovered to occupy the crests of commanding 
hills on each side of the National road, and upon command- 
ing ground in the center, with artillery bearing upon all 
approaches to their position. The enemy's force was sup- 
posed to amount to forty thousand men, with twelve pieces 
of artillery, under command of Gens. Longstreet and D. H. 
Hill. 

The broad road, winding up through the Pass, appeared to 
be peaceful and safe. No enemy was to be seen. The beau- 
tiful woods glistened in the sunshine of a September sun. 
Over the green fields flitted the shadow of a passing cloud. 
Our column pushed on. So steep was the ascent, that field 
officers dismounted and led their horses. The infantry, with 
bodies inclined at an angle of forty-five degrees, breasted the 
hill, and climbed its rugged face. 

Suddenly, a puff of smoke from the dark green woods 
shows that the wily enemy is not sleeping. Another, and 
a succession of puffs, and his batteries rain shot and shell 
over and around our advancing columns. Our men cheer 
and press onward. 

Cox's division, of Reno's corps, first entered the battle. 
So soon as the head of the column was within range, the 
enemy opened a heavy artillery fire. Eobertson's battery 
replied, while our troops filed right and left into the fields, 
and the two columns — Scammon's and Cook's brigades — 
stormed the crest in front, giving us an important position 
for further operations. The enemy threw forward fresh 
troops, pressing Cox. Gen. Willcox's division, of Reno's 
corps, arrived to support our column. At one o'clock, 
Sturgis' division was sent forward by Gen. Burnside. The 
fight raged desperately. Several times the enemy was com- 
pelled to change the position of his batteries. 

At two o'clock, the head of Gen. Hooker's column 



318 ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 

appeared, winding along the road. Our men cheered the old 
veterans. Gen. Meade rushed forward, and, with his Penn- 
sylvania regiments, carried an eminence. Hatch's division 
plunged into the dark woods, which swarmed with concealed 
foes. Doubleday and Phelps rushed to the support. The 
crest was carried, and our forces pushed forward. Here the 
bravery of the Indiana and Wisconsin soldiers was conspi- 
cuous. Hatch's brigade fought desperately at a fence near 
the skirt of the woods. The enemy pressed onward with 
confidence, sweeping over an open space in front, but were 
met with a sheet of fire. For an hour their columns rushed 
against this band of heroes only to be hurled back in disorder. 

Pickett's division took part in the fight. Then Gibbon's 
brigade arrived, and drove the enemy before them. Deploy- 
ing his brigade, Gibbon engaged a superior force of the 
enemy, and steadily pressed them back until dark, holding 
the field. 

Twilight came on; objects looked indistinct; yet from out 
the woods flashed forth the enemy's musketry. At intervals 
there was a lull, a straggling volley, and then a bright sheet 
of flame flashed in the face of our soldiers. Soon it was so 
dark that our men fired at the flashes of the enemy's musk- 
etry. The enemy sullenly retired. Occasionally a single 
piece of artillery flashed, and a single musket shot was heard. 
But the Union army won the battle, and slept upon the field. 

We lost a noble General — Peno — who was killed while 
observing the enemy's movements. Our loss was three hun- 
dred and twenty-eight killed, one thousand four hundred and 
sixty- three wounded and missing. That of the enemy about 
two thousand. 



BATTLE OF CRAMPTON'S GAP. 



This battle was fought by the famous corps of Gen. Frank- 
lin. He had followed the shores of the Potomac, on his 
march towards the enemy. On the thirteenth of September 
he reached Sugar Loaf Mountain, surrounded it with cavalry, 
cleared it of the enemy, and established on its summit a look- 
out for the Union signal corps. Leaving the mountain on 



AKMT OP THE POTOMAC. 319 

the fourteenth, he passed through Burke'tsville, and advanced 
but a short distance, when he came in contact with the 
enemy's pickets at the top of the South Mountain range, 
near Crampton's Gap. The enemy was strongly intrenched 
at the base, on the sides, and in strong force in infantry 
behind the mountain. Eight pieces of artillery, planted on 
the slope of the mountain, at once opened on our advance. 
Gen. Slocum's division then formed in line of battle, and 
moved on the enemv's batteries. The brigades of Gens. 
Bartlett and Torbitt had moved but a short distance, when 
they received a fire from the enemy concealed behind a high 
stone wall running along the base of the Gap. Here a des- 
perate fight occurred. In one hour the enemy was flying 
before the fierce charge made by the New Jersey brigade of 
Gen. Torbitt, and the brigade of Gen. Bartlett. 

The rebels made a stand when they gained the crest of the 
mountain. Up the steep mountain rushed the gallant troops 
of New Jersey, New York and Pensylvania. The top gained, 
another fierce struggle ensued. The enemy finally gave way, 
and fled in disorder down into the valley beyond, leaving in 
our possession four hundred prisoners, two pieces of artillery, 
and three thousand Springfield rifles. Our loss was one hun- 
dred and five killed, four hundred and forty-eight wounded. 
The enemy lost, in killed and wounded, about one thousand. 
The position was an important one, as it threatened the 
enemy's rear. 

The enemy fled in much disorder, and fell back on Antietam 
creek, abandoning the mountain, our cavalry in rapid pursuit. 

The corps of Hooker, Sumner, and Mansfield, pursued the 
enemy by the way of Boonsboro; Burnsicle and Porter 
advanced on the old Sharpsburgh road; and Franklin moved 
into Pleasant Valley, in hopes to relieve Harper's Perry, then 
invested by the enemy. Franklin moved forward to Browns- 
ville, and found a force of the enemy, greatly superior to 
ours, drawn up to receive him. The total cessation of firing 
in the direction of Harper's Ferry, about this time, indicated 
the surrender of that position. 



320 ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 

SURRENDER OF HARPER'S FERRY. 

On the fifth of September, Col. Thomas H. Ford, Thirty- 
Seeond Ohio, took command of the forces on Maryland 
Heights. They were placed at Sandy Hook and Solomon's 
Gap. Those at Sandy Hook, under Col. Maltsby, retired 
by Col. Miles' order, to the eastern slope of Maryland Heights, 
two or three days previous to their evacuation by Col. Ford. 

On the eleventh of September the force at Solomon's Gap 
were driven in by the enemy. Col. Ford called upon Col. 
Miles for reinforcements. The One Hundred and Twenty- 
Sixth and Thirty-Ninth New York regiments were sent him on 
the twelfth; and on the morning of the thirteenth, he was 
further reinforced by the One Hundred and Fifteenth New 
York. 

Col. Ford made unsuccessful requisitions for axes and 
spades, to enable him to construct defenses on Maryland 
Heights. With a few borrowed axes, he cut down trees, and 
formed a slight breastwork in front of his position. 

Early on the morning of the thirteenth the enemy made 
an attack on the crest of the hill, and, after some fighting, 
our troops fell back in confusion to the breastwork, where 
they rallied. About nine o'clock they made a second attack, 
which the troops at the breastwork resisted until Col. Sherrill, 
of the One Hundred and Twenty-Sixth New York, was 
wounded and carried from the field. Then the most of that 
regiment fled in confusion, notwithstanding the efforts of Col. 
Ford and others to rally them. Soon afterwards, the rest of 
our forces, under a misapprehension of orders, fell back. 
Then Maryland Heights were abandoned, by order of Col. 
Ford. 

On the fourteenth the enemy attacked the extreme left of 
our line on Bolivar Heights. After a sharp engagement, 
they were repulsed by our troops, under command of Gen. 
"White. On the same day the battle of South Mountain was 
fought. The distance is about seven miles, and each party 
could hear the artillery of the other. 

That night, two thousand cavalry, under command of Col. 
Davis, of the Twelfth Illinois cavalry, made their escape from 



ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 321 

Harper's Ferry, and reached Greencastle next morning, cap- 
turing on their route an ammunition train belonging to Gen. 
Longstreet, consisting of fifty wagons. 

At daylight, on the morning of the fifteenth, the enemy 
opened their batteries from seven different positions, directing 
their attack principally upon our batteries on the left of Bol- 
ivar Heights. About seven o'clock in the morning, not hav- 
ing fought two hours, Col. Miles concluded to surrender, as 
the ammunition for his artillery was exhausted. He then 
hoisted the white flag. The enemy, not observing it, kept 
up a constant fire for half an hour, mortally wounding Col. 
Miles. At eight o'clock they perceived the flag, when the 
post was surrendered unconditionally. 

So soon as the place was surrendered, Gens. A. P. Hill and 
Jackson, with their staff and some of their troops, rode into 
town. "We then ascertained that their forces numbered 
nearly seventy thousand men. The Union loss, by this sur- 
render, was eleven thousand Q.ve hundred and eighty-three 
prisoners, fifty pieces of artillery of various calibre, and six 
days' rations for twelve thousand men. The loss, in killed 
and wounded, on both sides, was very small. 

BATTLE OF ANTIETAM. 

On the sixteenth of September our advance came upon the 
enemy posted upon the heights on the west side of Antietam 
creek; their left and center being upon, and in front of, the 
road from Sharpsburgh to Hagerstown, and protected by 
woods and irregularities of the ground. Their extreme left 
rested upon a wooded eminence near the cross-roads, to the 
north of G. Miller's farm; their right rested on the hills to 
the right of Sharpsburgh, covering the crossing of Antietam 
creek, and the approaches to Sharpsburgh from the south- 
east. Broken and wooded ground behind the hills concealed 
the mass of the enemy's forces. The ground in the enemy's 
front was undulating. Hills intervened, whose crests are 
commanded by the crests of others in their rear. On all 
favorable points their artillery was posted. Their line formed 
a semi-circle on a range of hills, its concave side towards us.. 
Vol. I.— 21. 



322 ARMY OP THE POTOMAC. 

The rebel Gen. Jackson commanded their left, Gen. Long- 
street their center, and Gen. A. P. Hill their right. All 
under command of Gen. Lee. Their force was supposed to 
be about seventy thousand strong. 

Under the base of these hills, runs the deep stream called 
Antietam creek, fordable only at distant points. Three 
bridges cross it — one on the Hagerstown road ; another on 
the Sharpsburgh pike; the third to the left in a deep recess 
of abrupt hills. It was evident, from the force of the enemy, 
and the strength of their position, that desperate fighting 
alone could drive them from their chosen ground. All felt 
that a terrible battle was on hand. 

The plan of attack of Gen. McClellan was nearly as fol- 
lows: Gen. Hooker was to cross Antietam creek on the right, 
establish himself on the enemy's left if possible, flanking the 
position of the enemy, and opening the battle. Sumner, 
Franklin and Mansfield were to send their troops also to the 
right, acting with Hooker's attack, while advancing nearer 
the center. The heavy work in the center was left princi- 
pally to the batteries, Porter massing his infantry supports 
in the hollows. On the left, Burnside was intrusted with the 
difficult task of carrying the bridge across the Antietam, 
near Rohrback's farm, and of assailing the enemy's right. 

Gen. Hooker moved with his corps across the creek at a 
ford to the right of Keedysville, without opposition. Front- 
ing south-west his . line advanced threatening the enemy's 
flank. Cavalry skirmishers were sent into the woods and 
over 'the fields beyond. Presently they were met by a sharp 
fire from a concealed battery. They at once fell back on the 
main column. 

Infantry skirmishers then advanced to an open field 
inclosed on two sides with woods, protected on the right 
by a hill, and having a corn field in the rear. Penetrating 
these woods they were met by a sharp fire. Receiving sup- 
port they rapidly advanced and cleared the timber of the 
enemy. 

Gen. Hooker at once formed his line. Rickett's division 
went into the woods on the left. Meade, with the Pennsyl- 
vania Reserves, formed the center. Doubledav was sent on 



ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 323 

the right, and planting his guns on a hill opened at once on 
a rebel battery that commenced to enfilade our central line. 
Meade's troops had a sharp contest and held their own. It 
was now dark. The enemy's position could only be discov- 
ered by the flashes of their guns. They pushed boldly for- 
ward on the right, and attempted to recover lost ground, but 
did not succeed. The fight flashed, glimmered, and ceased 
with the dark night. 

"With the first break of daylight the battle began. Morn- 
ing found both armies as they had lain down the night before, 
looking almost in each other's eyes. Hooker attacked, but 
masses of the enemy soon checked his advance. Mansfield 
brought his corps to the support of Hooker. The fire now 
became fearful and incessant. What at first were distant 
notes, clear and consecutive, soon merged into a tumultuous 
chorus which made the earth tremble. By the help of Mans- 
field the enemy were driven back; but the good and gallant 
Mansfield lost his life in the effort. 

Our lines pushed forward with cheers. Through the corn 
field, and into the dark woods, went the retreating enemy. 
Meade's division followed close after them, and endeavored 
to penetrate the woods. Out of its dark recesses came terri- 
ble volleys which checked their further progress. Closing 
up their shattered lines, our troops fell back. The enemy's 
column quickly pursued, with exulting yells, and deadly 
volleys of musketry. Gen. Hooker sent his nearest brigades 
to check them ; but they surged back before the savage masses 
of the enemy. At last Doubleday sent in his best brigade. 
They went forward at a run. Through the woods, and storm 
of shot and shell from the enemy's batteries; over the open 
field, into the corn field, passing their retreating comrades. 
Firing in volleys and then at will, they pushed rapidly for- 
ward. They reached the ridge of the hill, and held it. There 
were gaps in their line, but they closed up and kept an 
unyielding front. These were Gen. Hartsuff's troops, con- 
sisting of the Twelfth and Thirteenth Massachusetts regi- 
ments. For two hours the tide of battle ebbed and flowed; 
now in our favor ; then against us. Whole companies were 
swept away before the iron storm ; the ground was strewed 



324 ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 

with wounded and dead. Eight batteries were in full play. 
The din of heavy guns, the whistling and bursting of shells, 
and roar of musketry, were almost deafening. 

To the right of the corn field and beyond it was a point of 
woods. Once carried and held it was the key of the position. 
Hooker determined to take it. Heconnoitering the enemy's 
position he was wounded by a bullet passing through his foot. 
He at once ordered Crawford and Gordon to advance and 
carry the woods and hold them, saying if they did this, " It 
is our fight." And so it was. His part of the battle was 
won, for this was the battle on the rebel left. The severity 
of Hooker's wound compelled him to leave the field at this 
critical moment. 

It was now ten o'clock. The fight had been raging four 
hours. Gen. Sumner arrived and took command just as 
Hooker left. Crawford and Gordon were fighting in the 
woods, and holding them. Sedgwick advanced to their sup- 
port. Gen. Sumner sent forward Richardson and French to 
the left. The enemy's reinforcements were approaching also, 
and the struggle for the position was again renewed. In 
attempting to extend his front, one of Sedgwick's regiments 
broke, under a terrible fire. The enemy came in force on 
that flank. Crawford was compelled to give way on the 
right, and his troops, pouring through the ranks of Sedg- 
wick's advance brigade, threw it into confusion, and back on 
our second line. The enemy rapidly advanced, their fire 
increasing in intensity. 

It was now one o'clock. Franklin came up with fresh 
troops and formed on the left. Slocum, with one division, 
was sent forward along the slopes lying under the first range 
of the hills which the enemy held. Smith with the other 
division, was ordered to retake the corn fields and woods, 
which all day had been so hotly contested. This was gal- 
lantly done. His division went forward on a run, and cheer- 
ing as they advanced, swept like a rushing wind through the 
corn-fields, pierced the woods, cleared them of the foe, and 
held them. The key of the enemy's position was won. 

It was now two o'clock. The plan of battle made it nec- 
essary for success that the attack of the separate columns 



ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 325 

should be simultaneous. Unless this was done, the enemy, 
from his interior lines, could throw the greater portion of 
his force upon one column of our attack. The fight along 
the center was chiefly with artillery; batteries were vigor- 
ously worked. But all was quiet on the left. Where was 
Burnside? Why was not the bridge carried, and the enemy's 
retreat threatened? 

The valley of the Antietam at the bridge, near Rohrback's 
farm, is narrow, with high banks. On the right of the stream 
the bank is wooded, and commands the approaches to the 
bridge and ford. The steep slopes of the banks were lined 
with rifle pits and breastworks of rails and stones. These 
and the woods, were filled with the enemy's infantry, while 
their batteries commanded and enfiladed the bridge and ford. 

At three o'clock, Burnside had made little progress. He 
had carried the bridge ; but could not advance further. There 
are two hills on the left of the road; the enemy had batteries 
on both. At four o'clock, Burnside was ordered to storm 
these positions. 

The day had been clear and bright, and now the scene 
shone with the splendor of a September sun. Four miles of 
battle visible ; its glory seen ; its horrors hidden ; the fate of 
the nation hanging on its issue ; could any one be insensible 
to its grandeur? 

Gen. McClellan had signal stations on the Blue Ridge, 
commanding a view of every movement of the enemy. They 
could not make a maneuver which was not instantly seen by 
our keen look-outs, and as promptly communicated; and 
from our batteries, shot and shell met their strategic moves. 
It was the information, conveyed by the little flags upon the 
mountain tops, that enabled our troops and batteries to suc- 
cessfully meet the concentration of the forces of the enemy 
at any given point. 

At four o'clock, Gen. McClellan sent simultaneous orders 
to Burnside and Franklin to advance. Franklin held his 
own ; his movement was a success. The movement of Burn- 
side now became the turning point of the battle. Had he 
pushed forward as ordered, at ten in the morning, he would 
have co-operated with Hooker, and had he succeeded in 



326 ARMY OP THE POTOMAC. 

reaching the Sharpsburgh road, would have been in the ene- 
my's rear. 

Burnside moved rapidly forward; he took the first hill; 
planted his batteries, and silenced the opposing battery on 
the next hill ; the infantry then advanced rapidly and stead- 
ily; their long, dark lines were plainly visible as they moved 
over the green hill. The next moment the road was filled 
with clouds of dust. The hill was carried. New columns 
of the enemy appeared; his guns sent shot and shell among 
Burnside's column. In a short time a line of battle of the 
enemy appeared on the brow of a ridge above our men, and 
moved swiftly down in perfect order, and, though met by 
volleys of musketry, did not fire a gun. More columns 
of the enemy appeared, splendidly handled, they swept on 
like an overwhelming wave. Backward, forward, surging 
and swaying like a ship in a storm, the struggle went on. It 
was folly to contend against such an overwhelming force* 
Burnside was flanked and driven from the hill he took so 
bravely. He sent to McClellan for reinforcements. None 
were received. Burnside slowly fell back, and held the hill 
he first captured. The enemy did not push their advantage. 
Their fire gradually ceased. Before it was quite dark the 
battle was over. 

Antietam was a drawn battle. The enemy could not be 
forced from his position, and fell back deliberately the day 
after. His loss was about six thousand, killed and wounded. 

The Union army captured thirteen guns, thirty-nine colors, 
fifteen thousand stand of small arms, and six thousand pris- 
oners. Our loss in killed and wounded, was about six thou- 
sand. 

This was indeed a memorable battle, although productive 
of no decisive result. For fourteen hours nearly two hun- 
dred thousand men had been engaged in combat. The enemy 
fought with a bravery worthy of a better cause. 

Long before daylight, on the morning of September eigh- 
teenth, our men were awake and ready to renew the battle. 
The silence of death brooded over the enemy's front; we 
could not penetrate their dark lines. Their pickets were 
heavy in our front, and with exultant feelings, the Union 



ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 327 

army awaited the word of command, fully confident of being 
able to drive the enemy into the Potomac, or disperse his 
army. Morning came, hours slipped by, yet no order to 
advance was received by our eager troops. No attack was 
made by the enemy, and the day passed in waiting and hop- 
ing. Alas! delay let the prize slip through our fingers. 

Gen. McClellan, with that caution which is part of his 
being, unwilling to risk all on the decisive result, awaited the 
arrival of reinforcements. The next day the order was given 
to advance, but the wily foe had disappeared over the Poto- 
mac. His movement was very quiet, and our advance cap- 
tured only a few stragglers. 

The retreat of an army so large as that of the enemy, 
across a river, carrying with him all his artillery and bag- 
gage, was certainly creditable to the commander. They 
passed away like the mist before the morning breeze. 

A reconnoissance was made across the river on the nine- 
teenth, which resulted in finding the enemy there, and cap- 
turing a few guns. On the twentieth, another reconnoissance 
found the enemy in force; our men were drawn into ambush 
and driven back with severe loss. This was near Shepherds- 
town, Va. The One Hundred and Eighteenth Pennsylvania 
proceeded to ford the Potomac, as the advance of Sykes' 
division. When they crossed they were ordered to climb a 
bluff. This bluff was very steep, rugged and rocky, and had 
to be ascended through ravines. When the regiment reached 
the brow of the bluff, they were confronted by an overpow- 
ering body of the enemy, who poured a destructive fire into 
their ranks. The rest of the brigade retired over the river; 
but the One Hundred and Eighteenth did not receive the 
order, and staid there to be murdered. At last its gallant 
colonel, Charles M. Prevost, having been wounded while 
holding the colors, concluded he could not fight the whole 
rebel army, and ordered his men to recross the river, which 
they did with a loss of forty-five killed, one hundred and 
twenty-one wounded, and one hundred and twelve missing. 

Then came a season of rest. All was " quiet in the Army 
of the Potomac." Occasionally Stuart, with an impertinence 
wholly incompatible with our dignity, made a dash into oux 



328 ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 

lines; but he was driven back. It was necessary that the 
army should be clothed; the men must have shoes; the offi- 
cers wall tents; red tape at Washington was slow. The 
army must travel with a caravan, and the men must carry 
enormous knapsacks, only to throw them away in the first 
fight, and have them charged by the paymaster to the poor 
soldiers who drew only thirteen dollars per month. 

The beautiful days of September glided away. The roads 
were in splendid condition ; the Potomac low and easy ford- 
able. Yet the army waited and halted at Sharpsburgh; 
gazed upon the bluffs on the Virginia shore, while dispatches 
flew along the wires, telling this, that, and everything, but 
nothing was done. At length the enemy wakened us from 
our dream by one of his bold exploits. 

stuart's cavalry raid. 

A cavalry force of eighteen hundred men, and four pieces 
of flying artillery, under command of Gen. J. E. B. Stuart, 
crossed the Potomac between Williamsport and Hancock on 
the tenth of October, at daylight, capturing our pickets, and 
pushing northward towards Pennsylvania. Reaching the 
National road, between Hagerstown and Hancock, they 
nearly ran against Gen. Cox's command, consisting of six 
regiments and two batteries, which had passed an hour pre- 
vious. Pushing on, they entered Mercersburgh, Pa., about 
noon. Here they confiscated a few horses. Passing through 
the town, they took the route to Chambersburgh, arriving 
there after dark, in a heavy rain. Planting a battery on a 
hill, they demanded the surrender of the town, which was 
instantly acceded to. They entered the town in force, and a 
general plunder was commenced among the Government 
stores. The streets of Chambersburgh were converted into a 
vast dressing room. On every porch, and on every corner, 
rebels were to be seen putting on the new uniforms they had 
captured from the Union warehouses. The rebels donned 
blue attire, and the citizens were blue at the joke perpetrated 
at their expense. During the night a detachment scoured 
the country for horses, and brought in about six hundred. 



ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 329 

Those that remained ranged their horses along the streets, 
facing the sidewalks, and lay on the sidewalks themselves. 
They did not enter any private houses. The officials all fled 
from the town at the approach of the rebel cavalry. No one 
could be found who admitted he held an office in the place. 
Combustibles were placed in the railroad depot, the Govern- 
ment warehouses, and the machine shop. A train was laid 
to the powder magazine. Three locomotives and cars, and 
the buildings mentioned, were consumed. About five thou- 
sand muskets were also destroyed. 

From Chambersburgh the enemy's cavalry started towards 
Gettysburgh ; but having passed the Blue Ridge, turned back 
towards Hagerstown. and then crossed to Maryland by 
Emmettsburgh. They continued their march through the 
night by the way of Liberty, New Market and Monrovia. 
Reaching Hyattstown at daylight, they captured a few army 
wagons. They then pushed for Barnsville, and thence to 
White's Ford, near Poolesville. 

Meanwhile, the telegraph had flashed the news to Wash- 
ington of the daring feat of this body of cavalry, and the 
whole line of the Potomac swarmed with soldiers to capture 
the bold adventurers. Stoneman had four thousand troops 
at Poolesville guarding the fords. Birney was after them; 
so was Berry; and Robinson's brigade, then at Arlington 
Heights, was sent flying to catch them. 

It may be well to give a sketch of the march of Gen. Rob- 
inson's brigade, as it serves to show the manner in which 
military affairs were conducted in the Army of the Potomac. 

On the night of October tenth, the brigade was ordered to 
march instanter for Poolsville. Everything was ready in 
half an hour The men waited in a drizzling rain until day- 
light. Then the brigade left Arlington Heights to intercept 
Stuart's cavalry at Conrad's Ford, a distance of forty miles. 
As the cavalry had a day the start of the infantry brigade, it 
it did not seem possible to unmilitary minds to catch them. 
The brigade passed over the Georgetown bridge and entered 
Maryland. 

At dark it reached Rockville, and camped in a handsome 
fair ground near that village. At four o'clock the next 



330 ARMY OP THE POTOMAC. 

morning the brigade started for Conrad's ford, or wherever 
the rebels might try to cross. There were three new regi- 
ments in the brigade, and before it marched sixteen miles, 
the men were strung along the road from sheer exhaustion. 
There were no proper rests; no time given for meals; the 
men had to snatch what they could from their haversacks 
during brief pauses. Two men died from fatigue. One 
hundred and fifty gave out. But there was no stop; no rest. 
The brigade arrived in Poolsville at dark. It was then said 
the rebels were crossing at Conrad's ford. A scout might 
have found out whether this was true. But the whole brigade 
was rushed through mud and rain four miles further, only to 
find the river not fordable, and the rebels safe on the other 
side of the Potomac. 

The rebel cavalry crossed at "White's ford, without the loss 
of a man, having made a circuit round our lines, destroyed an 
immense quantity of stores, and obtained valuable informa- 
tion regarding the topography of the country and distribution 
of our forces. 

After the flurry caused by this foray had subsided, the 
Army of the Potomac again lay down to peaceful slumber. 
The usual despatches passed to and from Washington. The 
usual bold moves were promised. But the rebel General Lee 
was not yet ready to move, and it would not do to hurry him. 

All this time, stretched at ease along the banks of the 
river, slept and rested the grand army of the Potomac. Each 
man had plenty to eat, and little to do. A regiment of cav- 
alry occasionally crossed the river; but always returned when 
they found the enemy in force. At last it was ascertained that 
Gen. Lee was falling back towards Richmond. The rebel 
General having a good start, it was thought safe to follow 
him. Accordingly, on October twenty-eighth, the Army of 
the Potomac received marching orders. 



BURNSIDFS CAMPAIGN. 



CHAPTER XII. 



The Army of the Potomac crossed at Harper's Ferry, Ber- 
lin, and other points, and moved leisurely through the Lou- 
don Yalley, between the Blue Ridge and Bull Run mountains. 
Several cavalry skirmishes occurred, but no where was the 
enemy to be found in force. 

Burnside's corps crossed at Conrad's Ford, climbing the 
abrupt bank on the Virginia shore. The country for a short 
distance is a succession of rolling fields, then comes bold 
hills and heavy timber, and soon the outlines of a range of 
mountains appear in the horizon. The first is the Kittoctan 
mountains, a continuation of the Bull Run Range. In the 
distance they appear like a blue cloud. This valley is good 
farming land. 

The column wound its way through a scene of rural beauty. 
"War had not desolated this portion of Virginia. The road 
wound along the edge of a hill, springs gushing from its base 
and rippling over the road. The wheat was springing up, 
and cattle grazing in the meadows. The men were in joyous 
spirits. Soldiers love activity. The column moved along 
the base of the mountains, through Salem and Warrenton. 

On the fifth of November Gen. McClellan was removed 
from the command of the army and Gen. Burnside appointed. 
Meantime the army halted for a few days near Warrenton. 

The removal of Gen. McClellan while the army was march- 
ing, was unfortunate, it caused a delay in the transfer of com- 

331 



332 ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 

mands. In other words it brought the army to a halt, and 
enabled the enemy to concentrate a force at Fredericksburgh. 

November seventeenth the Union army left Warrenton for 
Fredericksburgh, the advance arriving opposite that place on 
the nineteenth. Gen. Sumner at once demanded its surren- 
der. Gen. Longstreet declined his request. The result was 
that the army went into camp among the hills of Stafford; 
and the enemy begun a series of formidable earthworks on 
the hills back of Fredericksburgh. Thus the two armies 
gazed upon each other until the morning of December elev- 
enth, when that terrible disaster to the Union army took 
place, called the battle of Fredericksburgh. 

While the long columns were filing through the valley of 
Virginia, resting in woods, bivouacing on plains, and halting 
for orders, a brilliant episode in the war was performed by 
Gen. Sigel's body guard, under command of Capt. Dahlgren, 
of Gen. Sigel's staff, composed of portions of Bracken's and 
Stuart's Indiana cavalry. 

On a very pleasant day in November, about the twelfth, the 
squadron reached the bluffs on the Rappahannock above Fal- 
mouth. They had with them a scout who was a resident of 
Fredericksburgh. He crossed, and returned with the infor- 
mation that none but stragglers were in town. Crossing the 
difficult ford above Falmouth, over the rocky bed of the 
river, the troops wound along the river road and charged 
suddenly into the town on Sunday morning ; the bells were 
ringing for church as their horses hoofs clattered on the 
streets. They reached the railroad depot; there four hundred 
rebel cavalry were drawn up in line, ready for a charge. Not 
halting an instant, this gallant band of fifty-seven men, led 
by Lieut. Carr, of Bracken's cavalry, with whoops and yells, 
charged through the enemy's line, capturing forty men and 
putting the rest to flight. Pursuing the fugitives, they came 
upon another line of the enemy on the right, which they 
instantly charged and broke. Turning, they charged a body 
of cavalry in the rear. The citizens took part in the fight, 
firing on our men from houses. Our cavalry captured more 
prisoners than their own number, destroyed fifty thousand 
dollars' worth of property, and held the town of Fredericks- 



ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 333 

burgh for an hour, with the loss of one killed, Robert Gapen, 
of Terre Haute, who had followed the company as a volun- 
teer, and one wounded, Serg't Warren, of Stuart's cavalry, 
and four prisoners. The rebels lost about sixty killed and 
wounded. 

Lieut. G-arner, of Bracken's cavalry, was at Falmouth, with 
the reserve. When he heard of the fight, he desired at once 
to cross the river and hold the town; but the Major of the 
Sixth Ohio cavalry, would not permit his men to cross. Our 
gallant band returned, with the loss above stated, having, 
with their small number, surprised and held a town of 
four thousand inhabitants. Capt. Sharra, and Lieuts. Miller 
and Carr, were complimented by Gen. Sigel. A single divis- 
ion of our army could have promptly followed up this move- 
ment, and held the town, thus avoiding the unfruitful battle 
which afterwards took place. 

For twenty-two days the Army of the Potomac camped 
on the north bank of the Rappahannock, opposite Frede- 
ricksburgh. For the first time in the history of that army, 
the opposing pickets gazed upon each other without firing 
a shot. The strange spectacle was presented of two immense 
opposing armies quietly watching each other, peaceful as 
if all were a holiday pageant. From the hights of Stafford 
our army could see the enemy throwing up earthworks, dig- 
ging rifle pits, building forts, making every preparation for a 
desperate defense. Their pickets lounged along the opposite 
shore, or gathered in groups under the shade of some build- 
ing, scarcely one hundred and fifty yards from our pickets. 
Sometimes friendly conversation and trading took place 
between each side. On the hills, back of Fredericksburgh, 
details of the enemy's fatigue parties were seen busy at work. 
In the streets of Fredericksburgh, rebel soldiers strolled about, 
mostly without arms. Occasionally a gaily dressed staff' offi- 
cer galloped through the streets. On the distant hills tents 
sprung up like magic, and signal men, with their little flags, 
could be seen talking to other little flags on the blue horizon. 

The golden sun of Indian summer shone upon the troops. 
Every natural advantage urged a prompt movement. But 
with that delay which has always characterized the move- 



334 ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 

merit of large bodies of troops in the present war, the army 
waited until the enemy had finished his last earthwork, dug 
his last rifle pit, planted all his artillery; and then, having 
no further excuse for delay, the army was ordered to storm 
the position in front. 

The sick were ordered from the comfortable log huts they 
had built in their respective camps, to report to the division 
hospitals. These hospitals were myths. A bare hill was 
selected for each hospital, the sick and dying soldiers — some 
seven thousand in number — were ordered out one rainy night 
in December, to said hospitals. They went staggering 
through the mud to lie down and die in the rain on the hill 
top. There were no tents, and but few surgeons. All was 
confusion ; the moving army had no time to look after its 
sick men. Many a brave soldier, far removed from those he 
loved, died from the exposure of that dismal night. 

THE SITUATION. 

The Rappahannock river, in its course from west to east, 
is skirted, at the point where Fredericksburgh stands on its 
southern bank, by low crests of hills, which, on the northern 
bank, run parallel and close to the river, and on the southern 
bank trend backward from the stream, and leave a semi-cir- 
cular plain six miles in length, and two or three in depth, 
inclosed within their circumference before they again 
approach the river in the neighborhood of Massaponax 
creek. Immediately above the town, and on the left of the 
enemy's position, the bluffs are bold and bare of trees; but 
as the hills, in their eastward course, recede from the river, 
they become lower, and are densely wooded, while low spurs, 
covered with copsewood, run down at right angles to the 
range of hills into the plain, behind and between which spurs, 
the center and right of the rebel army was posted, stretching 
for a distance of six miles from the extreme left, and ending 
near Massaponax creek, five miles below Fredericksburgh. 

It will be apparent to the reader, that the left of the rebel 
army occupied a stronger position than the center and right. 
There was not sufficient room for the Union troops to deploy 



ARMY OP THE POTOMAC. 335 

and form, except under deadly fire from the enemy's batteries 
and infantry. On the center and right, there were fewer dis- 
advantages; but the crest of every hill was crowned with a 
rebel redoubt, which, with its guns, swept the open plain. 
Even in its weakest point, the enemy's line possessed great 
advantages. !N"o wonder Gen. Lee was elated at the prospect 
of a coming battle in his chosen position; for he felt confi- 
dent of the defeat of the Union army. 

The enemy's troops were divided into two large corps; 
Gen. Longstreet's corps was on the left, and Gen. Jackson's 
on the right; the whole under the immediate command of 
Gen. Lee. 

The Union troops were divided into three grand divisions. 
Gen. Summer commanded the right, Gen. Hooker the center, 
and Gen. Franklin the left; all under the command of Gen. 
Burnside. 

It is estimated that the enemy's forces consisted of seventy 
thousand men, while the Union troops numbered about one 
hundred and twenty thousand. 

The dark night came on as the Union columns moved ; the 
solemnity of the approaching battle cast its shadows over the 
faces of the men; earnestness was seen in every eye. The 
columns disappeared in the deep ravines and among the thick 
woods on Stafford Hills; and the heavy rumble of artillery 
trains, or quick clatter of horses feet, was all that broke the 
silence of the night that was to witness the opening of the 
terrible battle. 

On the river bank all was silence. A heavy fog hung over 
the water; and although a distant sound occasionally gave 
evidence of life upon the south bank, yet nothing could be 
seen, and our men halted and waited for the pontoons to be 
stretched across the river. 

THE BATTLE OF FREDERICKSBURGH. 

It was a clear, cold night, for after midnight the rain had 
ceased, and the ground was thinly sprinkled with snow, as, 
on the eleventh of December, the advance of our army 
descended from Stafford Heights into the valley of the Rap- 



336 ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 

pahannock. Dense clouds of fog hung over the bed of the 
river, rendering it impossible to obtain a view of the opposite 
shore. 

Directly in front of Fredericksburgh, the Union engineers 
were working silent as possible, laying a double pontoon 
bridge. Boat after boat was quickly placed in position, until 
the bridge was nearly completed. Then the fog was illumined 
by a quick succession of flashes, and a spiteful musketry fire 
killed several of our bridge builders, and drove the rest to 
the shelter of the bluffs. Two heavy guns sounded out in 
the night from the enemy's position, and then we knew he 
was fully awake and ready for the struggle. Again and 
again did our engineers rally on the bridge, and try to 
reach, with their pontoons, the opposite shore, only to be 
driven back by the deadly fire of the enemy's sharpshooters, 
who were posted along the bank, and in buildings near the 
shore. 

The Seventh Michigan regiment, Col. Hall, then deployed 
along the edge of the bank, and opened fire on the enemy; 
but, under the protection of brick houses, cellars and rifle 
pits, it was found impossible to dislodge him. 

One hundred and forty pieces of artillery then opened on the 
town. It was now daylight. The shot plowed through the 
buildings of the devoted city, and the shell tore up casements, 
or burst like snow flakes over the town. From one stone 
building, near the river bank, a deadly fire had poured 
all the morning upon our bridge builders. Suddenly, at a 
given signal, the fire of a dozen batteries was concentrated 
upon the spot. The building crumbled, and a cloud of dust 
marked where it stood. Our engineers again went to work 
to build the bridge. But, will it be believed? From out the 
very ruins came a deadly fire, and rebels thronged its ruined 
walls. Again our batteries opened, but with little effect. 

Thus the struggle went on all the morning of December 
twelfth. Artillery could not dislodge them; infantry must. 
Volunteers were called for. The Seventh Michigan regiment, 
Lieut. Col. Baxter, (Col. Hall commanding the brigade,) vol- 
unteered to lead the forlorn hope. The men rushed to the 
pontoons, carried them to the water, jumped into thorn, and 



ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 337 

pushed gallantly out into the stream amidst a shower of bul- 
lets from the enemy. Nothing daunted them. They reached 
the shore, charged gallantly through the streets of Freder- 
icksburgh, driving the enemy from the rifle pits and build- 
ings, and taking thirty-five prisoners. They lost five killed, 
and sixteen wounded. They were promptly supported by 
the Nineteenth and Twentieth Massachusetts, and held the 
position till the bridge was laid. 

Gen. Nathan Kimball's fine brigade then rushed over the 
bridge, and, charging gallantly through the main streets, 
drove the enemy from the city, and took position in front, 
where they remained during the night. 

On December thirteenth, the day of the great battle, this 
brigade was selected to lead the forlorn hope in the attack on 
the enemy's works in the rear of the town. Crossing the 
canal in the rear of the town, they moved rapidly up the 
green slope toward the silent earthworks of the enemy. All 
at once the rebel batteries opened. Sometimes shells burst 
in the ranks. The fire was murderous. Yet the brigade 
moved swiftly on, closing up gaps in their lines, left by their 
fallen comrades, and pushed forward through fences and 
other obstacles, until, reaching the enemy's rifle pits, it was 
met by a terrific fire from behind stone walls, earthworks, 
and under cover of a ravine, from a superior force of the 
enemy. One-fourth of the command had fallen on the plain 
they had crossed, and the whole line was exposed to a most 
terrific fire of grape and musketry. Gen. Kimball was 
severely wounded, and the brigade fell back to meet the fiery 
veterans of the Irish brigade, under command of Gen. 
Meagher, rushing to the rescue. 

How well they performed the task assigned them, will be 
immortalized in history. Emerging from the streets of the 
city, they encountered the full force and fury of the enemy's 
fire; and unable to resist or reply, pushed gallantly forward. 
Bursting from the town, and forming under the withering 
fire of the enemy's batteries, they proceeded to storm St. 
Mary's Heights, towering immediately in their front. Never 
in the battles of the old world was more undoubted courage 
displayed by the sons of Erin, than during the six frantic 
Vol. I.— 22. 



338 ARMY OP THE POTOMAC. 

dashes against the almost impregnable position of the enemy. 
From out the very blades of grass came a sheet of fire, car- 
rying death with it. Yet on they rushed, till their bodies 
lined the sloping hill in front of the enemy's batteries. 
Their corpses strewed the ground like "autumn leaves, and 
gave evidence of their desperate courage. No human force 
could have carried the position before which they were sacri- 
ficed, defended as it then was. Their loss is the best evidence 
of what manner of men they were, who pressed on to death 
with the valor of a race which has gained glory on a thou- 
sand battle fields, and never more richly deserved it, than at 
-the battle of Fredericksburgh. Out of one thousand two 
•hundred men that went into battle, but two hundred and 
fifty escaped from the murderous repulse at St. Mary's 
Heights. 

The history of one regiment is the history of all that tried 
to storm the heights during that terrible day — the thirteenth 
of December. At every point our brave legions struggled 
against the terrible combinations of the enemy's artillery and 
infantry, whose unremitting fire shook the earth, and filled 
the plain, in rear of the city, with deadly missiles of war. 
The struggling hosts of the Union stretched along the plain; 
their ranks were plowed by the merciless fire of the foe. 
In the stubborn, unyielding resistance of the enemy, there 
seemed no point likely to yield to the repeated assaults of 
our brave soldiers. - 

The enemy's batteries, from sixteen different positions, 
poured shot and shell upon our devoted men, in the plains 
below. It was a sight magnificently terrible. Every dis- 
charge of the enemy's artillery, and every explosion of his 
shells, were visible in the dusky twilight of the smoke- 
crowned hill. There his direct and enfilading batteries, with 
the vividness and intensity, and almost the rapidity of light- 
ning, hurled the messengers of death into the midst of our 
brave ranks, which vainly struggled through the murderous 
fire to gain the hill and the guns of the en^my. 

The Thirteenth New Hampshire, and the Twenty-Fifth New 
Jersey, among other regiments, tried to storm the "stone 
wall," from behind which the celebrated "Washington Artil- 



ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 339 

lery," of I^ew Orleans, Col. Law ton, hurled its murderous 
fire. Coming to an irregular ravine, the troops plunged in, 
climbed its opposite side, and advanced along the level ground 
toward the stone wall. Behind that wall was a sunken road, 
In rifle pits, on its flanks, were posted the enemy's infantry, 
four ranks deep, and on the hill above, lay, in ominous silence, 
their death dealing artillery. 

While the Union troops were moving steadily forward, a 
startling crash, with a simultaneous sheet of fire and flame, 
was hurled by the enemy into our advancing lines. The 
powder from their musketry burned our very faces. The 
"leaden rain and iron hail" forced back our advancing lines 
to the cover of the ravine. 

We had won a position near enough to the enemy's lines 
to find out their impenetrable strength ; but thousands of 
brave men had been killed and wounded, and not a single 
battery captured from the enemy, or a single earthwork 
stormed. Such was the result of our disastrous attack on 
the enemy's center. Howard, Hancock, and French, had all 
been driven back; and although Sturgis held a position in 
the ravine, yet he could accomplish nothing. 

The woods and hills of Stafford Heights were by this time 
filled with our wounded. They came in rapidly; some feebly 
struggling along on foot; some supported by comrades; some 
gasping in agony in ambulances. From the city to the Phil- 
lips' House, a distance of two miles, one continuous stream 
of ambulances filled the road; and along side a column of 
wounded men on foot covered the distance. This moving 
mass of mangled humanity was indeed sickening to witness. 
At least ten thousand mutilated men lay down that night in 
the field hospitals, or under the pine sedge of the hills. 

Meanwhile, the left grand division, under Franklin, was 
fighting on the left. Much was expected from his attack. 
He had met but little opposition in crossing, and Stoneman's 
division had been sent to his assistance from the center. It 
was thought that by a bold attack, he could carry and enfi- 
lade the crest of hills, on which were the enemy's batteries, 
and sweeping down, by a simultaneous attack with the right 
and center, drive the enemy from 'their stronghold. 



340 ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 

Franklin moved before sunrise, his right resting on the 
outskirts of the city; his center advanced a mile from the 
river; his left resting on the river, three miles below. Skir- 
mishing commenced after daylight on his extreme left. A 
rebel battery opened on our troops, and the fire became so 
annoying that the Ninth New York regiment were ordered 
to take it. They advanced swiftly, but were driven back. 
Gen. Meade's division then went in, supported by Gen. 
Tyler's brigade, and by a rapid charge, carried the first line 
of the enemy's works, but were met at the edge of the woods 
by a destructive fire, which drove them back, and exposed 
Randolph's battery to capture. At this time Stoneman's 
division arrived. What was their surprise, after crossing the 
pontoons, to see whole divisions drawn up in line, with arms 
stacked, the battle raging a mile in front, while they were 
double-quicked past these halting divisions to the front. 
They arrived in time to meet Meade's veterans, overpowered 
by the enemy, falling back from the deadly woods. To save 
three Union batteries, Robinson's brigade, with a yell, 
charged, drove the rebel columns back, penetrated their first 
line, and were pushing on, when the order was received to 
halt* They held their ground, under a severe fire of the 
enemy for the rest of the day, and only fell back when the 
army re-crossed the river. 

Had Gen. Franklin thrown his whole force into action, he 
might have carried the crest of the hill on the left, and 
secured us the position. Gen. Sturgis, at one time, held the 
advance, and met the enemy's full attack, and Gen. Ferrero, 
with his brigade, by a clashing charge, approached within a 
short distance of the enemy's works, driving them from their 
first line of intrenchments. But, as usual there was no sup- 
port, and the gallant brigade fell back. 

Night coming on, the battle was virtually ended. Our 
weary braves, with gratitude to God, saw the sun go down. 
The artillery which had thundered all day long, shaking the 
solid earth, and reverberating along the river, ceased to play. 
The angry musketry volleys were hushed. At intervals a 
single piece of artillery belched forth flame. This was soon 
silenced, and all was still, save the rumble of ambulances and 
army wagons. 



ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 341 

Thus ended the bloody battle of Saturday, December thir- 
teenth. We had fought all day, and accomplished nothing. 
The batteries poured their deadly missiles into our columns, 
until night was welcomed, and its shadows closed on the 
ghastly scene. The enemy were strong as ever; we were 
weakened by our loss. We made our main attack on the 
strongest point of the enemy's lines. The battle was a mili- 
tary blunder; a useless sacrifice of life. 

The Sabbath morning dawned brightly on December four- 
teenth. The air was pleasant as in May; the leaves fluttered 
in the gentle breeze; the birds sung their sweet notes on the 
bluffs of the Rappahannock. Away, in the distant woods, 
crowning the crest of the enemy's position, rose the blue 
smoke of their camp fires. On a hill, commanding a view 
of the whole battle field, a number of large tents were seen, 
said to be the quarters of Gen. Lee. Along the slope of the 
hill were several long blue lines; they were our troops; a 
little in advance were posted the skirmishers. Our batteries 
opened on the enemy's works, but he made no reply. Occa- 
sionally there was musketry firing, but there was no general 
engagement. 

The shrill scream of the locomotive echoed through the 
hills; the cars were bearing our wounded to Aquia Creek; 
the poor fellows swarmed by thousands round the depot; 
there were not cars enough to take them all away; some 
died on the platform. Those that had charge of the trans- 
portation, say that they carried twenty-five thousand wounded 
men to the transports, at Aquia Creek. Many of the wounded 
were wandering around among the woods and hills of Stafford, 
not knowing where to go. 

All that lovely Sabbath day our army was drawn up in line 
of battle; every moment expecting orders to advance. It 
was a long, sad, lonely day in the field hospitals. During the 
afternoon the Union generals were in consultation at the 
Phillips House. The night came on and no general engage- 
ment took place; several times during the night there were 
rapid volleys of musketry. 

On Monday, December fifteenth, the opposing armies were 
in the same positions. Our long lines of battle were yet 



342 ARMY OF TIIE POTOMAC. 

unbroken; our advance still clung to the edge of ravines 
below the crests, over which the enemy's batteries frowned. 
The lines of our supply wagons still crossed and recrossed 
the river. All our wounded were ordered across; the field 
hospitals on the south bank of the river were vacated. Our 
men regarded these preparations as preparatory to a bloody 
and decisive battle. It was reported Sigel had come up, with 
forty thousand men, and would flank the enemy on their left. 
There was a truce between the pickets, they met each other 
half way, traded coffee, tobacco, and other army luxuries. 
The day passed in anxious expectation. 

Night came upon us; the rain fell; the winds howled 
through the pines like the roaring surf of the ocean. Orders 
came to move. Silently the men took up their line of march, 
and tramped drearily through the mud. They supposed they 
were to make a night attack. Soon they reached the river; 
then they knew they were retreating. The wild storm 
sounded in their ears like the murmur of a pursuing enemy. 
Silently the columns moved over the pontoons. The artil- 
lery wheels made scarcely any noise in the deep mud. The 
commands passed along the lines in whispers. What if the 
enemy should know this? Every moment they expected to 
have heard the volleys of his pickets, or seen the glare of his 
artillery flashing amid the storm. But he does not know it, 
for our pickets are yet in front. Towards morning, the last 
brigade had crossed the river. The bridges were all removed, 
save one for the passage of the pickets. These brave men 
still stood in front, amid the storm and darkness, peering 
anxiously into the night. An officer approached, and whis- 
pered to the officer in command of the pickets; the whisper 
passed along the line; they fell in, and swiftly reached the 
bridge ; crossing rapidly they were soon on the north bank 
of the river. The next morning the battle field was vacant, 
save of the many dead who strewed its surface. 

IN CAMP AGAIN. 

The morning of December seventeenth, found the regi- 
ments composing the Army of the Potomac, marching to 



•» 



ARMY OP THE POTOMAC. 343 

their various camps. Sigel's corps was marching in. We 
again had the usual spectacle of a large body of fresh troops 
reaching us after the battle was over. The men stretched 
their shelter tents over the frames of logs, and prepared to 
make themselves comfortable for the winter. Some poor 
fellows, who had lost their blankets, bivouaced in the bushes 
in the low valleys, to escape the bitter winds which swept the 
hills, and were found frozen and dead in the morning. 

Usually the Generals paid but little attention to the com- 
fort of their men, in selecting camps. While they had their 
headquarters in some pleasant grove, shaded from the fierce 
sun, or bitter winds, the men were obliged to camp upon 
some ridge, where they were exposed to both heat and cold. 
The selfishness and cruelty of some of these Brigadier Gen- 
erals disgusted whole brigades. It is unnecessary to particu- 
larize. It may be our Generals thought discipline required 
such treatment, but it crushed the hearts of our men and 
destro} T ed their confidence. 

The Army of the Potomac, after the disastrous battle of 
Fredericksburgh, was ordered to make itself comfortable as 
possible. Our line extended across the narrow neck of land 
from the Rappahannock to the Potomac, guarding the rail- 
road from Aquia creek to Falmouth, and protecting the stores 
at Aquia creek and Belle Plain. The men built neat log 
huts with fire places at the end, and chimneys made of clay. 
Over these they stretched their shelter tents, making a com- 
fortable shelter for five or six men. Much ingenuity was 
displayed in the construction of some of these little buildings. 
Carpets were made of cedar and pine; tables of cracker 
boxes, and arm chairs of pork barrels. Around the open 
fire places soldiers sat, smoked and joked. The weather was 
cold and clear; drilling, road building, and picketing kept 
them busy enought to enjoy good health. 

Stuart's rebel cavalry made a dash into Dumfries Decem- 
ber twenty-third; captured a few sutler's wagons, killed three 
men, and on the advance of our force quickly fled. 

The weather was pleasant; the roads were in such excel- 
lent condition, that General Burnside determined to make 
another move towards the enemy. 



344 ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 

Friday, January sixteenth, the army received marching 
orders. There was three days delay, and it did not start 
until Monday. The men were in high spirits ; artillery and 
baggage moved rapidly along the roads ; everything bespoke 
Buccess; but clouds gathered in the sky. About four o'clock 
in the afternoon it began to rain. The clothing of the men 
were soaked as they staggered on in the rapidly gathering 
mud. The roads soon became bottomless; artillery trucks 
sunk in the mud, and mules and horses went down to their 
bellies. Men staggered and struggled, and stuck fast. Yet 
still the rain came down. 

The pontoons could not be moved. The troops halted that 
night in the mud ; while they slept they were covered with 
more mud than glory. 

At daybreak they moved forward. Every portion of the 
flat country was liquid mud. Horses and riders looked like 
images of clay. When the advance reached the bank of the 
river they saw on the other side a huge sign-board, with this 
inscription : "Burnside stuck in the mud." 

It was impossible to move forward. The army was ordered 
back to its old quarters. The men, glad to return to their 
log huts, willingly moved, and soon were in their respective 
camps. Then the sun came out, and the men felt glad to 
think they were at rest again. They were in winter quarters, 
although the winter was nearly gone. 

It is to be regretted, that ever since the organization of the 
army of the Potomac a deep seated jealousy has existed 
among its prominent officers. Illustrative of this feeling we 
give the following testimony of Gen. Burnside before the 
Committee on the Conduct of the War : 

" Gen. Burnside states that, beside the inclemency of the 
weather, there was another powerful reason for abandoning 
the movement, viz : the almost universal feeling among his 
general officers against it. Some of those officers freely gave 
vent to their feelings in the presence of their inferiors. In 
consequence of this, and also what had taken place during 
the battle of Fredericksburgh, &c, Gen. Burnside directed 
an order to be issued, which he* styled General Order number 
eight. That order dismissed some officers from the service, 



ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 345 

subject to the approval of the President, relieved others from 
duty with the army of the Potomac, and also pronounced 
sentence of death upon some deserters who had been tried 
and convicted. * * The order was duly signed and issued, 
and only waited publication. * * He (Gen. Burnside) was 
informed that the President declined to approve his order, 
number eight, but had concluded to relieve him from the 
command of the Army of the Potomac, and appoint Gen. 
Hooker in his place." 

The following is the order referred to by Gen. Burnside : 

GENERAL ORDERS — NUMBER EIGHT. 

"First. — Gen. Joseph E. Hooker, Major General of Volun- 
teers and Brigadier General of the United States Army, hav- 
ing been guilty of unjust and unnecessary criticisms of the 
actions of his superior officers and of the authorities, and 
having, by the general tone of his conversation, endeavored 
to create distrust in the minds of officers who have associated 
with him, and having by omissions and otherwise, made 
reports and statements which were calculated to create incor- 
rect impressions, and for habitually speaking in disparaging 
terms of other officers, is hereby dismissed the service of the 
United States, as a man unfit to hold an important commis- 
sion during a crisis like the present, when so much patience, 
charity, confidence, consideration and patriotism are due from 
every soldier in the field. 

This order is issued subject to the approval of the President 
of the United States. 

Second. — Brig. Gen. "W. T. H. Brooks, commanding first 
division, sixth army corps, for complaining of the policy of 
the government, and for using language tending to demoral- 
ize his command, is, subject to the approval of the President 
of the United States, dismissed from the military service of 
the United States. 

Third. — Brig. Gen. John Newton, commanding third divis- 
ion, sixth army corps, and Brig. Gen. John Cochrane, com- 
manding first brigade, third division, sixth army corps, for 
going to the President of the United States with criticisms 



346 ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 

upon the plans of his commanding officer, are, subject to the 
approval of the President, dismissed from the military service 
• of the United States. 

Fourth. — It being evident that the following named officers 
can be of no further service to this army, they are hereby 
relieved from duty, and will report in person without delay 
to the Adjutant General of the United States Army: 

Major Gen. W. B. Franklin, commanding left grand divis- 
ion. 

Major Gen. W. F. Smith, commanding sixth army corps. 

Brig. Gen. Sam. D. Sturgis, commanding second division, 
ninth army corps. 

Brig. Gen. Edward Ferrero, commanding second brigade, 
second division, ninth army corps. 

Brig. Gen. John Cochrane, commanding first brigade, third 
division, sixth army corps. 

Lieut. Col. J. H. Taylor, Acting Adjutant General right 
grand division." 






• 



REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 



CHAPTER XIII. 



NINETEENTH REGIMENT. 



On the eleventh of June, 1861, the "War Department decided 
to accept six additional regiments from Indiana. The mar- 
tial spirit of her people was aroused, and the Nineteenth was 
among the first to organize and report for duty. The follow- 
ing were its officers : 

Field and Staff Officers. — Colonel, Solomon Meredith, Rich- 
mond; Lieutenant Colonel, Robert A. Cameron, Valparaiso; 
Major, Alois O. Bachman, Madison; Adjutant, John P. 
"Wood, Indianapolis; Regimental Quartermaster, James S. 
Drum, Indianapolis; Surgeon, Calvin J. "Woods; Assistant 
Surgeon, William H. Kendrick, Indianapolis; Chaplain, Lewis 
Dale, Muncie. 

Company A. — Captain, Isaac M. May, Muncie; First Lieu- 
tenant, James L. Kilgore, Muncie ; Second Lieutenant, Alonzo 
J. Makepeace, Muncie. 

Company B. — Captain, William W. Dudley, Richmond; 
First Lieutenant, Davis E. Castle, Richmond; Second Lieu- 
tenant, Samuel Hindman, Hagerstown. 

Company C. — Captain, Robert W. Hamilton, Winchester; 
First Lieutenant, Reuben B. Farra, Winchester; Second Lieu- 
tenant, William M. Campbell, Winchester. 

Company D. — Captain, Valentine Jacobs, Indianapolis; 

347 



348 REGIMENTAL HISTORY, 

First Lieutenant, Harry Vandegrift, Indianapolis; Second 
Lieutenant, Frederick R. Hale, Indianapolis. 

Company E. — Captain, Luther B. Wilson, Muncie; First 
Lieutenant, George W. Green, Muncie; Second Lieutenant, 
John M. Russey, Muncie. 

Company F. — Captain, John M. Lindley, Indianapolis; 
First Lieutenant, Bejamin F. Reed, Indianapolis; Second 
Lieutenant, John A. Cottman, Indianapolis. 

Company G. — Captain, John R. Clark ; First Lieutenant, 
Leander Yaryan, Richmond ; Second Lieutenant, Johnston D. 
Curl. 

Company H. — Captain, Richard M. Kelley, Edinburgh; 
First Lieutenant, Theodore Hudnut, Edinburgh; Second 
Lieutenant, Lorenzo Fulton, Edinburgh. 

Company I. — Captain, John H. Johnson, Spencer; First 
Lieutenant, John F. Baird, Spencer; Second Lieutenant, 
Benjamin F. Hancock, Spencer. 

Company K. — Captain, Samuel J. Williams, Muncie ; First 
Lieutenant, Benjamin C. Harter, Muncie; Second Lieutenant, 
William Orr, Muncie. 

The regiment was mustered into the service at Camp Mor- 
ton, Ind., by Lieut. Col. Thomas J. Wood, July twenty-ninth, 
1861. On August fifth it received marching orders, and left 
its camp, filing through the streets of Indianapolis to the 
railroad depot, following the lead of its tall, brave Colonel, 
as determined and patriotic a band of heroes as ever faced a 
foe. On the ninth of August they arrived at Washington, 
and went into camp on Xalorama Heights, having been 
assigned to duty with the grand army of the Potomac, then 
commanded by Maj. Gen. McClellan. 

Leaving the habits of civil life and assuming those of the 
soldier operated unfavorably upon the men, and for weeks 
while encamped here the sick were forty per cent, of the 
command. So alarmingly great had the sick list become, and 
of such a peculiar nature was a large portion of the cases 
treated, that it was supposed, by physicians and others, poison 
had been put into the springs which supplied the men with 
water. An examination, however, proved the supposition 
erroneous ; yet the large number of sick continued, and not 



REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 349 

until the men had become acclimated and inured to the life of 
the soldier, was any improvement in the health of the regi- 
ment noticed. 

On the fifth of September the regiment, not yet brigaded^ 
was assigned to duty temporarily under Brig. Gen. Smith, 
and participated in the advance of the right wing of the 
army at Chain Bridge. Many days were spent here by the 
army in establishing a safe position, fortifying, &c. At night 
the men slept on their arms in line of battle — the day saw 
them constantly in the trenches — until forts Marey and Ethan 
Allen were completed. 

On the eleventh of September the regiment was engaged, 
with other troops, all under command of Col. I. I. Stevens, 
in the affair at Lewinsville, where it displayed a courage and 
coolness of which veteran soldiers might well be proud, and 
which elicited a complimentary notice from their brigade Gen- 
eral. In this affair one man was killed, two wounded, and 
three taken prisoners. On the twenty-eight of the same month 
Falls Church was advanced upon and occupied by our troops, 
in which the Nineteenth bore its part. Two days afterwards 
the regiment was brigaded with three Wisconsin regiments. 
The whole, under command of Brig. Gen. King, re-crossed 
the Potomac, and went into camp. Soon afterwards the 
brigade was ordered to occupy a position on Arlington 
Heights. In the rear of Fort Craig the Nineteenth put up 
winter quarters. The campaign for that year was over, and 
the men allowed to rest from the constant wearing labors of 
the past month. Nothing outside the usual routine of camp 
life — drills, picket duty, &c. — transpired until the tenth of 
March, 1862. 

The army of the Potomac had been thoroughly schooled 
in the interim, in all that pertains to the education of the 
soldier, and high hopes were entertained by the country 
respecting its future achievements. At one o'clock of that 
morning this army commenced moving. The regiment whose 
history we are now tracing, left its winter houses and famil- 
iar parade grounds, filed into its appropriate place in the 
moving column, with a firm, soldierly tread, each ready and 
willing to do and dare whatever their gallant commander, 



350 REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

McClellan, dictated. Fairfax Court House was reached, 
between which point and Centreville the regiment encamped, 
eighteen miles from the point of starting in the morning. 
Manassas, the rebel stronghold, was evacuated, and no pros- 
pect of an immediate collision between the two armies 
remained. Soon after, the army fell back to Alexandria, 
Va., which distance (twenty miles) was marched by the regi- 
ment between the hours of ten, a. m., and five, p. m., of the 
eighteenth of March, 1862. 

Here the army was divided ; McClellan, with one hun- 
dred and eight thousand men, embarking upon transports; 
the remainder being formed into what was then, as now, 
known as the first army corps, and placed under com- 
mand of Major General Irwin McDowell. The Nineteenth 
formed a part of this corps. April fifth found the regiment 
again on the march. Passing, the next day, the Bull Run 
battle ground, it encamped at BristOw Station, on the Orange 
and Alexandria railroad, eight miles from Manassas Junction. 
Soon after, the lines of the army being advanced, the regi- 
ment moved forward, and was stationed on Cedar Run at 
Catlett's, twelve miles from Bristow. When the railroad 
bridge at this point, which had been destroyed by the rebels, 
was rebuilt, the position was evacuated, and the army, leaving 
the line of the railroad, advanced down the Peninsula between 
the Potomac and Rappahannock rivers, and took a position on 
the latter, opposite the town of Fredericksburgh, which for- 
mally surrendered to Gen. McDowell. The position was an 
important one for our army to hold, in that it did away with 
the blockade of the Potomac which had considerably annoyed 
its navigation, and served as a base line of intended opera- 
tions in conjunction with McClellan's army, then on the 
Peninsula. 

On the twenty-fifth of May, McDowell crossed the Rappa- 
hannock, and marched southward a distance of eight miles. 
Here a halt was made, in order to repair the railroad for 
army uses, and the Nineteenth went into camp near Guinney's 
Station, on the Fredericksburgh and Richmond railroad. At 
the time of McDowell's advance, Gen. Jackson was throwing 
his force upon Banks' little army, in the valley of the She- 



REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 851 

nandoah, forcing bis precipitate retreat. McDowell was 
ordered into the valley, to intercept Jackson, if possible, and 
prevent tbe occupation of tbat fertile region by bis army. 
At one o'clock, p. m., of a sweltering day of May, the regi- 
ment left its camp to do what soldiers invariably dislike — 
retrace their steps. Tbe march partook of the character of 
a forced one; tbe roads were dry and dusty; tbe men were 
required to carry an extra outfit of clothing, and in conse- 
quence they suffered greatly; indeed, many of the discharges 
for disability, is attributable to this and similar marches, in 
which the regiment has participated. The next night found 
them near their old camp, at Catlett's Station, forty-three 
miles bavins: been traversed in the time mentioned. From 
this point to Hay market, a station on the Manassas Gap rail- 
road, distant fifteen miles, the regiment next went, where it 
remained a few days, until Jackson had encountered the 
advance of the army at Front Royal, and been sent to the 
right-about. "Warrenton was then advanced upon and occu- 
pied, the rebel cavalry retiring as ours rode into town. Here 
again came the usual halt of two or three days, when the 
force was again set in motion for Fredericksburgh, forty-five 
miles distant, where they arrived after three days of march- 
ing, and went into camp. Here the regiment camped until 
the August following. 

In the meantime, many changes had taken place amongst 
the officers. Lieut. Col. Cameron had been transferred aa 
Lieut. Col. of the Thirty-Fourth regiment Indiana volun- 
teers; Major Bachman promoted to fill the vacancy; Capt. 
May, company A, advanced to the Majority; Adjt. "Wood 
resigned to accept- a promotion, Lieut. Russey taking his 
position. The Surgeon had retired to civil life, Dr. Jacob 
Ebersole, of Aurora, Indiana, was commissioned in bis stead; 
Dr. Haines resigned. An additional Assistant Surgeon being 
now recognized, Dr. Green was assigned to the position. 
Many vacancies had also occurred in the line by resignations. 
These were filled by the advancement of officers of inferior 
rank, and the appointment of non-commissioned officers. 
Many enlisted men had been discharged on account of dis- 
ease contracted in the service; many others had died, still a 



352 REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

large number languished in hospitals. These causes reduced 
the regiment, originally ten hundred and forty-six strong, to 
six hundred fit for duty. 

It must not be presumed that the time here was passed in 
idleness or inaction, nor that the experience in discipline and 
endurance secured by so many wearying marches, drills, 
parades, etc., was lost upon the men of the regiment. Lying 
in camp conveys to civilians the idea of a life of listless inac- 
tivity, to the soldier it conveys the idea of duties but a trifle 
less onerous than those of active service; at least, this idea 
was borne out so far as the soldiers of the department of the 
Rappahannock were concerned. The most rigid discipline 
was enforced; regimental and brigade guards were daily 
mounted; drills instituted; thorough inspections of men, 
clothing, and quarters, ordered regularly. The theoretical 
knowledge of the soldier's calling was faithfully instilled 
into their minds, thoroughly fitting them for the stern, prac- 
tical duties they were so soon to be called upon to discharge, 
and in which they achieved for themselves great honors. 
The Nineteenth Indiana is in part indebted to that stern dis- 
ciplinarian, and brave, though unfortunate soldier, Gen. 
McDowell for the reputation of bravery and soldierly quali- 
ties which it enjoys in the army, as well as State from which 
it comes. 

On the fifth of August, at two o'clock, a. m., the regiment 
was in line, ready to march. A reconnoissance had been 
ordered, under Gen. Gibbon, and the regiment composed a 
portion of the forces for the purpose. At daylight the boat 
bridge on the Rappahannock at Fredericksburgh, was crossed, 
and the head of the column turned south, on the telegraph 
road. Eight miles were marched, when a halt was ordered, 
to allow the men to breakfast. An hour passed in this nec- 
essary occupation, and the column again passed on. The 
day was oppressively hot, the dust completely enveloped the 
moving mass; water scarce, and many fell out of ranks by 
the way side, from sheer exhaustion. At eleven o'clock, a 
small stream of pure water was reached, and regardless of 
orders a simultaneous rush was made for it. Though the 
column had not halted, a few minutes were given the men of 



REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 353 

the regiment to bathe and cool their heated blood. "While 
doing so, several reports of cannon, in quick succession, were 
heard. "Fall in," was the command of the Colonel, and in a 
few minutes the regiment was again on the march. 

The advance of the expedition, composed of cavalry and 
artillery, had been opened upon by a masked battery of the 
enemy. It was deemed necessary to get the infantry in posi- 
tion with the least possible delay, as the number of the 
opposing force was not known. The regiment went forward 
in quick time four miles and took position behind a section 
of a battery, as its support. It was impossible for men to 
endure such a march under that broiling August sun, and be 
in condition to fight at its termination. Many fell in the 
road; others, less exhausted, sought the shade of some 
friendly bush or fence. Of the whole number, five hundred 
men, who started with the regiment that morning, less than 
one hundred took position behind the guns; these had 
marched eighteen miles by twelve o'clock, m. The enemy, 
so soon as our infantry was seen, had withdrawn, leaving the 
field clear. Pickets were then established, and the force went 
into camp for the night. Meantime, many of the men had 
come up, and the regiment began again to look like itself. 
Foraging by individual soldiers, was indulged in — it was per- 
mitted in those days — and each mess that night, regaled 
themselves on a repast of fresh potatoes, chickens, etc., 
almost repaying them for the hard march of the forenoon. 

At sunrise, the next morning, the march again commenced, 
still southward, continuing for eight or ten miles without 
incident, save the capture of a few straggling rebels, when 
news of an attack on the rear, by cavalry, gained currency, 
and the column was turned back without a halt. Upon 
approaching the spot on which the regiment had quietly 
slept the night previous, the enemy's cavalry was descried, 
and it was thought a skirmish would ensue. A fiery aid rode 
at full speed towards the rear of the column, shouting, " We 
must cut our way back to Fredericksburgh; the enemy is in 
full force in our road!" This, however, was an error; for a 
single charge of the Third Indiana cavalry sent this "heavy 
force" flying in all directions. They had, during the day, 
Vol. I.— 23. 



354 REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

captured several wagons which had followed the expedition, 
besides thirty-five men of the regiment, who had either given 
out, or straggled the day before. An hour or two afterwards 
the regiment encamped for the night. This little episode 
changed the direction of the march. 

In the morning, filing to the left, the column marched to 
Spottsylvania Court House, near which it halted. This move 
served to protect the rear of a force that had gone on this 
route to cut the Virginia Central railroad at Frederick Hall, 
which it accomplished. The next morning, the detached 
portions of the expedition being called in, the whole force 
started for its camps opposite Fredericksburgh, where it 
arrived at four, p. m., having marched a distance of seventy- 
five miles. 

Previous to this date, the arjny of Virginia had been crea- 
ted, and placed under the command of Maj. Gen. John Pope, 
* headquarters in the saddle." The army of the Rappahan- 
nock had been assigned to him, and only awaited the devel- 
opment of his plans to form a junction with his forces near 
Warrenton ; the advance of -which was, at this date, at Cul- 
pepper. On the ninth day of August the battle of Cedar 
Mountain was fought, between forces under Gen. Jackson, 
and a portion of the army of Virginia, under Gen. Banks. 
On the morning of the tenth, the first division of the first 
corps (the other two divisions having previously joined Pope,) 
left its camp en route for that point, marching twenty-five 
miles that day. The regiment arrived at Ely's Ford, on the 
Rappahannock, where the river was waded, and the men, at 
ten, p. m., lay down to rest on its south bank, too tired to pre- 
pare their supper. At two o'clock the next morning, the regi- 
ment marched, reaching Stephensburgh at twelve, M., where 
they dined, and rested till five, p. m. ; after which, they marched 
six miles to the position occupied by our army, near Cedar 
Mountain. It was expected a great battle would be fought 
next day. But Jackson had withdrawn his army to the south 
side of the Rapidan, and Pope advanced his to the late battle 
field. The Nineteenth laid until the nineteenth at the foot 
of Cedar Mountain. On that morning the army commenced 
its retreat. 



REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 355 

All that long day, and far into the night, the tramping of 
troops, and rumbling of artillery and trains, were heard. At 
ten, p. m., the Nineteenth bivouaced, one mile from Rappahan- 
nock Station, on the south side of the river; the next morn- 
ing crossed over and took position in line of battle, awaiting 
the coming of the fast following foe. »A.t ten, A. M., the din 
of battle commenced. Our rear guard became engaged with 
their advance. Nothing, except an occasional boom of the 
cannon, was heard that day. The men slept quietly through 
the night. On the morning of the twenty-first the fog lay 
on the river. At about ten it lifted, and the enemy could 
be seen bringing their forces into position on the opposite 
side. Batteries lined the banks on either side, and battle, in 
all its terror, commenced. The regiment took a position 
supporting a battery. That night they slept upon their arms. 
During the series of battles, from the twentieth to the twen- 
ty-seventh of August, the infantry, save a small portion of 
the army, was not engaged. The Nineteenth suffered no loss, 
though for five days it was exposed to the shells of the 
enemy. 

August twenty-fourth the first division fell back, the Nine- 
teenth marching to "Warrenton, where it remained until the 
morning of the twenty-sixth. Going from thence to Sulphur 
Springs, it supported a battery which played upon the rebels 
for twenty-four hours. While these events were transpiring, 
Jackson marched through Thoroughfare Gap, laid Manassas 
Junction — immediately in rear of Pope — in ashes. One divi- 
sion had attacked, and been routed by Hooker's corps, near 
Catletts. Stuart had attacked many of our wagon trains — 
among them the train of the Nineteenth, which was saved 
by the bravery of the guard and teamsters. The army was 
cut off from its base, and only one corps of the promised aid 
from McClellan had arrived. 

McDowell's corps retreated on the Warrenton and Centre- 
ville pike, leaving Sulphur Springs, and marching through 
Warrenton on the twenty-seventh day of August. At ten, p. 
m., near New Baltimore, the regiment lay down to sleep. 
Many of these brave men, who, in the prime of life, and 
manly vigor, wrapped their blankets around them that night, 



356 REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

and "lay down to quiet slumber," were destined soon to sleep 
their last, long sleep. Early next morning the column again 
marched* Near Gainesville, perfectly unconscious of the 
proximity of the foe, the regiment halted, the men were sup- 
plied with fresh meat butchered on the ground, and towards 
sunset the regiment filed on to the pikes towards Centreville. 
One mile was marched, when reports of cannon gave unmis- 
takable evidence of an attack. Two or three times during 
the day the column was fired upon by masked batteries. 
This was supposed to be but a section of flying artillery, 
which had annoyed the march that day. The brigade to 
which the Nineteenth belonged had reached a point opposite 
that from which this last gun had been fired, when it was 
opened upon by several guns at short range. The brigade 
was immediately put in battle order. The unearthly sound 
of these fearful missiles struck terror to the stoutest heart; 
yet cool and collected stood that line, obeying with alacrity 
every command, and waiting impatiently for the order to 
advance. The order was given ; shells bust in front, above, 
and behind, crashed through- the branches of the trees, 
plowed up the ground, and yelled demoniacly through the 
air, yet steadily forward pressed the line. Soon the cannon 
ceased ; a dead silence prevailed. Up a gradual rise, for three 
or four hundred yards, at double quick, the column pressed, 
when, on reaching the summit of the ridge the line was 
halted. 

The tall Colonel of the Nineteenth rode along the line — 
"Boys," said he, "don't forget that you are Hoosiers, and 
above all, remember the glorious flag of our country. If 
secesh tenders her currency, show them that Indiana is wil- 
ling to take stock ! " The determination of each to stand by 
the flag, was indexed in the countenance. A moment's 
silence ensued — a calm preceding a storm — when the crash 
of musketry was followed by yells from a thousand throats. 
The Nineteenth had received its first volley from infantry. 
The reply was quickly given — gun answering gun — flame 
flashing to flame — yell echoing to yell. Indiana was taking 
stock. The demoniac yells of the belligerants, the piercing 
screams of the wounded, and the deep groans of the dying, 



REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 357 

could be heard above the din of battle. Men in the agonies 
of death and men already dead, lay thick along the line. 
The brave and gallant Major May, beloved by his regiment, 
received a mortal wound, and was carried from the field. 
Artillery was opened upon the line a hundred yards from the 
rebel right, and grape, canister and shell, whistled through 
and screamed above it. One hour and twenty minutes the 
battle raged. Twilight had deepened into darkness, and for 
the last half of this time the men were guided in their aim 
by the flash of the enemy's guns. At last, tired of the car- 
nival of death, as if by mutual consent, the firing ceased. 
Each withdrew a short distance, and established pickets. 

The following extracts are taken from Col. Meredith's 
report of this battle: 

" The officers and men of my command behaved with great 
gallantry. When the ranks were thinned out by the deadly 
fire of the enemy, they were closed up with as much prompt- 
ness as if on drill. The battle was fought at a range of about 
seventy-five yards. It was terrific from beginning to end. * 
* * I am informed, by what I consider reliable authority, 
that the Nineteenth Indiana had to contend against four reg- 
iments — the celebrated Stonewall brigade. Their colors were 
shot down twice during the engagement. 

" Of the number, four hundred and twenty-three, who went 
into the battle, forty-two were killed, one hundred and forty- 
five wounded, and thirty-three missing, an aggregate loss of 
two hundred and twenty. 

" During the engagement my horse was shot, and fell upon 
me, severely injuring me for a time. The command then fell 
upon Lieut. Col. Bachman, until I recovered from the shock. 
He exhibited great courage and coolness during the whole 
time, riding the lines and watching every movement of the 
enemy. From the commencement of the battle, he rendered 
me important services. Major May fell early in the engage- 
ment, which left no other assistance. Major May was a brave 
and gallant officer; his loss is felt, and regretted by the entire 
regiment. 

"From information received of prisoners, I ascertained 
that Gen. Ewell commanded, in person, the forces we were 



358 REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

fighting, and was wounded by a musket ball, by which he- 
lost his leg." 

At eleven o'clock, p. m., Gen. King, commanding first 
division, called a consultation of his brigade commanders > 
when it was decided to withdraw the forces which had been 
engaged, to a safe position, as daylight would bring on 
another battle, and — unless reinforcements should arrive — sure 
defeat. Accordingly, shortly after midnight, the shattered 
column was put in motion, and about sunrise reached Man- 
assas Junction, where they rested a short time, received 
rations and a mail. Communication had been established by 
Gen. Porters corps, which arrived the day previous, and wa$ 
now lying at this point. At an early hour in the forenoon, 
the loud booming of cannon and the sharp rattle of mus- 
ketrj', announced that the battle was resumed, and at about 
ten o'clock, Fitz John Porter's troops commenced marching 
towards the battle field. After this corps passed, the first 
division was put in motion, also towards the field, which it 
reached about five, p. m. The Nineteenth supported a bat- 
tery the rest of the evening. 

The result of this day's fighting, the twenty-ninth, was 
very favorable to our arms. Gens. Pope and McDowell, both 
telegraphed to Washington, that the enemy was defeated, 
and the stain that had rested upon our arms, from the first 
Bull Pun, was completely wiped away. It might have been 
had all our available forces been brought into action; but 
they were not. Thus we failed to destroy Jackson's army, 
and secure a decided triumph to our arms. 

At noon, of the thirtieth, Longstreet, who had succeeded 
in forcing his corps through Thoroughfare Gap, precipitated 
his whole command upon the left wing of the army, with 
such fury as to threaten its entire destruction. At the begin- 
ning of this attack, the Nineteenth, with the other regiments 
of Gibbon's brigade, were advanced into a thick wood, near 
the center of the line, where it remained under a furious fire 
of shot, shell and musketry, until the line was flanked on 
the right and left. At this juncture the order was given to 
fall back, which was done in good order, for three-fourths of 
alnile ; here the brigade was halted to support battery B, 



REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 359 

Fourth U. S. artillery. The advance of the rebels was repeat- 
edly checked by this battery. By this time, the extreme left 
had been completely thrown around by an overwhelming 1 
force of the rebels, thus rendering the position untenable, and 
the brigade was forced once more to fall back. It was evi- 
dent the day was irretrievably lost, and continuing the retreat 
the regiment, at about eleven, p. m., reached Bull Run, and 
crossed over on the bridge spanning that historic stream. 
As they crossed the axes of the engineers were busy cutting 
the beams which supported the bridge, and its rear guard 
was scarcely over when the structure fell, thus effectually 
preventing pursuit. 

On the morning of the thirty-first, the march was still con- 
tinued towards Washington, passing on through Centreville, 
the nights of the thirty-first of August, and first of Septem- 
ber, were spent between that place and Fairfax Court House. 
On the evening of the first of September, was fought the 
battle of Chantilly, where the lamented Generals Kearney 
and Stevens fell. This was the closing struggle of Pope's 
famous campaign. On the afternoon of the second the regi- 
ment was again on the march, and about dark arrived at 
Upton's Hill. Here they met with their old and best loved 
commander, Gen. McClellan, who had again been assigned 
to the command. Giving him three hearty cheers they went 
into camp, safely guarded by the guns of Fort Buffalo. 

On the night of the sixth of September, the army was put 
in motion. The Nineteenth received marching orders, and 
at nine o'clock, started on the memorable first Maryland 
campaign. Crossing the Potomac river at the aqueduct at 
Georgetown, the column marched slowly through the silent 
streets of the capital, and turning to the left, passed out of 
the city on the Rockville pike. At dawn a halt was ordered ; 
coffee was prepared, and after a brief rest, the wearied sol- 
diers pressed on. As the day advanced the heat became 
almost insupportable, and the men, fatigued with their long 
night march, sank down in the road by files. At four, p. M., 
the column halted and went into camp, near Brookville. 

The division, which was now commanded by Gen. Hatch, 
Gen. King having been wounded at Bull Run, remained here 



360 REGIMENTAL HISTORY 

until about noon of tjie ninth, when it again started on the 
march, and proceeded ten miles a day, until the evening of 
the thirteenth, when Gen. Hatch halted and camped his 
division on the banks of the Monocacy, in sight of Frederick 
City. The march of the army thus far, had partaken of the 
character of a triumphal procession; everywhere the men 
were cheered and feasted, flags were displayed, and on every 
hand the most unbounded enthusiasm was shown at the 
sight of the Union soldiers. The veterans began to forget 
their late hardships; demoralization disappeared; order 
began to appear where confusion had reigned supreme ; dis- 
cipline resumed its wonted sway; and once more the army 
felt, that, under its favorite leader, it was equal to the hercu- 
lean task before it. At an early hour of the fourteenth, the 
division crossed the Monocacy, passed through Frederick 
City and Middletown. By this time the advance guard, 
which had been engaged with the enemy all da} 7 , at the foot 
of the South Mountain , had developed the fact that the 
passes were occupied by the enemy in force, and that it 
would require a general engagement to dislodge him. Gen. 
McClellan ordered the attack to be made immediately, assign- 
ing to the. first corps the duty of carrying Turner's pass, 
through which the national road wound its tortuous way 
over the mountain, towards Hagerstown. 

In the meantime the Secretary of War had releived Gen. 
McDowell from the command of the first corps, and appointed 
Gen. Hooker to succeed him. Although the soldiers of the 
first corps were much grieved at the loss of their old com- 
mander, yet, recognizing Gen. Hooker as one every way 
worthy to wear the mantle of that stern old warrior, at once 
transferred to him their allegiance. 

In his plan of attack, Gen. Hooker assigned to Gibbon's 
brigade the honorable and important duty of carrying the 
pass itself by a vigorous advance along the national pike. 
Accordingly the Seventh Wisconsin was formed in line of 
battle on the right of the road, its left resting on the road, 
•supported by the Sixth Wisconsin. The Nineteenth Indi- 
ana was formed in line on the left of the road, its right rest- 
ing on the road, supported by the Second Wisconsin; and a 



REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 361 

section of battery B, Fourth Artillery, U. S. A., occupied the 
road itself. Skirmishers were thrown forward and the line 
advanced. The rebel skirmishers were soon found, but as 
the line pressed on they fell back, taking occasion to pour an 
annoying tire into the line from every fence, building or bush 
which lay in their way. Although many were killed and 
wounded by this fire, still the line pressed steadily, but slowly, 
forward. At length, just as the shades of night were begin- 
ning to fall, a sharp and well directed volley admonished 
Gen. Gibbon that he had reached the rebel line. The skir- 
mishers were called in, the regiments in reserve ordered into 
line, and the battle of South Mountain, so far as this gallant 
brigade was concerned, was begun in earnest. 

Here, as at Gainesville, the Nineteenth fought after dark; 
volley after volley echoed through the mountain gorge, and 
reverberated far over the valley beneath. The Nineteenth 
had been placed in position to enfilade the rebel line, and 
soon their line, unable to withstand the fierce onset, broke in 
disorder, retiring with more haste than military precision. A 
hearty shout from the brigade, gave an unmistakable token 
of victory. It was then nine o'clock, p. m., and pursuit being 
considered dangerous, the troops lay down upon their arms, 
holding the battle field. Many wounded prisoners were 
brought in. At twelve, midnight, the brigade was relieved 
by fresh troops, and retired from the front. The loss in 
the regiment at this battle was six killed, thirty-four wounded 
and seven missing, making a total of forty-seven. " The boys 
of the Nineteenth," said Col. Meredith, in his report of the 
affair, "behaved most gloriously. Too much praise can not 
be bestowed upon them for their courage and gallantry. The 
officers all were active in the discharge of their duties. Lieut. 
Col. Bachman was very efficient on this occasion, rendering 
me important service." 

The next morning it soon became apparent the enemy had 
abandoned his position and were in full retreat towards the 
fords of the Potomac, at Shepherdstown. Gen. McClellan at 
once ordered a pursuit, and Gibbon's brigade was assigned to 
the advance. As the troops approached Boonsboro' they 
were met by crowds of people, who, with joy depicted in 



862 REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

every lineament of their faces, gave the most graphic details 
of the rapid and confused flight of the rebels, and all 
along the way the guns, knaps'acks and clothing which had 
been thrown away, to put space between them and the 
"Yanks," attested the truth of their statements. At Boons- 
boro' the column filed to the left and took the pike towards 
Sharpsburgh, and after passing through Keedysville the 
brigade halted in a field, where an hour before the flying col- 
umns of Lee had. halted for a few moments rest. Here it 
became apparent the rebels were disposed to make a stand. 
Reconnoitering parties were sent out, while the gallant Nine- 
teenth, suffering for lack of rest, were permitted to lie down 
and sleep. Soon the skirmishers, who were sent to the front, 
discovered that the rebels had selected an admirable position 
on the Antietam hills, and that our further advance would 
be resisted by the entire rebel army. At that moment the 
shriek of a shell from a rebel battery on an adjacent hill con- 
vinced us that that position was not very far ofT. General 
McClellan at once began to make his arrangements for the 
impending conflict. 

About four, p. m., of the sixteenth, Gen. Hooker, who had 
been assigned to the extreme right, put his corps in motion 
for the purpose of taking his position. This he did not reach 
till nine o'clock in the evening, when, forming his corps in 
the darkness, and throwing out pickets, he permitted the 
rest of the men to lie down. During the entire march, the 
flankers of the corps on the left, composed of detachments 
from the Pennsylvania Reserves, had been sharply engaged 
with the enemy. As the darkness increased the firing dimin- 
ished, but did not entirely cease. During the entire night 
the pickets kept up a lively, though comparatively harmless 
fire. 

At length the weary night wore away, and the first gray 
streaks of dawn of the memorable seventeenth of September 
found every man at his post ; feeling that that was the day, 
and that the place, and they the men, who were to decide the 
destinies of the nation. One hundred thousand heroes were 
there ready to die, if need be, in the defense of their homes 
and government. On the other hand, one hundred thousand 



REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 363 

brave men as ever stood in line of battle were tbere ready to 
give up their lives in a mad and impious effort to overthrow 
a kind and benificent government, and to fasten on them- 
selves a heavy yoke. From this long line of veteran warriors 
many prayers went up to God for the success of their arms 
and for their own safety. Many tears were shed as they 
thought of the loved ones at home. But much time was not 
given for reflection. The fiery and impetuous Hooker ordered 
the first corps to advance; soon the din of battle made the 
old hills of Maryland quake to their very foundation. 

The Nineteenth, about five o'clock, a. m., was ordered to 
advance in column by division, across a field and take posi- 
tion in a wood, where it was to support another regiment 
which was in line. 

Col. Meredith, who, notwithstanding his injuries received 
at Gainesville, continued with his regiment during the cam- 
paign, and commanded it with signal ability at South Moun- 
tain, found himself after that battle, unable to keep the field, 
and was compelled, notwithstanding his determination to the 
contrary, to remain in the rear. The command of the regi- 
ment then devolved on Lieut. Col. Bachman. After remain- 
ing in the woods a short time, as a support, the Nineteenth 
advanced through woods into an orchard, and on to a 
corn field, near straw stacks, where Gen. Doubleday, who 
was commanding the first division, afterwards sat and watched 
the fierce struggle of the division. Here the rebels began to 
pour down their battalions from their extreme left, threat- 
ening to turn our flank. At this critical juncture the Nine- 
teenth Indiana and Seventh Wisconsin were ordered to cross 
the pike and occupy a position on the right of the pike, and 
prevent or defeat, if possible, the threatened attack on the 
flank. This was done, the Nineteenth deploying on the right 
of the Seventh. Shortly after Gen. Patrick's brigade came 
up as a support, and the advancing rebel line halted and was 
driven quickly back, with considerable loss. 

During this time the right of Gibbon's brigade, the Second 
and Sixth Wisconsin, were hotly engaged with a large force 
of rebels, who were striving to capture battery B, Fourth 
Artillery, U. S. A., which was stationed near the pike and 



I 



364 EGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

not far from the stacks previously mentioned. At length 
this rebel line, unable longer to stand the terrible fire to 
which they were subjected, broke and began to retire with 
considerable speed. At this moment, the Nineteenth, having 
completely silenced the enemy in front, changed front and 
double quicked forward a hundred yards, thus getting range 
on the flying rebels, and pouring a volley into their ranks 
which quickened their pace into a run. Col. Bachman, 
believing that a quick movement would secure a large num- 
ber of prisoners, ordered a charge. To this order the Nine- 
teenth quickly responded, and in an incredible short space of 
time, gained the road along which the rebels retreated and 
captured many prisoners. 

To the left of the road, and immediately in front of the 
regiment, was a small hill, over which the flying rebels had 
retreated. On the brow of this hill were to be seen two 
pieces of artillery, which they had been forced to abandon 
in their rapid flight. Col. Bachman, glancing to the rear to 
see that his supports were close, ordered another charge to 
take the pieces. As the regiment gained the top of the hill 
they were greeted by a terrible volley of musketry from a 
full brigade of rebel infantry. For a moment the line stag- 
gered. The clarion voice of Bachman was heard urging his 
men to hold the hill until reinforcements could come up. 
The men rallying to his call began to fire into the dense mass 
of rebels in front; for live minutes they held the hill. Gen. 
Patrick, who was hurrying forward as rapidly as possible, 
was two hundred yards behind. In those five minutes, one- 
third of the line had fallen. Still Bachman cheered on his 
men. A rebel bullet struck him, and he fell to rise no more. 
Capt. Dudley, who succeeded to the command, seeing that 
the effort to hold the hill could not be successful, save at the 
sacrifice of the entire regiment, reluctantly gave the order to 
fall back, which was done in good order. 

Another rebel line on the right of the road advanced in a 
line at right angles with the road, to short range, and began 
pouring a destructive fire into the regiment from the flank. 
Gen. Patrick reached the road with his brigade; and, imme- 
diately forming a line at right angles with it, poured a fire 



REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 365 

into the rebels, which effectually checked them, and sent 
them to the right-about. The Nineteenth lost fully one-half 
its men; and not being in condition to do much further effec- 
tive service, was withdrawn from the front, and supported a 
battery during the remainder of the day. The regiment 
went into this battle with about two hundred men. Of the 
many gallant heroes who were that day numbered with the 
dead, there was none of nobler presence, or more undaunted 
courage, than Alois 0. Bachman. 

For many days after the battle, the regiment lay encamped 
upon the hights overlooking the Potomac, near Sharpsburgh. 
The army was fearfully shattered in its struggle at Antietam. 
Regiments, which before had perfect organization, and admi- 
rable discipline, lost their commanders in the fierce onset. 
Company officers were killed. Indulgences were granted 
men in consideration of their bravery and sufferings. These 
things tended to destroy discipline. Reorganization was 
necessary to make the regiments effective. 

Col. Meredith received a Brigadier General's commission. 
Capt. Samuel J. Williams was promoted to the Colonelcy — a 
better choice than which could not have been made. The 
men were now veterans, and desired a leader in whom they 
could trust. Such a leader they found in Col. Williams. 
Cool, cautious and brave, he was respected and obeyed. He 
promoted the discipline and efficiency of the regiment, which 
had been so nearly destroyed in the late fearful struggles in 
which it had been engaged. Capt. William W. Dudley was 
promoted to Lieutenant Colonel. Drilling was again the 
order of the day; and the ground over which the fierce com- 
batants had so lately surged in dread array, now resounded 
only to the sharp, quick command of the drill master. 

About the middle of October the regiment moved to 
Bakersville, where it remained but a few days. On Sunday, 
the twenty-fifth of October, while the rain was pouring down 
in torrents, the regiment marched, passing 'through Keedys- 
ville after dark, and encamped a few miles further on. The 
next morning, at an early hour, the column was again on the 
march, stopping that night near Crampton's Gap, of the 
South Mountain range — through which it passed next morn- 



866 REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

ing. In the Middletown valley, near Berlin, the brigade 
encamped a day or two, waiting the completion of the pon- 
toon bridge over the Potomac. 

On the morning of the thirtieth of October the column 
passed into Virginia. Lee's threat of transferring the war 
to Northern soil proved but an empty boast, and the Army 
of the Potomac again stood upon the sacred soil of the Old 
Dominion. A few days afterwards found the regiment at 
Warrenton, where, on the tenth of November, the army was 
drawn up in line to take leave of Gen. McClellan. He had 
been removed from the army, Gen. Burhside assuming com- 
mand. Soon after, the line of march towards Fredericks- 
burgh was taken up. Stopping several days at every remove, 
sometime elapsed before the army was opposite that well 
known place. They did not arrive there until the rebel Gen- 
eral had firmly located his troops on the hights in the rear of, 
and commanding it. The regiment went into camp at Brooks' 
Station, on the railroad between Falmouth and Aquia Creek. 
Cold weather had made its appearance; snow had fallen; the 
shelter tents were poor protection against the cutting winds 
and drifting snow. Huts were built to guard against these 
inconveniences. On the morning of the ninth of December 
the order to march was given and responded to. Gen. Sol. 
Meredith, recovering from his injuries and illness, had 
returned to the field, and been assigned to the command of 
the brigade, Gen. Gibbon having been transferred to the 
command of a division. Another regiment—the Twenty- 
Fourth Michigan — had been added to the brigade, and it was 
again prepared to make its mark, upon the battle field. It was 
soon to have an opportunity to do so. The Nineteenth lay 
down that night on ground covered with snow. The morn- 
ing of the eleventh of December, at four o'clock, the troops 
were aroused from their slumbers by the heavy boom of can- 
non in the direction of Fredericksburgh. All day the bom- 
bardment continued, and the Nineteenth bivouaced near the 
river bank the night of the eleventh. 

On the morning of the twelfth, under cover of the heavy 
fog, which had settled over tlie valley, the passage of the 
river was commenced, the Nineteenth crossing at eleven, A. 



REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 367 

M. About noon the fog moved slowly away, and the rebels 
opened their first fire, their guns having remained provok- 
ingly silent during the cannonading the day previous. Only 
a few shots were exchanged. The remainder of the day was 
occupied in putting the army in position. 

The battle commenced in earnest on the morning of the 
thirteenth. Meredith's brigade was formed on the extreme 
left of the army, resting on the river, two miles below the 
point of crossing. Moving down the river bank, it was found 
necessary, in furtherance of general operations, to dislodge 
the enemy from a grove of timber, in which be had posted a 
battery, sweeping the river southward. The brigade was 
chosen for this duty. After the woods had been shelled, a 
charge was ordered and executed. Forward went the regi- 
ments, through an open field, sweeping into the woods, and 
out again into the enemy's immediate front, capturing many 
prisoners, horses, etc. The movement was a moment too late, 
however. Just as the brigade emerged from the woods, the last 
caisson of the battery, which had been there, was seen pass- 
ing within their lines. Back and forth over the plain beyond 
this grove, the regiments maneuvered all day. ]STo infantry 
fighting took place on this part of the field. A spirited artil- 
lery engagement was kept up all day, at sunset approaching 
to a close combat with grape and canister, and continuing till 
eight, p. m., when the firing ceased, and the men stretched 
themselves on the ground, without fires, and many without 
blankets, to rest. An occasional report of fire-arms from the 
picket line, the contiguity of the enemy, and the chill night 
air, kept them wakeful. Had an alarm occurred, one minute 
would have been sufficient to put the men in readiness for 
the emergency. 

No alarm however took place, and Sunday morning the 
fourteenth, dawned upon the battle field, bright and glorious. 
The Nineteenth supported a battery all day, the other regi- 
ments, being partly on similar duty, and partly in reserve. 
The army had been engaged on the right, but not on the left. 
Another night was passed, as before. The two armies lay 
quietly facing each other all day of Monday. The calm was 
improved by removing all the wounded to the opposite side 



368 REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

of the river, the dead were buried, and the intrenching toola 
scattered over the field, were carefully collected and removed. 
At dusk the Nineteenth regiment was placed on picket; the 
usual provision for alarms, signals, etc., was made, and again 
silence reigned, save the subdued hum of human voices. 
Strict orders were given to the officers of the pickets, to 
keep the line quiet, and allow no firing, unless attacked. 

At eight, p. M., the army commenced evacuating the posi- 
tion it had maintained, crossing the river on the bridges over 
which the advance had been accomplished. To insure safety 
to the army during this retrograde movement a perfect quiet 
had to be preserved on the outposts. No communication 
between the pickets and the army was permitted, and though 
only a few rods intervened, between the points occupied that 
evening by each, nothing of the movement was known on 
the line, until the order relieving it was received. It was 
first thought necessary to sacrifice the outposts to save the 
army, and Gen. Burnside so determined. But the with- 
drawal of the army, had occupied less time than was antici- 
pated, and an order to call them in, was issued about four, a. 
m. The line picketed that night, by the Nineteenth, rested 
on the Rappahannock, three miles below the bridge, thence 
running nearly west for three-fourths of a mile, protecting 
the left flank of the army, there being joined by the line of 
other divisions, running in a northerly direction, accommo- 
dating itself to the- conformation of the rebel fortifications 
and breastworks, being immediately in front, less than three- 
fourths of a mile distant from the bridge. As the moon 
arose, the last post was relieved, and the men were ordered 
to fall back quickly to the bridge. By daylight all, save a 
few stragglers, were safely on the east bank of the river. 
As the outposts had not been formed with the portion of the 
regiment which had been on the reserve, immediately on 
being relieved, but had retired, each man to care for himself, 
some time was necessary to collect them. This being done, 
the regiment soon after moved to Belle Plain Landing, on 
the Potomac, where it went into camp. 

Col. Cutler, of the Sixth Wisconsin volunteers, being tem- 
porarily in command of the brigade, in his official report of 
the affair, says : 



REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 369 

* * « Before leaving, I sent an order to Col. Williams of 
the Nineteenth Indiana, who was doing picket duty that 
night, to call in his pickets at four and a half o'clock, a. m., 
and to follow the brigade in silence to a new position up the 
river, without intimating to him that they were to recross 
the river. He obeyed the order to the letter, and when 
day dawned, found himself and his regiment following the 
army across the Rappahannock. Our position being on the 
extreme left, he had at least three miles to march to reach 
the bridge, and w T as the last of that vast army to cross. The 
enemy's sharpshooters and cavalry were close on his rear 
when he reached the bridge, and some of his men were 
obliged to cross in skiffs, the pontoon bridge having been cut 
away before his rear guard arrived. I am under great obli- 
gations to all the officers and men, for their cordial co-opera- 
tion, during the brief period I was in command; but most 
especially to Col. \Villiams, for the coolness and good judg- 
ment which he exercised in obeying my orders, and which 
resulted in saving one of the best regiments in the service." 

Not many days were the troops allowed to rest here. On 
the twentieth of January, 1863, another move was inaugu- 
rated. Gen. Burnside issued a general order telling the army 
that " they were about to meet the enemy once more, and that 
under the Providence of God, the army of the Potomac, strik- 
ing a great and mortal blow at the rebellion, and gaining that 
decisive victory over the enemy on the Rappahanoek due to the 
country, will have taken the great step toward restoring peace 
to the country and the government to its rightful authority." 
At twelve, m., of this date, the regiment left its encampment, 
marching towards Falmouth, near which place it encamped 
for the night. Rain had commenced falling at seven, p. m , 
and the march of the next day was greatly retarded by the 
muddy condition of the roads, and grounds, over which the 
troops went. At one o'clock, of the twenty-first, a halt was 
ordered. The roads had become impassable, subsistence 
trains could not reach their commands, and mud alone pre- 
vented the culmination of this grand advance. Lvino- until 
the twenty-third, the regiment received orders to return to 
its old encampment at Belle Plain, and at eight, a. m., fell 
Vol. L— 2.4. 



370 REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

into lino and moved off, arriving at their old. quarters at six, 
p. M. Those who, the winter before, had so persistently urged 
that Gen. McClellan should "move the army," now became 
convinced that a winter campaign in Virginia was impracti- 
cable, and were willing to wait the advent of a season which 
would give settled weather and a solid earth — two conditions 
necessary to successful military operations. 

Another change took place in the commander of the army. 
Hooker succeeded Burnside. Major Gen. John F. Reynolds 
now commanded the first corps. Steps were at once taken to 
reclaim the army from the effects of demoralization, conse- 
quent upon the battle of Fredericksburgh, and the abortive 
advance of the twentieth of January. The time, when the 
weather permitted, was spent in drills, parades and reviews, 
until the approach of settled weather in the spring. 

On the twenty-eighth of April the army commenced moving, 
the first corps marching to near Fitzhugh House, four or five 
miles below Fredericksburgh, and exactly opposite the point 
from which the regiment had withdrawn on the morning of 
the sixteenth of December previous. It had been determined 
to cross troops at this point, afterwards known as Fitzhugh 
crossing, to deceive the enemy as to the true point of attack, 
while the main army crossed at the United States ford, a few 
miles up the river, and near Chancellorsville. Meredith's 
brigade was chosen to lead this storming party. At daylight, 
the twenty-ninth, the brigade was formed in a slight depres- 
sion of the ground on the east bank of the river, and within 
easy range of the enemy's sharpshooters on the opposite 
shore. It had been planned to approach the river before 
daylight, cross in pontoon boats, surprise, and, if possible, 
capture the picket line, and establish a force on the opposite 
bank, before it should get light enough for the enemy to exe- 
cute any counter movements. But the pontoons did not arrive 
in time, and when at sunrise the heavy fog cleared away, the 
movement was exposed to the enemy, and a surprise then 
was of course out of the question. Skirmishers were thrown 
forward on the bank of the river, to engage those of the 
rebels, while the pontoons were being unloaded near the 
water's edge, and everything being in readiness the brigade 



REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 371 

was ordered to advance, and starting forward with a yell, 
the men seized the cumbrous boats, launched them, and jump- 
ing into them, they were quickly on the opposite side, and 
clambered up the bluff bank, in the very face of the opposing 
force, under a deadly fire. 

Men of the Sixth Wisconsin volunteers first reached the 
opposite shore, and planted their banner on the hights. 
The other regiments closely followed. In this charge, the 
Nineteenth lost one man killed, and three wounded. The 
rebel skirmishers, numbering two hundred and seven, were 
captured. Twenty-five rebels lay dead upon the opposite 
bank. Only a few of their wounded were captured, they 
having carried all, except those wounded in the charge, across 
the river, to the rear. Soon as reaching the summit, the regi- 
ments formed again, and lay in line of battle, until the bridge 
was repaired, when the remainder of the division also crossed. 
The line extended up and down the river, the Nineteenth 
occupying a position in the same field, over which it fought 
on the thirteenth of December, 1862. The rebels had moved 
down one gun, and opened upon the line, during the con- 
struction of the bridge, but did no damage; this was the 
only move of an offensive nature during the remainder of 
that day. 

On the thirtieth, towards evening, the rebels opened upon 
the line, and continued pouring shot and shell upon it for 
two hours, only occasionally receiving a reply from Gen. 
Reynolds' guns. Under this fierce fire, the Nineteenth was 
mustered for pay, by Col. Williams and Major John M. Lind- 
ley — rather a cool proceeding under the circumstances. The 
night was spent in throwing up breastworks, small redans 
also being constructed for artillery, and next morning a line 
of fortifications two miles in length, and of sufficient thick- 
ness to resist cannon, greeted the sight of the enemy. The 
troops lay all day behind their breastworks, no move taking 
place, and not a gun fired from either side. 

The army proper had by this time effected a crossing ; and 
the object of the crossing at this point being accomplished, 
the order to withdraw was given ; and about ten, a. m., May 
second, the movement commenced. This was a signal for 



372 REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

the opening of the enemy's guns. Firing continued during 
the time the troops were recrossing the river; which move- 
ment was somewhat retarded by one of the boats of the 
bridges being struck by a solid shot from the rebel battery, 
requiring a suspension of the movement, and the removal of 
the boat. After the division had reached the east bank, the 
firing ceased, and the corps took up its line of march towards 
Chancellorsville. At ten, p. m., the regiment stopped near 
United States ford, crossing the pontoon at four, a. m., of the 
third, and took position in line of battle, to the right of the 
Chancellorsville House, and a few rods in rear of the front 
breastworks, composing a portion of the second line of battle. 
The regiment remained here until the morning of the sixth, 
not being engaged, one person was wounded while tempo- 
rarily away from the command. 

Sunday, May third, was fought the main battle. It com- 
menced by an attack by the rebels at daylight, continuing 
until after ten o'clock. Both armies lay quiet the rest of 
Monday. But little skirmishing took place on Tuesday. 
That night the army commenced its retreat. At daylight, 
next morning, the Nineteenth moved from its position to the 
rear, crossing the Bappahannock at ten o'clock. Marching 
that day to Falmouth, it bivouaced for the night on familiar 
ground. The next day, moving to Fitzhugh House, it went 
into camp. The regiment suffered less in this affair, than in 
any previous engagement in which it had taken part. It 
had been kept well in hand, and required but little time to 
be placed again in fighting trim. 

An expedition, consisting of four regiments — the Nine- 
teenth being one of the number — of the brigade, under CoL 
Morrow, of the Twenty-Fourth Michigan, set out from Fitz- 
hugh House, on the twenty-first of May, to assist the return 
of a cavalry force, which had advanced down the Peninsula, 
between the Bappahannock and Potomac rivers, and which 
had been cut off by the burning of Mattox creek biidge by 
the rebels. This expedition was to rebuild the bridge, and 
hold possession until the cavalry returned and crossed. 
Leaving their camps at daylight, the column marched thirty 
miles, and bivouaced for the night, without any incident 



REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 373 

worthy of note. The next day Mattox creek was reached, 
and a temporary bridge thrown across. Here the original 
plan of the expedition was changed;- and leaving a small 
guard to protect the bridge, the column marched in a zigzag 
manner, apparently with no definite end in view, until at last, 
toward sunset, it reached a point on the Rappahannock, 
known as Leeds. A ferry here afforded the rebels a fine 
opportunity for the passage of the river; and as the Penin- 
sula is but a few miles in breadth, the country wild, and the 
Potomac easy of passage for small boats, smugglers drove a 
thriving trade, furnishing the rebels with many delicacies 
and necessaries; the legitimate trade in which had been cut 
off by non-intercourse with rebellious States. It was thought, 
by making a dash upon this point, some of these illegitimate 
traders might be captured. The dash was made by the 
mounted officers of the force, along the river bank for three 
or four miles, but resulted in no captures. Next morning, 
however, going over the same ground, the Colonel of the 
Fifteenth Virginia cavalry was captured while trying to 
make his way to the river, where he had a boat to convey 
him across. From this point the column marched to West- 
moreland Court House, where it met the cavalry which it 
went to succor. The next morning, with the head of the 
column turned campward, the column marched. The object 
of the expedition had been accomplished, and nothing 
remained but to return. This it accomplished by twelve, m., 
of the next day; having in the six days of its absence 
marched one hundred and five miles — an average of seven- 
teen and half miles per day. 

On the morning of June twelfth, 1863, the regiment left its 
camp at Fitzhugh House, crossing the Falmouth and Catlett 
road, over which it had so many times marched, and took 
the road leading to Bealton Station, twenty miles southwest 
of Manassas Junction ; near which point it camped the second 
night after starting; marching from thence to Manassas Junc- 
tion, which place was reached at seven o'clock on the morn- 
ing of the fifteenth, having marched all the night before. 
After getting breakfast, and taking a short sleep, the column 
pushed on, and reached Centreville at three, p. m., and camped 



374 REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

within the walls of that once famous rehel stronghold. On 
the morning of the seventeenth, reveille was sounded at two 
o'clock and forty-five minutes, a. m., and at five o'clock the 
march began. The regiment went into camp at Herndon, 
on the Alexandria, Hampshire and Loudon railroad, at two, 
p. M.; in which vicinity it remained until the twenty-fifth, 
when it again moved ; and at one, p. m., of that day, crossed 
the Potomac at Edward's Ferry, and was once more in Mary- 
land. 

This time it was evident that the rehel General was not 
satisfied with his campaign of September, 1862, into Mary- 
land, and that he was about to make another desperate effort 
to transfer the war to Northern soil. That night the regiment 
encamped at Barnesville ; and, pushing on by rapid marches, 
reached Middletown, bivouacing for the night near the 
field of one of its most magnificent triumphs — South Moun- 
tain. On the twenty-eighth the long roll sounded — tents were 
struck, and the column was soon moving towards Frederick 
City, remaining here over night, and marching next day 
through a drenching rain to Emmettsburgh, a small town near 
the line between Pennsylvania and Maryland. On the morn- 
ing of the thirtieth the column again moved — crossed the 
line, and for once the Army of the Potomac was in Pennsyl- 
vania. This day the Nineteenth was in front, and, after a 
short march, reached Marsh creek. Here the troops camped, 
the Nineteenth crossing the creek for the purpose of picket- 
ing the advance line, companies A, B, C, and E being placed 
on the outposts, the remaining companies being held as 
reserve at a little hamlet called Green Mount, near Marsh 
creek. 

As during the first campaign north of the Potomac, so in 
this — the good people of Maryland seemed to vie with each 
other in attention and kindness to the Union soldiers, and 
everywhere manifested the most uncompromising loyalty 
to the Government, and the veterans now found the people 
of Pennsylvania to be not a whit behind their Maryland 
neighbors, either in devotion to the cause, or in their exhibi- 
tion of it. 

The Nineteenth was, on this occasion, so fortunate as to 



REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 375 

have the advance — a circumstance from which they did not 
fail to profit, as their well filled haversacks of turkey, chicken, 
fresh bread and pie, bore abundant testimony — the result, not 
of foraging, but of the unbounded hospitality of the good 
people of Green Mount and vicinity. 

It was here rumored that the rebels were posted in some 
force near Gettysburg!!, on the Cashtown road, and the men 
began to think that perhaps once more they were to have an 
opportunity of settling an old account with the Confederates, 
which had been running since the first Bull Run. 

In the meantime, Gen. Hooker had been relieved from the 
command of the army, and Gen. Geo. G. Meade asssigned to 
it — a worthy and gallant officer, with whom the first corps 
were intimately acquainted, as he had commanded it after 
Hooker was wounded at Antietam. 

On the morning of the first of July, Col. Williams was 
early notified that the division was to move at eight, a m., 
towards Gettysburgh, and that the regiment should fall into 
its proper place in the column as it came marching by. 
(Shortly after starting out, the sound of distant cannon 
announced that the skirmishers of the two armies had met. 
The column pressed on now more rapidly than before; and 
reaching a little hill which commanded a fine view of Gettys- 
burgh and the country beyond, the position of the batteries 
engaged were disclosed to plain view. As the Nineteenth 
raised the hill, a shell, thrown from a rebel gun, burst high 
in the air, and was greeted by the men with a hearty cheer. 
Word was now passed along the line, from one officer to 
another, that the rebel cavalry were pressing Gen. Buford, of 
the cavalry corps, who was in the advance; and that if the 
infantry did not hurry up, he would lose some of his guns. 
So the ranks were closed, and the speed of the march very 
much accelerated, until at last, about eleven, a. m., the shriek 
of a shell, directly overhead, proved conclusively to the vet- 
erans, that the march for the present was over, and that the 
fighting was about to commence. 

It had been the supposition that the rebel force consisted 
entirely of cavalry; but Gen. Reynolds, who had been close 
to the front, reconnoitering the position in person, sent an 



376 REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

aid hurrying back to Gen. Wadsworth, with the information 
that a line of rebel infantry were close to, and threatening 
the battery of Gen. Buford, and with orders to deploy his 
division, charge, and drive back the rebel line. The column 
immediately faced to the left, thus forming a line of battle 
directly in front of the foe, and giving a good hearty western 
yell, dashed forward on the run. To gain the summit of a 
little hill, behind which the rebels were in part sheltered, was 
the work of but a few minutes, and there at the foot of the 
hill, about fifty yards distant, waving their tantalizing battle 
flag, lay Archer's rebel brigade. The men did not stand 
upon the order of their firing, but fired at once into the rebel 
ranks. For a time Archer tried to hold his ground, but to 
no avail; the fire of the western "Yanks" was too hot and 
heavy for the chivalry to stand; turning their backs towards 
the Nineteenth, they made an earnest effort to terminate an 
interview that was becoming decidedly unpleasant; but it 
was too late even for this, the Hoosiers and the Badgers were 
upon them, and the result was the entire brigade was cap- 
tured and sent to the rear. 

This engagement, which was fought exclusively by the first 
division, developed the fact that the corps of Hill and Long- 
street were in front, that Gen. Ewell was on the march, and 
that in all probability Gen. Lee intended to risk the success 
of his second great invasion of the north, on a great battle 
at Gettysburgh. In. the meantime the second and third divis- 
ions of the first corps, and the eleventh corps had arrived on 
the ground, and were placed in position for the purpose of 
holding the rebels at bay until the main army should come 
up. The position now occupied by these troops, was the 
same as that held by the rebels in the morning. The firing 
now slackened to a mere skirmish fire, with an occasional 
shot from the batteries. At three o'clock, p. m., upon the 
arrival of Ewell's corps, the rebels formed their lines of 
attack, with the view of annihilating the first and eleventh 
corps, before Gen. Meade could give them any assistance, 
and thus, by attacking in detail, render a victory over the 
Army of the Potomac absolutely certain. 

Having made his preparations, the foe advanced in three 



REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 377 

lines of battle, so formed as to outflank the little army 
opposed to them, on both flanks. At an early hour in the 
day, the gallant and heroic Reynolds had fallen, and Gen. 
Doubleday assumed command. For want of men he was 
obliged to dispose his troops in a single battle line; two 
divisions of the eleventh corps were formed on his right, one 
division of that corps being held as a reserve, on Cemetery 
hill, at the south east boundary of the town and nearly two 
miles to the rear of the line of battle. So assured were the 
rebels of the inability of the line to resist their advance, that 
their men were ordered not to fire until fired upon, but to 
charge right on, sweeping round on the flanks, and holding 
back in the center, thus hoping to capture the greater por- 
tion of both corps. The men saw the immense host bearing 
down upon them; they looked along their own thin line, and 
felt that, though they had been often tried in battle, and had 
won high honors for their bravery before the foe, anything 
they had ever done, was nothing, compared to the work now 
before them. 

The Nineteenth was on the extreme left of the line, and 
consequently the most exposed, as it was subject to a fire 
from the front, and also an enfilading fire from the flank. 
"Boys," said Col. Williams, "we must hold our colors on 
this line, or lie here under them." On came the rebel line, 
their flanks sweeping round without difficulty, there being 
nothing to oppose them. As they came within range they 
were opened upon from the whole length of the line, the fire 
being immediately returned. But all in vain; our single line 
stubbornly resisted their advance, their first line melted away 
and the second came up. The eleventh corps had given way, 
the right of the line having been first attacked, and it became 
evident that to remain longer on this line would but insure 
the capture of the entire force, so the order was reluctantly 
given to retire slowly, holding the enemy in check as much 
as possible, which was done in splendid style, the line repeat- 
edly halting, re-forming, and firing into the advancing mass 
of rebels with deadly effect. 

Some distance in rear of the first line, "Wadsworth's, was 
formed two regiments under Col. Dana, of the third division. 



378 REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

This small force, however, availed nothing against the over- 
whelming number of the attacking force, and the rebel line, 
not even checked for a moment, pushed steadily forward, 
forcing the valiant, but now shattered line, slowly back to 
the seminary building, near town, where, taking advantage 
of a barricade of rails, Wadsworth made a final desperate 
effort to hold the advancing masses of Lee. Here he 
re-formed the regiments of his division, and once more the 
rebels were halted, and compelled to fall back and reform 
their lines, which having been done, on they came to within 
thirty yards of the barricade. Great gaps in their lines told 
of the severity of the fire they sustained, and notwithstand- 
ing the frantic efforts of their officers, they could not advance 
another pace; still they were held to their work, and it has 
been asserted by eye witnesses, that not one man of all that 
long line, which came up with flaunting banners and derisive 
yells, was left — all, all lay on that bloody field. In all history 
there is no parallel to that heroic charge, so desperately made, 
so determinedly met, and so tragically ended. 

Though the rebel line in front was now annihilated, yet 
their flank, on Wadsworth's left, far overlapping him, was 
sweeping round seriously threatening his rear. On the right, 
the eleventh corps which was rapidly falling back before the 
overwhelming forces of Ewell, and Wadsworth was once 
more obliged to retire, to save his men from capture. This 
was done in tolerable order, and his division again reformed 
on Cemetery hill — the position occupied by the reserve of 
the eleventh corps. The rebels followed up into town, of 
which they took possession, but made no further demonstra- 
tion on the line that night. 

Shortly after dark the twelfth corps came up and went 
into position, closely followed by the other corps. Gen. 
Meade himself arrived and began his preparations for the 
great and decisive battle. 

During this day's desperate fighting, the loss of the first 
and eleventh corps may be stated at six thousand. The 
Nineteenth lost many gallant men, who fell gloriously, their 
faces to the foe, the old flag waving above them. But their 
memories shall live. The Nineteenth will never forget Lieut. 



REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 379 

Richard Jones, company B, Lieut. Crocket T. East, company 
K, Asa W. Blancharcl, Sergt. Major, Sergts. Eurgason and 
Beshears, company H, "Winsett and Dougherty, company K, 
Michner of company E, Ogborn, company B, and many 
others of less rank, but whose courage was as undaunted, 
and whose hearts as true, as any of the fabled knights of 
old. Green be the grass and light the sod over their graves. 

Many others, also, were left upon the field, still living, but 
badly wounded — among these Lieut. Col. "William W. Dud- 
ley. This gallant young officer had fought in the front rank 
at Gainesville, second Bull Run, South Mountain, Antietam 
and Fredericksburgh, unharmed. Here he lost his right leg. 
Major John M. Lindley, than whom a braver man never 
lived, was also severely wounded in the hand. Capts. Shafer, 
Holloway and Ives, and Lieuts. Schlagle, Branson, Wilson, 
Patrick and Campbell, were also severely wounded. The 
loss of the regiment was two hundred and ten out of two 
hundred and eighty-eight that went into the battle ! 

The telegraph wires had flashed to every city and hamlet 
in the land the news of the terrible fight of the first; of the 
unrivaled gallantry and almost total annihilation of the first 
corps ; it told of the concentration of both armies at Gettys- 
burgh, and now the whole country stood as anxious specta- 
tors of the impending conflict. On the one hand Lee, with 
his army of veterans ninety thousand strong, flushed with 
their victory at Chancellorsville, and haughtily vaunting 
themselves as invincible. On the other hand that gallant old 
army of the Potomac, reduced by the casualties of the terri- 
ble battles through which it had already passed, to sixty-five 
thousand men. Oh! how anxiously the country watched 
that contest. If Lee was victorious the last barrier which 
stood between him and the great cities of the North was 
broken down, and Pennsylvania, New York and New Eng- 
land lay helpless at his feet; on the contrary, if he was 
defeated, his retreat to Virginia would necessarily follow, 
the rebellion receive a heavy blow indeed, and the threatened 
North would again be safe. 

The morning of the second of July was spent by both 
Generals in placing their armies for the battle. Shortly after 



380 REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

noon, Longstreet opened the attack by a determined charge 
upon Meade's left; this being met in the same spirit in which 
it was made, and Longstreet was driven back, defeated. The 
wily Lee having failed in his attack on the left, now directed 
all his energies to one earnest effort to turn the right. The 
picked corps of Ewell moved to the attack of the position 
held by the twelfth corps under Slocnm. This attack was 
suspended by the darkness, only to be renewed at early dawn 
on the third. For six hours and forty minutes the hitherto 
invincible soldiers of Ewell (Jackson's old corps) dashed 
themselves madly against the living wall of Slocum; but to 
no avail. Slocum stood firm, and at eleven, a. m., Lee with- 
drew the remnant of his once proud corps from the hopeless 
contest. Repulsed in both their attacks, the rebels now gath- 
ered up all their energies for one final desperate effort. 

At half past one o'clock, p. m., the fight opened by one 
of the most terrific artillery duels of modern times. For two 
hours four hundred pieces of artillery shook the earth, and 
under cover of this fire, Lee once more moved his column 
forward to the charge, with a resolution only equaled by that 
with which it was met. But as before, he w T as doomed to 
defeat. Notwithstanding his frantic efforts, he was unable 
to break Meade's line, and shortly before sunset withdrew 
his defeated army, leaving the gallant Meade the undisputed 
victor of the bloodiest field of the war. The results of this 
victory were all that could reasonably have been anticipated. 
Lee retired slowly toward the Potomac river, constantly har- 
rassed by Meade's cavalry, and on the night of the thirteenth 
of July, favored by the darkness, succeeded in crossing the 
river in safety. 

At Gettysburgh the Nineteenth was not actively engaged 
after the first day. On the second and third it occupied a 
position on Cemetery Hill, and although the shells shrieked 
fiercely overhead, and the minnie balls from the sharpshooters 
whistled uncomfortably close, the regiment suffered no loss, 
save the wounding of Lieut. Macy, Co. C, slightly, and of 
Sergt. Reeves, Co. II, a man universally respected, mortally. 

On the morning of the eighteenth of July the first corps 
crossed the Potomac at Berlin, and camped that night at 



REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 381 

Waterford, in Loudon Co., Va., which proved to be a village 
of loyal people, who gladly welcomed back the old Hag and 
opened their houses cheerfully to the heroes of Gettysburg]!. 
On the next day the march was resumed towards the Rap- 
pahannock river. Lee was in the mountains retiring on the 
west side of the Blue Ridge towards Culpepper. At length, 
after a succession of sharp skirmishes and rapid marches, 
both Generals seemed to conclude to give their wearied sol- 
diers a little rest, and so went into camp. Gen. Meade on 
the north side of the Rappahannock, and Gen. Lee on the 
south side of that historic river. The Nineteenth pitched its 
tents near Rappahannock Station, August first, 1863, just two 
years and two days from the date of its muster into the ser- 
vice of the United States. 

Here we leave this gallant regiment. The record of its 
battles is the proudest monument of its fame. Of the two 
hundred and eighty-eight men who went into the famous 
battle of Gettysburgh, only seventy-eight returned. The 
rest were numbered with the killed, wounded and missing. 

LIEUTENANT COLONEL ALOIS OCTAVIUS BACHMAN 

Was born at Madison, Indiana, May seventeenth, 1839. His 
parents were Swiss, and were among the early settlers of 
Indiana. At the outbreak of the rebellion, our country had 
few men of more promise. Young, rich, educated, with a 
physical presence rarely equaled, he certainly had prospects 
of a brilliant future. 

He entered Hanover College in 1856. He remained at this 
institution two years, during which time he displayed superior 
abilities as a debater and declaimer. He had determined 
upon the profession of law. He believed that the Republic 
depended for its perpetuity upon the virtue and courage of 
its citizens; and that every one became a better citizen as he 
became better able to defend his country in time of peril. 
Entertaining such sentiments, he entered the Kentucky Mili- 
tary Institute, near Frankfort, Ky., where he remained two 
years and a half, rapidly and thoroughly acquiring those 
qualifications, which his country so soon would sorely need, 



382 REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

and which he so willingly offered. During his summer vaca- 
tions, he organized a company, called the "Madison City 
Greys," whose drill and general efficiency, in a short time, 
attested the ability of the Captain, and won the admiration 
of all who saw it maneuver. In that company were schooled 
many of our now efficient line and staff officers. 

It was on that April Sunday — which all remember so well — 
the thrilling news came from the now historic Sumter. On 
Monday morning Capt. Bachman's office was open — his 
country's nag waving conspicuously on the house-top— his 
drums out beating np recruits. During the early part of that 
week, his company — the "Madison City Greys" — then on a 
war footing, and beyond the maximum number, reported at 
Camp Morton for duty. In the organization of regiments, his 
company was assigned to the Sixth Indiana. He led his 
company with credit through the three months' campaign in 
Western Virginia, under McClellan. On his return, Gov. 
Morton commissioned him Major of the Nineteenth Indiana 
regiment; which, being already organized and equipped, 
started immediately for Washington City, then seriously 
threatened. Here he did garrison duty under McClellan, 
until that General moved to the Peninsula, when he was 
assigned to McDowell's corps, which was doomed to inac- 
tivity for a time. Here Lieut. Col. Bachman (he had now 
been promoted) fretted like a restless charger, that he should 
be compelled for weeks to look down the empty Shenandoah, 
while others were achieving and enduring so much around 
Richmond. At last came the evacuation, and then Pope's 
short and active campaign, Lieut. Col. Bachman participa- 
ting in all its battles — oftentimes as regimental commander. 
The official reports of his superiors always commend him for 
his skill and courage. After Manassas, he followed McClellan 
in his Maryland campaign. In his element at last — fighting, 
fighting, fighting. His horse was killed under him at Sharps- 
burgh. During the day at Antietam a rebel battery played 
with terrible effect upon our men. The General said it must 
be taken, and ordered Lieut. Col. Bachman to do it, assign- 
ing to his command, besides his own regiment, one from 
Wisconsin. He and his troops moved forward gallantly to 



REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 383 

the charge. Under the galling fire of the battery, and its 
infantry support, his ranks were fearfully thinned ; and his 
own good right arm, which had gallantly struck his country's 
foes on many a bloody field, fell shattered at his side; but 
yet another arm remains to wave defiance to his foes, and 
with this he still moves forward; and when at the very 
mouths of the rebel guns, they belch forth a terrible discharge 
of grape and canister, Lieutenant Colonel Bach-man' s body 
is pierced by three grape shot. He was carried to the 
rear, and placed under a tree, in hearing of the guns. Know- 
ing his end had come, he sent a verbal message to the dear 
ones at home, and then became unconscious — talking incohe- 
rently of the strife raging around him — anxiously inquiring 
if the battery had been taken; in attempting which he had 
given his life. And thus, on the battle field, September sev- 
enteenth, 1862, in the twenty-third year of his age, died Lieut. 
Col. Eachman — than whom our country had no more devoted 
defender — nor braver or more accomplished officer. 

His remains were conveyed home, and there interred; and 
there, neath his native sod, rests one whose friends were as 
numerous as his acquaintances, and whose brilliant career 
and glorious end reminds us of that true Roman — the young 
Marcellus. Old Anchises' words are not inappropriate : 

Nimium vobis Romana propago 
Visa potens, Superi, propria haec si dona fuissent * * 
* * Heu pietas, Heu prisca fides! invicta que bello 
Dextera! * * * * 

Manibus date lilia plenis : 
Purpureos spargam flores ! 

CAPTAIN JAMES S. DRUM 

"Was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, in January, 1833, and removed 
with his parents to Indianapolis while yet a boy. After 
receiving a liberal education, he engaged in mercantile pur- 
suits. His military tastes were early developed. For several 
years he was one of the number of generous and high spirited 
young men at the Capital, who kept up, at great expense to 
themselves, the volunteer military companies of the city. It 



384 REGIMENTAL HISTORY 

was at a period when such associations were regarded with 
but little favor by a large portion of the community. The 
difficulties under which their supporters labored, and which 
they bravely surmounted, are known only to those who were 
familiar with the inner life of our armories in those peaceful 
days. He was a member of the National Guards — an organ- 
ization which has given to the country a large number of 
accomplished officers. That association, kept alive by the 
indomitable will and untiring energy of a few young men — 
conspicuous among whom was James S. Drum — -was able, 
when the country became involved in war, to furnish the 
Government with a number of trained soldiers, possessing 
the ability to instruct others. 

When the war broke out, Capt. Drum left the peaceful pur- 
suits of commerce, and gave himself at once to his country. 
He only asked to be placed where his services were most 
needed. His first, appointment was under the State — as 
Commissary at Camp Morton. While the first regiments 
were being raised and organized, he labored with them faith- 
fully and acceptably. When the Nineteenth regiment was 
formed, he was appointed its Quartermaster, and went with 
it to the field. He accompanied it during all its trials, marches 
and battles. How well he performed his difficult and labo- 
rious duties, the records of the departments, and of the regi- 
ment, will show. He was the same gallant, unselfish gentle- 
man in the field, that he was at home, and won the love of 
all with whom he associated. His faithfulness to his trusts 
was rewarded by promotion to the rank of Captain in the 
Commissary Department, U. S. A. 

In March, 1863, Capt. Drum was ordered to report to Gen. 
Burnside for duty in the West. He was placed in charge of 
the depot of supplies at Nicholasville, Ky., and proceeded with 
his wonted energy in systematising the business at that post. 
He had been but a short time there, when he was suddenly 
stricken down with disease, and died, after a few days illness, 
on the eighteenth of April, 1863. He escaped the perils 
through which his regiment passed; but the exposures and 
labors of the campaigns on the Potomac sowed the seeds of 
death in his system. 



REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 385 

Among the many, very many, noble spirits who have given 
up their lives to their country, none deserve a more grateful 
remembrance, than Capt. Drum. No one labored more faith- 
fully and devotedly, and no one entered the service with a 
more sincere conviction of duty. He had all the noble qual- 
ities of a soldier. He was proud of his profession, and 
labored constantly and earnestly in the discharge of duty. 

TWENTIETH REGIMENT. 

Was organized at Lafayette by Col. ¥m. L. Brown. The 
following is the roster : 

Field and Staff Officers. — Colonel, William L. Brown, Lo- 
gansport; Lieutenant Colonel, Charles D. Murray, Kx>komo; 
Major, Benjamin H. Smith, Logansport; Adjutant, Israel !N". 
Stiles, Lafayette; Regimental Quartermaster, Isaac W. Hart, 
Attica; Surgeon, Orpheus Everts, Laporte; Assistant Sur- 
geon, A. Hurd, Oxford; Chaplain, William C. Porter, Ply- 
mouth. 

Company A. — Captain, John Van Valkenburg, Peru ; First 
Lieutenant, William B. Reyburn, Peru ; Second Lieutenant, 
Jonas Hoover, Peru. 

Company B. — Captain, John Wheeler, Crown Point; First 
Lieutenant, Chas. Alex. Bell, Corydon ; Second Lieutenant, 
Michael Sheehan, Crown Point. 

Company C. — Captain, Oliver H. P. Bailey, Plymouth; 
First Lieutenant, William C. Cassleman, Plymouth; Second 
Lieutenant, Joseph Lynch, Plymouth. 

Company D. — Captain-, George F. Dick, Attica; First Lieu- 
tenant, Charles Reese, Attica ; Second Lieutenant, James A. 
Wilson, Attica. 

Company E. — Captain, James H. Shannon, Laporte; First 
Lieutenant, John W. Andrew, Laporte; Second Lieutenant, 
John E. Sweet, Laporte. 

Company F. — Captain, John Kisler, Danville ; First Lieu- 
tenant, Thomas H. Logan, Logansport; Second Lieutenant, 
Edward C. Sutherland, Logansport. 

Company G. — Captain, Nathaniel Herron, Lafayette; First 
Vol. I.— 25. 



386 REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

Lieutenant, William C. L. Taylor, Lafayette; Second Lieu- 
tenant, William B. Brittingham, Lafayette. 

Company H. — Captain, George W. Geisendorff, Indiana- 
polis; First Lieutenant, George W. Meikel, Indianapolis; 
Second Lieutenant, William 0. Sherwood, Indianapolis. 

Company I. — Captain, James M. Lytle, Valparaiso ; First 
Lieutenant, Erasmus C. Gilbreath, Valparaiso; Second Lieu- 
tenant, William T. Carr, Valparaiso. 

Company K. — Captain, Alfred Reed, Monticello; First 
Lieutenant, John T. Richardson, Monticello; Second Lieu- 
tenant, Daniel D. Dale, Monticello. 

The regiment left Lafayette in July, and drawing arms and 
accoutrements at Indianapolis, left for Cockeysville, Md., on 
the second of August, where it performed guard duty on the 
Northern Pennsylvania railroad, and perfected itself in regi- 
mental drill, and the duties of camp. September twenty- 
fourth the regiment left for the Beat of war. Arriving at 
Baltimore, it took steamer for Fortress Monroe, camped there 
one day, and took steamer for Hatteras Inlet. 

On the twenty-seventh of September, arrived at Hatteras 
Inlet. A heavy gale blowing, and the breakers running high, 
rendered landing very dangerous; but the pilot was skillful 
in his profession and took his gallant ship through the stormy 
breakers, and safely anchored her in the inlet, off Fort Hat- 
teras. 

The next day the regiment was transferred to small steam- 
ers of light draft, and started for Pamlico Sound. Traveling 
steadily all the afternoon, much of the time seeing nothing 
but sky and water; at sunset the Colonel's steamer ran under 
the lea of a forest, and signaled a halt. Going ashore in a 
small boat, the Colonel found flags of truce flying from the 
few houses on the beach, and the settlement was named 
Chickamacomico. It was a wild spot, and, notwithstanding 
the white sand which covers the surface, was luxuriant with 
vegetation, and a heavy growth of small timber. The trees 
were loaded with wild grapes, and yellow persimmons glis- 
tened like gold in the sun. The pine tree and live oak com- 
pose the groves, and the mocking bird sings among their 
leafy branches. The inhabitants are fishermen; most of 



REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 387 

them were born here and know no other spot. One small 
windmill ground corn for the settlement. It was daylight, 
Sunday morning when the regiment landed, and selecting a 
pine grove on the Pamlico beach, went into camp. At once 
a lively traffic arose with the fishermen, and the price of fish 
advanced. 

Four days passed pleasantly in this semi-tropical life. The 
men roamed over the island, gathering grapes, or wandering 
upon the beach picking up shells. Save a few fishing skiffs, 
not a sail dotted the smooth waters of Pamlico Sound. Dur- 
ing the night the camp fires glistened among the dark woods, 
while the roar of old ocean, and the sighing wind through 
the fibre leaves of the pine, lulled the soldiers to sweet slum- 
ber. This was the poetry of war; the reality soon came, 
and when it did come was terrible. 

The second of October was an eventful day. Supplies had 
become short, and as they must come by Pamlico Sound, its 
horizon was watched for a steamer. In the afternoon the 
propeller Fanny arrived within two miles of shore and ran 
aground, heavily laden with provisions, ammunition and 
baggage. Major Smith, Sergeant Evans and E. M. B. Hooker 
boarded her in a skin 1 ', and having received in a batteaux 
enough provision for supper, put rapidly for shore. Shortly 
after a steamer loomed up in the distance, followed by two 
others. This rebel fleet opened a heavy fire on the Fanny. 
Soon as the attack was made the Captain and crew aban- 
doned the Fanny, and jumping into a small boat rowed rap- 
idly to the shore, leaving Lieut. Hart, Quartermaster of the 
Twentienth, to do battle as a naval officer. He ordered the 
artillerist to fight the boat till she sunk. But the loyalty of 
the Captain of the gun was suspected; after firing a shot or 
two he disabled his gun and the Fanny was taken. 

It was an exciting and a mortifying scene. The regiment, 
ready and eager for battle, had nothing but a few fishing 
skiffs to fight three swift armed rebel steamers. They had 
to stand and see their boat, provisions and men captured, 
without the least hope of resistance or rescue. The regiment 
lost thirty men captured on the Fanny, besides Lieut. Hart. 
Dark night came on ; when morning broke no vessel was in 



388 REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

sight. October third two small steamers came from Hatteras 
Inlet with a few days provisions, which were safely landed. 

On the morning of October fourth, at eight o'clock a fleet 
of vessels hove in sight on Pamlico Sound. A few officers 
and soldiers gathered round the small fishing houses on the 
beach, watching their approach. The fleet consisted of seven 
steamers, two schooners, and one floating battery. Each 
vessel was alive with troops. Upon near approach it was 
evident they were rebels. The regiment had no artillery and 
could not make an effective resistance. The fleet of the 
enemy drew near, and opened a fierce cannonade upon the 
camp and regiment drawn up in line of battle upon the beach. 
While the shelling was in progress, part of the fleet sailed 
off* in a southerly direction, intending to land twenty miles 
south, near Hatteras Light House, where the beach was about 
three hundred yards wide, and thus cut off the regiment from 
all hope of reinforcement. The Twentieth, however, pre- 
pared to make the best resistance possible, when Col. Brown 
received an order from Col. Hawkins to retreat to the Light 
House. With sorrowful hearts the men obeyed the order. 

It was a terrible march. The sun baked the white sand. 
No water was to be had for the first ten miles. The sand 
gave way at every step, and, as the column moved on, man 
after man staggered and fell back exhausted, to be taken 
prisoner by the enemy. The regiment still toiled on, with- 
out canteens or haversacks. Hunger was nothing in com- 
parison with thirst. That was exhausting, this was madden- 
ing. In every clump of bushes were men utterly exhausted. 
All this time the vessels of the enemy steamed down the 
Sound to cut off' reinforcements. He had previously landed 
a force which was rapidly coming up. 

But the most sorrowful sight was the Islanders leaving 
their homes from fear of the foe. They could be seen in 
groups, sometimes with a little cart carrying provisions, 
fleeing for dear life. Mothers carrying their babes, fathers 
leading little boys, grandfathers and grandmothers leaving 
homes they had never left before. There was an air of sad- 
ness and desolation about these poor people truly heart- 
rending. 



REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 389 

About sunset the regiment reached a narrow part of the 
beach about five miles north of Hatteras Light House. The 
fleet of the enemy was already drawn up in line, with guns 
bearing to sweep the beach. The clouds in the west reflected 
the bright tints of the sun, and showed the black hulks of 
the gunboats. In the east heavy gray clouds lowered, and 
the twilight hid the regiment from view as it quietly passed 
along; the dashing of the ocean surf tendering a welcome 
aid to drown their footsteps. At midnight they reached Hat- 
teras Light House, having made a march of twenty-eight 
miles. Here water was found and the tired soldiers lay down 
to rest. The next day the regiment reached Hatteras Inlet. 
Forty-five men were captured on this march, who spent seven 
months in rebel prisons. 

The regiment camped, that is lay down on the white sand 
at Hatteras Inlet, with the vault of heaven for a canopy. 
The beauties of this delightful place are worthy description. 
The sea bounds the view on one side and Pamlico Sound on 
the other. "When it storms, fine particles of sand fill eyes, 
ears and mouth with judicious impartiality. When it does 
not storm, the sun scorches indiscriminately. There are 
two forts — Clark and Hatteras. Fort Clark is built of sand 
piled up, covered up with turf to keep it from blowing away. 
Fort Hatteras is a little more sand, more turf, and a few more 
guns. The rest of the landscape is white sand. 

At four o'clock on the morning of the first of November, 
the cry went through camp, " Wake, wake, for your lives — 
the sea is coming on us ! " The sea was running like a mill 
race through the avenues between the tents. Towards the 
Inlet nothing was visible but stormy breakers and angry 
waters — no hope there. At the north the sea had formed a 
bayou across the beach, and no land was to be seen. To the 
east the breakers of the Atlantic roared and hissed like a 
million serpents. In the west the Sound, covered with fog, 
stretched forth its waters. Nothing remained for safety but 
the enclosure of the fort, rising a few feet above the beach. 
Here the men clustered, watching the rapidly gathering 
waters — Watching for a glimpse of daylight; hoping the 
dawn of day would bring relief. The gray dawn came at 



390 REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

last, to show through fog and driving spray the utter destruc- 
tion of the camp, and the loss of a great part of the clothing 
and provision a steamer had brought the night before. The 
tide, too, ceased to rise, but the fleeting spray and drifting 
rain, cutting like a knife, rendered it dangerous to move. 
At last the tide went down, and the half drowned regiment 
moved to high sand hills seven miles up the beach. 

The day after the deluge six rebel steamers came down the 
8ound, evidently expecting to find the force drowned ; but it 
was destined to another fate. On the ninth of November 
the regiment left Hatteras Inlet, and on the tenth arrived at 
Fortress Monroe. 

The regiment lay at Camp Hamilton, near Fortress Mon- 
roe, until March, 1862, when it moved to Newport News, at 
the mouth of the James river. Here it witnessed the great 
naval battle between the Merrimac and Monitor. All the 
time, at both these camps, was profitably employed in field 
maneuvers. 

On the tenth of May the regiment moved to Norfolk, Va., 
and participated in the capture of that stronghold of rebel- 
lion. At daylight, as it was bivouacing upon the beach, near 
SewelPs Point, the Merrimac was blown up, shaking the 
earth for miles around. The regiment camped near Norfolk 
for a few days, then it moved across the river to Portsmouth, 
and on June sixth, 1862, left for the Army of the Potomac, 
engaged in front of Richmond, where it arrived June eighth, 
and was assigned to Jamieson's brigade, Kearney's division, 
Heintzelman's corps, and took position on the Fair Oaks 
battle ground. 

The fights in front of Richmond, after the battle of Fair 
Oaks, May thirty-first, consisted in a series of reconnoissances 
and skirmishes, until the battle of Gaines' Mill, June twenty- 
sixth, when a combined movement was made by the whole 
rebel army, upon the right and rear of our lines, resulting in 
the seven days' battles, and the retreat of the Army of the 
Potomac to Harrison's Landing, on the James river. 

The movements of the regiment are interesting in this con- 
nection, as it was the only Indiana regiment that took part 
in these battles, and composed part of the rear guard of the 



REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 391 

army. In fact it was the last regiment to leave the intrench - 
ments in front of Richmond. 

On the eighteenth of June, the regiment had a brisk picket 
skirmish, losing three men wounded, and holding in check 
the enemy. 

BATTLE OF THE ORCHARDS. 

On the twenty-fifth of June, a battle took place on the left 
of the Army of the Potomac, in which the regiment took an 
important part. The enemy's line was driven back a mile, 
when it was heavily reinforced, and the regiment retired to 
the woods, still holding part of the ground they had gained. 
While it lasted, this was a desperate battle. It was named 
the " Battle of the Orchards," and was in the vicinity of the 
Charles City road, leading to Richmond. The battle field is 
five miles from that city. The fight occurred partially in 
timber, ending in a wheat field. The struggle was terrible; 
in less than twenty minutes, the regiment lost one hundred 
and ninety-two men, killed, wounded and missing. The 
rebels charged upon our battery, and were repulsed with 
great loss. The rebel papers report the loss of the First 
Louisiana regiment in this engagement, to be fourteen oifi- 
cers and two hundred men, killed and wounded. The Third, 
Fourth, and Twenty-Second Georgia regiments, were also 
engaged, and lost heavily. On the Union side two regiments 
were engaged, with these four rebel regiments. Here fell 
Capt. Lytle, while waving his sword and cheering his men to 
charge a rebel battery. Other brave men fell by his side; 
their names will be found in the Roll of Honor. Night com- 
ing on, the regiment retired to the woods, and the next day 
took position in the intrenchments. 

On June twenty-seventh, when all were expecting orders 
to advance on Richmond, it was whispered around camp that 
Jackson had turned our right, and was threatening our rear 
and supply depot at the White House. Then came an order 
to destroy all stores that could not be carried. Gen. Kear- 
ney's division was detailed to cover the retreat. For nearly 
two days the regiment remained in the second line of rifle 



392 



REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 



pits, seeing the mass of the army file past in retreat. It was 
a sorrowful sight to abandon our redoubts and rifle pits with- 
out firing a gun. Still more heart-rending to witness the 
immense destruction of property, and to see the sick and 
wounded tottering along; for no ambulance corps existed 
then in the Army of the Potomac. The column of glitter- 
ing bayonets filed past; artillery and cavalry disappeared in 
the woods. Abandoned works, burning stores and desolation 
were all that met the view of the forlorn hope of the Twen- 
tieth Indiana. 

Presently a rustling was heard in the woods ; a rebel bat- 
tery, supported by large bodies of infantry and cavalry, sud- 
denly appeared, unlimbered and opened on the Union force. 
There being no artillery with the regiment it fell back. The 
rebels seemed to know the windings of the road, for several 
men were killed while filing through it, although the column 
was hidden by the woods. Moving half a mile a cavalry 
attack was made in the rear, but it was quickly repulsed. At 
dark Kearney's division was reached, when it camped for the 
night. 



BATTLE OP FRAZIER'S FARM. 



On June twenty-ninth, Gen. Kearney selected a position to 
fight the enemy. The division formed in the edge of timber, 
an open field in front, our right and center supported by 
heavy batteries; our left resting on a swamp. The line of 
battle being about four miles long. At two o'clock the 
enemy appeared in force, and opened with artillery, which 
was promptly silenced by our batteries. At three o'clock 
their infantry moved in column, and, deploying, charged 
along our whole line, howling like fiends. Our artillery 
swept them from view, as the wind licks the dust from the 
earth. Fresh columns were pushed forward, and the rebels 
seemed to deem no sacrifice too great to drive us from our 
position. The conflict was terrible; missiles of death filled 
the air; each moment had its sound of terror; every spot its 
scene of horror. Again the rebels charged, and again were 
repulsed; dark night came on and the battle ceased. 



KEGIMENTAL HISTORY. 393 

The force attacking our line consisted of the divisions of 
Gens. Hill and Longstreet, each containing six brigades. 
Opposed to them were the divisions of Gens. Kearney and 
Hooker, each containing five brigades. 

A rebel history of the war (Pollard's) says in regard to this 
battle: "It was now about half past nine o'clock, and very 
dark. Suddenly, as if it had burst from the heavens, a sheet 
of fire enveloped the front of our advance. The enemy had 
made another stand to receive as, and, from the black masses 
of his forces, it was evident that he had been heavily rein- 
forced, and that another whole corps d'armee had been brought 
up to contest the fortunes of the night. Line after line of 
battle was formed. It was evident that his heaviest columns 
were now being thrown against our small command, and it 
might have been supposed that he would only be satisfied 
with its annihilation. The loss here on our side was terrible. 

"The situation being evidently hopeless for any further 
pursuit of the fugitive enemy, who had now brought up such 
overwhelming forces, our troops retired slowly." 

In this battle Lieut. Andrew was killed. He fell like a 
hero, cheering on his men. Other comrades fell with him. 
At midnight our lines withdrew, and took position upon Mal- 
vern Hill. 

BATTLE OF MALVERN HILL. 

The battle of Malvern Hill has been rendered memorable 
by its monument of carnage, and the desperate tenacity with 
which it was fought. It was the last struggle of the enemy 
to keep us from safety on the banks of the James river. 
Harrison's Bar, the depot of our supplies, is seven miles from 
Malvern Hill. The rebel Generals knew they must pierce 
our lines and whip us, or all hopes of our capture were gone. 
While attacking us in front, they sent a column, under Jack- 
son, to cut off our rear, by way of Jones' ford, on the Chick- 
ahominy, and the Charles City Court House road; but that 
column arrived one day too late, and the army was saved. 

During the night, and early in the morning, the succession 
of elevations, known by the general name of Malvern Hill, 



394 REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

was planted with artillery, rising tier above tier, until three 
hundred pieces were in position. Our right rested upon an 
impassible swamp, and our left on the James river, covered 
by the fire of our gunboats. 

At nine o'clock the rebels opened with a heavy fire of 
artillery, which was responded to by our batteries. The day 
was clear and cloudless; a fine breeze refreshed the tired 
troops ; while the James river — our haven of rest — sparkled 
in the sun. 

At about fi.ve o'clock, the enemy, under Gen. Magruder, 
made their first charge. They approached in solid columns 
on a run. From our line of batteries a murderous storm of 
grape and canister met them, and hurled their shattered col- 
umns to the earth. Officers and men went down by hun- 
dreds, but yet, undaunted, they formed and dashed nearer. 
Here the carnage was dreadful. They broke and ran. !Nb 
effort of their officers could rally them. Night ended the 
battle; and at midnight the army fell back to Harrison's 
Landing, the enemy being in no condition to pursue. 

Here the weary veterans rested until the fifteenth of August, 
doing picket duty occasionally, but not being engaged in any 
action. The regiment formed a portion of the flank guard 
of the Army of the Potomac during its march across the 
Peninsula to Yorktown. Taking steamers there, it proceeded 
to Alexandria, and from thence moved to the Rappahannock 
river, where it was on picket when Jackson made his famous 
raid on Manassas Junction. Immediately marching to meet 
the enemy, it reached Bristow Station after the battle of Ket- 
tle Run, where Hooker defeated EwelPs division, of Jackson's 
corps. 

On the twenty- seventh of August the regiment moved with 
the army on Manassas, and from thence pursued the enemy 
to Centreville, and thence to Manassas Plains. 

On the twenty-ninth it took part in the battles, and its 
Colonel, William L. Brown, fell early in the engagement. 
The second day it acted as a support to a battery, and com- 
posed part of the rear guard when Pope's army fell back 
upon Centreville. 

On the first of September, amid a terrific thunder storm, it 



REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 395 

took part in the battle of Chantilly, where the brave Phil. 
Kearney fell — the gallant leader of a division to which it had 
so long been attached. In respect to his memory, his brave 
veterans now wear the Kearney cross — a badge of honor. 

About the sixth of September the regiment reached 
Alexandria, where it remained in camp six weeks. 

On the eleventh of October the regiment left its camp on 
Arlington Heights, crossed the Georgetown bridge, and 
entered Maryland. Stuart's cavalry were making a raid in 
Pennsylvania, and our column moved rapidly, in hopes of 
intercepting the rebel force near Conrad's ford. A beautiful 
country met our eyes along the route. Tired with gazing on 
the never changing green Virginia pines, the men looked 
with delight on the huge chesnut trees, towering oaks and 
black walnuts. The contrast, too, between the ruined tene- 
ments and war desolated fields of Virginia, and the thrift of 
Maryland, told the men they were in a State not yet desolated 
by the ravages of war. The column reached Rockville at 
dark. 

At four o'clock the next morning started for Poolesville; 
and after marching rapidly all day, passing through Pooles- 
ville at dusk, reached Conrad's ford at midnight, ten hours 
after Stuart's cavalry had crossed. The river being too deep 
for infantry to ford, the regiment returned to camp near 
Poolesville. 

On the twenty-ninth the regiment crossed the Potomac at 
Conrad's ford. The water was running swiftly, the ford 
deep, but the men, eager for a forward move, plunged in 
with cheers, although it was quite chilling to blood and 
patriotism. Climbing the abrupt bank, on the Virginia 
shore, tfhe regiment moved rapidly towards Leesburgh. 

About this time there was a general forward movement of 
the Army of the Potomac. The right was crossing at Har- 
per's Ferry, Williamsport and other points, and moving up 
the Loudon Valley, along the eastern side of the Blue Ridge: 
while the left, crossing at Conrad's ford, Edward's ferry and 
other points, moved along the Kittoctan and Bull Run moun- 
tains. Meanwhile, the rebel army was leisurely retiring up 
the Shenandoah Valley, their flanking parties holding all the 
gaps. 



396 REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

For a few days the regiment camped near Leesburgh. 
Early in November moved over the Kittoctan mountain, and 
proceeded up the Loudon Valley. This portion of Virginia 
had not been desolated by war. The column wound through 
a well cultivated country. At one halt the people turned out 
and welcomed the Union army. In one neat town, called 
Quaker Church, every hospitality was offered. There were 
many really handsome residences and gardens ; and the Qua- 
kers, proverbial for their industry and frugality, had made 
the wilderness blossom. The Quakers were all Union men, 
and one old patriarch guided the column through by-paths 
across the country. Along well graded pikes, through fields, 
across rapid streams ; now passing orchards filled with fruit, 
and then climbing mountain paths, where no team could 
penetrate, the force pressed on. At Goose creek a few strag- 
glers from the rebel army were captured, but no enemy was 
to be seen in force, although from the gaps, lying west, artil- 
lery firing could be heard. 

At Waterloo the regiment had a skirmish with the enemy. 
On November seventh camped near Warrenton. While the 
Twentieth were marching and halting, guarding the fords of 
the Rappahannock, the main army was swinging through 
Manassas Gap, and marching towards Fredericksburgh. 
Gen. McClellan was removed about this time, and Gen. 
Burnside appointed to the command. It was an unfortunate 
removal, as it necessitated a halt of the whole army, and lost 
several days in the onward movement. 

On the nineteenth of November the regiment saw the 
church steeples of Fredericksburgh. The city had been aban- 
doned by its inhabitants, and Gen. Longstreet, with his divi- 
sion, held the hights in its rear. The advance of our army 
was too late to occupy this important position. 

After demanding the surrender of the city, and being 
refused, the Union army quietly went into camp upon the 
hills of Stafford. For weeks the two armies were quiet, the 
enemy all the time strengthening his position. 

On the eleventh of December the regiment left camp; and, 
marching down the river, crossed on a pontoon bridge, and 
took part in the battle on the left, with Franklin's corps. 



REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 397 

The brigade to which they were attached arrived in time to 
save three Union batteries from being captured by the enemy. 

The Pennsylvania Reserves, by a bold charge, succeeded in 
driving the enemy from their first line of rifle pits, and were 
following up their success rapidly, when out of the woods, in 
their front, the enemy swarmed in overwhelming numbers, 
and hurled them back. Pushing on, in pursuit of the disor- 
dered brigade, the rebels caught sight of our batteries, and 
charged with a yell. Capt. Randolph, Chief of artillery, was 
in despair. The supports had fled. The rebels were within 
fifty yards of his guns. Just then he caught sight of the 
Twentieth coming up the hill at a double-quick. He knew 
their bronzed faces. His countenance lightened with glad- 
ness. Swinging his sword over his head, he shouted to his 
heroes of the Peninsula, "Forward, boys, and save my 
battery ! " 

Like a drove of wolves, on rushed the rebel hordes. They 
thought the battery theirs ; their wild yells filled the air, and 
their matted locks waved in the breeze; but a glistening line 
of bayonets met them in their mad career. They saw famil- 
iar faces before them ; they had seen these Hoosiers in front 
of Richmond, and knew their fighting qualities: they had 
fought with them, for it was the old Georgia foe charging 
upon our batteries. Halting, hesitating, they gave a wild 
cry, as our steady line swept on; then broke in confusion, and 
fell back to the woods. It was a bayonet charge; not a shot 
was fired by the regiment. The moral strength of the line 
of bayonets saved our batteries. 

For two days and nights the regiment lay along the crest 
of a hill, exposed to the fire of the rebel sharpshooters, and 
annoyed by the constant excitement of watching their artil- 
lery, which opened on our lines at every opportunity. Their 
batteries, however, were quickly silenced by ours, whenever 
they opened. 

The regiment waited and watched, until the order was 
given to recross the river. Burnside's army fell back to 
their camps, amid the pines of Stafford hills, after losing 
many men, and accomplishing nothing. The loss of the 
regiment was small. 



398 REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

About the middle of January, 1863, occurred the famous 
mud march of Burnside's army. The weather was very 
pleasant when the march began, but on the twentieth it 
began to rain, and soon turned into a cold driving storm. 
In a short time the roads became almost impassable, on 
account of mud. The regiment was detailed to bring along 
the pontoon train; mules and horses having given out in the 
deep mud of the ruts and gorges along the base of Stafford 
hills. It seemed a task almost impossible, but the men of 
the Twentieth never gave up without an effort, and wading 
through mud and mire, with the pitiless storm beating in 
their faces, they succeeded in bringing horses and pontoons 
to the banks of the Rappahannock. The labor of the men 
on that day, was pronounced by all who witnessed it, to have 
surpassed any they had ever seen. 

The storm, however, defeated the proposed movement, and 
Gen. Burnside having been relieved, his plan was abandoned, 
and the forces returned to their respective camps, under com- 
mand of Gen. Hooker. The regiment remained in camp 
until the battle of Chancellorsville. 

BATTLE OF CHANCELLORSVILLE. 

In the latter part of April, the army took the field. The 
cavalry, with several divisions of infantry, moved up the 
Rappahannock, and prepared to cross. The second, fifth, 
eleventh, and twelfth corps moved up the river, while the 
first, third and sixth moved down to Franklin's old crossing, 
at the battle of Fredericksburgh. Meanwhile, after hard 
fighting, the cavalry crossed, and moved rapidly south, intend- 
ing to destroy the railroads, and cut off' the enemy's supplies. 
The fifth corps moved south-east, towards Chancellorsville. 
On the thirtieth the third corps joined the main army, and at 
noon, of the first of May, the whole army, with the excep- 
tion of the first and sixth corps, were on the south bank of 
the Rappahannock, at and near Chancellorsville. That after- 
noon a fierce attack was made upon our advance. 

The country occupied by the army, was a perfect wilder- 
ness, broken by ravines, and intersected by numerous creeks, 



REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 399 

running in a northerly direction. Our army quickly took 
position, and on the second was ready for battle. The right 
faced west of south ; the center formed on the plank road 
running from Fredericksburg to Culpepper; the left faced 
nearly east. No attack had as yet been made on our right. 
The assault on the day previous, had been on our center, on 
the plank road, from the direction of Fredericksburgh. 

The third corps was in the center, along the north bank of 
a small stream, called Mott's run, which was a little south of 
the plank road and nearly parallel to it. The rebels were 
found in force. The Twentieth was detached, and sent on 
picket on the banks of this stream. During the night the 
regiment threw up a rail breastwork. The next day, at day- 
light, the enemy was seen moving rapidly in the direction of 
Gordonsville, and the impression was that he was retreating. 
Stoneman, however, had destroyed the railroad, and the 
Union army were in possession of the only wagon road by 
which they could obtain supplies. 

About eight o'clock in the morning, a wagon train was 
seen winding its way among the hills, south of Mott's run. 
Soon after, Gen. Birney determined to take the south bank 
of the stream. Deploying one company as skirmishers, the 
Twentieth moved up the hill. 

When the third corps moved forward, the troops on its 
right, consisting of the eleventh corps, moved also to accom- 
modate themselves to the new line. During the night, the 
eleventh corps was attacked by Jackson's rebel corps, with 
great fury, and in a few minutes fell back in great disorder; 
leaving the center of the army broken. By the exertions of 
Gens. Sickles and Pleasanton, and the obstinate bravery of a 
few scattered regiments, the enemy's advance was checked. 

It was now dark; the second and third divisions of the 
third corps, were getting into position on the plank road, 
facing west. The first division was falling back from its 
advanced position, as quietly and rapidly as possible. The 
Twentieth was the last regiment to move back, getting to 
the main body at about eleven at night. Upon reaching 
their breastworks, the Union forces took position on the 
reverse side, facing to what had been their rear. 



400 REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

Next morning our forces commenced falling back. Upon 
seeing this, the rebels made a furious assault, and the battle 
raged with great fury until one o'clock, when all the Union 
troops south of the plank road were withdrawn, and a new 
line formed, shaped like a Y, with its apex pointing south- 
ward, its flanks resting on the river. This position the army 
held for two days, defying every attempt of the enemy to 
force it. On the sixth of May, the whole Union army had 
recrossed the Rappahannock, and thus ended the battle of 
Chancellorsville. 

This battle was fought on the first, second and third of 
May. Perhaps few regiments had so many compliments 
showered upon them, as was bestowed upon the Twentieth, 
during this terrible battle. From the very first, in the 
extreme front, its gallantry was so marked, its courage so 
undaunted as to bring forth expressions of delight from the 
commanding Generals. At one time, while skirmishing, the 
regiment captured the whole of the Twenty-Third Georgia, 
numbering more than their own men. When the eleventh 
corps broke, and thus enabled the enemy to turn our right, 
and cut off the third corps from the main army, rendering a 
midnight attack necessary, the regiment was withdrawn from 
the front, and facing to the rear, prepared to cut their way 
through. Advancing quietly, in line with the rest of the 
division, the charge was made with the bayonet, the enemy 
driven back and communication established. After the bat- 
tle, when Gen. Ward called for a report of the regiment, Col, 
Wheeler reported it gay. "Yes," said Gen. Hooker, "that 
regiment is gay." 

The army rested for about a month after the battle of 
Chancellorsville. Lee, in the meantime, had moved his force 
on our right, penetrated Maryland and invaded Pennsylvania. 
The army of the Potomac followed, and covered Washing- 
ton. On the first of July the armies faced each other at 
Gettysburgh. 

BATTLE OE GETTYSBURGH. 

On the second the terrible battle on the left of the army 



REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 401 

of the Potomac, at Getty sburgh, was fought. The regiment 
was posted on a rocky hill called Round Top, in front of 
which the enemy made his fiercest attack. Column after 
column of rebel troops were hurled upon this part of our 
line. The enemy seemed determined to lose no effort to 
carry our position. Fortunately for the Union army, the 
" Iron Third," commanded by the gallant Sickles, was there 
to meet them. How well it performed its duty, the four 
thousand braves of that corps, who fell killed and wounded, 
that day, speak in mute eloquence. 

On the morning of the second of July the first, second 
and eleventh corps were in line, and the rest of the army in 
reserve. The second faced west; the first and eleventh north 
and north-east; all occupying a semi-circular ridge, with a- 
high hill at each end, the center projecting towards the enemy. 
Soon after daylight the enemy threatened our left, and the 
third corps was placed at the left of the second. Heavy 
skirmishing was carried on all the forenoon. About one, p. 
m., a heavy force of the enemy was seen advancing up the 
west side of the ridge, along which runs the Emmettsburgh 
pike. 

The second brigade of the first division, in which was the 
Twentieth, was now on the extreme left of the army. It was 
posted on a low ridge, overlooking a wooded hollow, through 
which ran a small stream. On the opposite side of this 
stream was the ridge on which runs the pike. The rebel 
forces moved rapidly up its western slope, planted their bat- 
teries upon the crest, while their infantry swarmed in the 
hollows. Their right extended far beyond our left. 

The third corps had but one line, and there were several 
gaps in it. Soon the skirmishers came in contact, and shot 
and shell from opposing batteries filled the air. A heavy 
column of rebels crossed the stream and charged up the hill 
upon our batteries. At one time one of them was in their 
possession, but they were soon driven off. In a short time, 
and with hard fighting, the enemy were forced back to the bot- 
tom of the hollow; our troops closing after them. In front 
of the Twentieth was a stone wall and scattered rocks. Behind 
these the rebels took shelter. The Twentieth were exposed, 
Vol. I.— 26. 



402 REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

yet for two hours they faced the concealed foe, firing at the 
rebels whenever they exposed themselves. Here the regi- 
ment met its heaviest loss. Col. Wheeler was killed by a 
ball w T hich passed through his throat. Lieut. Bobbins was 
shot through the heart. Capt. Reese shot in the eye, and 
almost half the regiment killed and wounded. 

The regiment had a sheltered position in small timber, but 
gallantly pushing forward drove the enemy before them. 
Then the enemy gathered new numbers, and poured in ter- 
rible volleys. Not a step backward moved the Twentieth. 
They deployed as skirmishers and quietly lay down. Heavy 
lines of the enemy advanced against them. They melted 
before the single line of fire poured from the " Iron Third." 
Not a man flinched, each tried to excel the other in personal 
daring. This was the second time this regiment had a gal- 
lant Colonel fall at the head of its stubborn column. Its 
colors were riddled w 7 ith shot and shell. The color Ser- 
geant, and six of the eight of the color guard, were killed or 
wounded. One hundred and fifty-three of that gallant band 
were left on the field. Every man proved himself a hero. 
Each man had made up his mind that that battle must be 
won. It was one of the most savage fights of the war. 

Next day the enemy attempted to break through our cen- 
ter. After a terrific cannonade of an hour's duration, Long- 
street's veterans, confident of success, untutored to defeat, 
charged, with savage yells, upon our position. "With guns at 
a "right-shoulder-shift," on they came, at a double-quick, 
right into our line of fire. On and still on, until they almost 
reached the mouths of our cannon. Great gaps were made 
in their lines, by the fire of our artillery. Yet, closing up, 
solid as a stone wall, they rushed into the jaws of death. 

But a more terrible foe was to meet them. The "Iron 
Third" corps again advanced, the Twentieth in the first line. 
Then a vivid flame like lightning flashed along the ranks, 
and swept the hitherto unconquered corps, like grass before 
the scythe. With disordered ranks they fell back. Few 
indeed of that brave enemy rejoined their comrades. Thirty- 
eight stand of rebel colors were among the trophies of the 
Union army. 



REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 403 

On the fourth the regiment was again thrown lox'ward as 
skirmishers, and had a severe fight, losing one officer and 
several men. Then followed the pursuit of the retreating 
enemy. 

Tired, shoeless, ragged, with empty haversacks and bleed- 
ing feet, day after day, the Union army followed the rebel 
forces, until they crossed the Potomac at Williamsport, Md. 
Our weary troops could not bring the enemy to battle, 
Neither, in their exhausted condition, could they overtake 
him. 

The brigade to which the regiment was attached crossed 
the Potomac at Harper's Ferry, and moving along the base 
of the Blue Ridge, in pursuit of the retreating army of Lee, 
after passing Snicker's and Ashby's Gaps, came upon the 
rear guard at Manassas Gap. Here a brilliant engagement 
took place between the third corps and the rear guard of the 
rebel army. The Twentieth was in the advance as skir- 
mishers. The enemy was defeated. Here ends their battles 
for the present. 

By order of the War Department the regiment was sent 
to New York City, in July, to protect public property and 
quell a riot. Col. Taylor had command of a portion of the 
regiment at Fort Schuyler. Lt. Col. Meikle of the remainder 
at David's Island. Here the regiment passed several weeks, 
doing provost duty, and guarding rebel 'prisoners. In Octo- 
ber the regiment was again ordered to the front. 

Here we leave it. Its ranks are decimated. Brother 
mourns for brother; comrade looks around for comrade. 
Many a file leader has stepped from its ranks into eternity. 
Alas! there is many a gap to fill in many a happy home. 
But its breast is still bared to the storm. Onward, still 
onward, is and shall be its motto, until the Union is saved, 
and the rebellion crushed. 

A GALLANT INDIANIAN. 

While the Army of the Potomac was lying at Harrison's 
Landing, all the wounded, and most of the sick, were sent 



404 REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

north. It was truly a lamentable sight to see steamers filled 
with crippled patriots. The scene described took place on 
one of them : 

" While among the wounded on the State of Maine, yes- 
terday, we stopped by the stretcher of a fine looking fellow, 
and inquired about his wounds. " Shot through the shoulder, 
sir, bones broken, but am getting along well. Do you think 
they will put me ashore here ? " I replied that, as his wound 
was so severe, I thought he would be sent north, and proba- 
bly he might be so disabled as to require a discharge. "Oh! 
no, sir! I don't want a discharge; I want to go back to my 
regiment as soon as I can ; I want to have another chance at 
the rebels." "What regiment do you belong to ? " " Twen- 
tieth Indiana," he replied, "but you have not heard of us 
among so many other regiments. We were the only 'Hoo- 
sier' regiment in the week's battle before Richmond, but we 
did our work in the rear guard, and whipped the rebels every 
time they attacked us." Said I, "Your State is raising eleven 
new regiments and six batteries more for the war." "Is she? 
I knew it! I knew it! God bless the Hoosier State!" he 
exclaimed, while his eye lighted up with fresh fire, and his 
wan emaciated face flushed with blood quickened into action. 
"I knew it, sir; there will never be any need of drafting in 
Indiana. We went into this war to save the Union, and 
every man in our State will volunteer to uphold the old stars 
and stripes and crush out this rebellion." 

"Finding that he was becoming too earnest for his welfare, 
and perceiving that he was nearly exhausted by excitement, 
I grasped his hand and bid good bye. He was a true type 
of the noble men from the West." 

BRAVE PHIL. KEARNEY. 

On Monday night, September first, 18B2, at the battle of 
Chantilly, the brave and brilliant General Philip Kearney fell. 

Gen. Kearney was a native of New York, and was about 
forty-eight years of age. His family have resided in New 
Jersey since 1816. He was appointed in 1837 an officer of 
dragoons in the United States army. During the Mexican 



REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 405 

war lie was sent abroad to inspect the armies of Europe. 
Kearney's cavalry was the pride of the service in the Mexican 
war, and Kearney was named "Our Murat." At the gates 
of the city of Mexico his left arm was carried away by a 
cannon ball. After the war, he resigned his commission in 
the regular army, and traveled extensively abroad. He took 
an important position in the Algerine war, and was aid-de- 
camp to a French Marshal at Solferino. 

When intelligence of the present war reached him in 
France, he returned at once, and offered his services to his 
country. He was appointed Brigadier General May seven- 
teenth, 1862. He was made Major General a few weeks 
after, having fairly won it on the bloody fields of Williams- 
burgh, Fair Oaks, Orchards, White Oak Swamp, Cross Eoads 
and Malvern Hill. 

On the Peninsula his splendid division was in almost every 
fight, and everywhere the fighting Phil. Kearney, with his 
single arm, was a terror to the foe. He ordered his division 
to wear a patch of red flannel on their caps, so that they 
might be known, and that he might know them. Hence, 
this red patch has become a badge of honor; and whenever 
the rebels find our dead, with this mark, they bury them with 
the honors of war. He always led his men in person, and 
never allowed the front of battle to get ahead of him. It 
was a familiar sight to see him, on his white steed, sweep 
along the front, between opposing volleys, as if he courted 
death. Many stories are told of his bravery. His voice 
rang out in the roar of battle, and he always sought the 
thickest of the fray. Kebel prisoners always desired to see 
him, for in the roar of battle he had often passed so swiftly 
before their astonished eyes, and had so often defied the shots 
of their best men, that he seemed invulnerable. 

A splendid officer, a fighting General, a brave soldier, a 
patriotic citizen — all these qualities united in Philip Kearney, 
who has set the seal of his life as his attestation of the ines- 
timable value of the cause for which he struggled and fell. 

In such respect was he held by the enemy, that, upon his 
death, Gen. Lee sent, under a flag of truce, his body, sword, 
horse and equipments, through our lines, with a testimonial 
to his bravery. 



406 REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

COLONEL WILLIAM L. BROWN. 

Through the untiring energy of this earnest man, the 
Twentieth Indiana was organized. At the time he proposed 
forming the regiment, the Government had refused to receive 
any more troops. But his importunity overcame all obstacles, 
and he was authorized to raise a regiment. In less than one 
month it was raised, equipped, and in the field. 

Col. Brown was a strict disciplinarian. In military matters 
he ruled with an iron hand, and none could say nay against 
his orders. In his regiment he took a personal pride. It 
was his, and he meant to make it, and did make it, one of 
the most effective in the service. The officers who neglected 
their duties received from him little mercy. He was an 
enthusiast in the cause. He believed that his life, and that 
of his men, belonged to his country; that nothing should be 
thought of, nothing done, inconsistent w T ith his country's 
good. Fearless, no danger daunted him; persevering, no 
disappointment checked his hopes. At Hatteras, when he 
was told there w T ere no vessels to convey his troops, he said, 
"Give me wood and iron, and I will make ships." As the 
column marched along, through the valley of Virginia, the 
form of the Colonel could always be seen in advance. Some- 
times, in the moonlight, winding through dark woods, the 
moon breaking through the trees, the Colonel, on his black 
horse, "Lincoln," could be seen, like an adventurous knight 
of old, leading on the column. He knew the ground ahead 
of him. His slim figure at times disappeared in the distance, 
and again appearing, he rode along the line to see that all 
was right. The regiment felt, that, under him, a surprise 
was impossible, and the men followed his lead with perfect 
confidence. He was watchful of the comfort of his men. 
His rule was, they should have every thing they were entitled 
to. Hence, the regiment was well fed and clothed, whenever 
possible. 

Thus through the storms of Hatteras, on its desolate sands; 
through the campaign of the Peninsula, amid the swamps 
and malaria of the Chickahominy ; during the march across 
to Yorktown, and the picketing on the Rappahannock, did 



REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 407 

CoL Brown lead his gallant band, until at the battle of Bull 
Run, August 29, 1862, he yielded up his life to the cause he 
loved and fought for so well. He was instantly killed by a 
shot in the left temple. Thus, in the prime of life, was cut 
off all his earthly ambition and hope. Wm. Lyons Brown was 
born at St. Clairsville, 0., the nineteenth of November, 1817. 

COL. JOHN WHEELER, 

Was born in Connecticut, on the sixth of February, 1825. 
At an early age his parents moved to Ohio; thence to Indi- 
ana, in 1847. He enlisted as a private in company B, Twen- 
tieth Indiana, on the twentieth of June, 1861; shortly after- 
wards he was elected Captain of the company. This position 
he held for seven months, when he was promoted to Major. 
After serving as Major seven months, he was promoted to 
the Lieutenant Colonelcv. At the end of seven months he 
received a Colonel's commission. 

All the men of company B, loved John Wheeler as a Cap- 
tain. He was a father to them. Often, after the duties of 
the day were over, did they collect around his tent to consult 
him about their friends at home. His pleasant manners, 
genial disposition, cordial smile, and kindness of heart 
secured for him the confidence and esteem of the regiment. 
Upon the resignation of Major Smith, he was promoted to 
the vacancy. This position he filled with marked ability. 
He was, during the seven day's fight in front of Richmond, 
always at the post of duty, and, upon the death of Col. 
Brown, at the Battle of Bull Run, took command of the 
regiment. 

When the Twentieth went into camp upon Arlington 
Heights, after seven months' fighting and marching, Lieut. 
Col. Wheeler let the men rest to their heart's content. 

Just before the battle of Chancellorsville, John Wheeler 
was commissioned Colonel. He went through that bloody 
fight, accompanied the regiment in its pursuit of Lee to 
Pennsylvania, and in the famous battle of Getty sburgh, 
sealed with his life, his devotion to the cause he lovedi, 
Those who knew him best, loved him most. 



408 REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

LIEUT. JOHN W. ANDREW, 

Was born in Hamilton, Ohio, on the seventh of January, 
1831. His father, Daniel Andrew, was the son of Dr. John 
Andrew, a surgeon in the army of the revolution. Descended 
from such a patriot, it was but natural that he should be one 
of the first to buckle on the armor in defense of his beloved 
country. His parents died when he was quite young, and he 
sought a home in the family of his uncle. As a boy he was 
gentle and kind, a universal favorite, yet intimate with few. 
After completing his studies in the Miami University, he 
settled in Laporte. The gentle boy grew into a brave man. 
When the rebellion broke out, his character seemed to have 
undergone a complete change; the timid, peaceful citizen was 
transformed into an avenger of his country's honor, and by 
voice and example, he called upon his comrades to rally for 
their country and their flag. Never before had he shown 
such earnestness. His most intimate friends gazed in wonder 
as he evinced his fiery zeal and courageous patriotism. 

He enlisted as a private, in company E, Twentieth Indiana. 
Upon its organization he was chosen First Lieutenant, and 
entered camp on the second of July, 1861. He was with the 
regiment in all its sufferings at Hatteras, and upon all occa- 
sions cheerfully performed every duty. 

The protracted stay of the regiment at Fortress Monroe 
and Newport News, while the Army of the Potomac was 
marching up the Peninsula, was impatiently endured by the 
Twentieth, and by none more than by Lieut. Andrew. At 
length, to his great joy, it was ordered to Norfolk, which was 
captured without resistance, and his company was one of the 
first to land at the wharf of that stronghold of rebellion, and 
march in triumph through its streets. 

Kemaining there about a month, the regiment left for the 
front of Richmond. Here Lieut. Andrew was placed in com- 
mand of the sharpshooters, who were employed in various 
important duties. On the eighteenth of June the regiment 
took part in a skirmish. On the twenty-fifth it lost a large 
number of men in the battle of Orchards. In this battle 



REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 409 

Lieut. Andrew was conspicuous in rallying his men, and 
cheering them on to the charge. 

On the twenty-sixth the army commenced its retreat to the 
James river. Kearney's division, to which the Twentieth 
was attached, was the rear guard. In the terrible battle of 
Glendale, on the thirtieth, just before dark, while directing 
his men to fire a little more to the left, a bullet pierced Lieut. 
Andrew's head, over the right eye, and he fell dead not five 
paces from the front. 

The chaparal and timber in front, swarmed with the foe. 
They were pressing on in countless thousands; yet the posi- 
tion was held till midnight, and then the command fell back; 
but, alas! the body of the brave Lieut. Andrew was left upon 
the field. It could not be removed. And he sleeps with 
other heroes, beneath the evergreen pines of the Peninsula. 

THIRD INDIANA CAVALRY. 

The following was the roster of the regiment, when fully 
organized: 

Field and Staff Officers. — Colonel, Scott Carter, Vevay; 
Lieutenant Colonel, Jacob S. Buchanan, Vevay; Major, 
Geo. H. Chapman, Indianapolis; Major, Charles Case, Fort 
Wayne; Adjutant, Geo. H. Thompson, Madison; Regimental 
Quartermaster, John Patton, Yevay; Surgeon, Elias W. 
H. Beck, Delphi; Assistant Surgeon, Luther Brusie, Laporte. 

Company A. — Captain, Jacob S. Buchanan, Vevay; First 
Lieutenant, William Patton, Vevay; Second Lieutenant, 
Robert P. Porter, Vevay. 

Company B. — Captain, James D. Irvin, Corydon; First 
Lieutenant, Benjamin Q. A. Gresham, Corydon; Second 
Lieutenant, Marshall Lahue, Corydon. 

Company C— Captain, Theopile M. Langlade, Vevay; First 
Lieutenant, Charles Lemmon, Vevay; Second Lieutenant, 
Paul Clark, Vevay. 

Company D.— Captain, Daniel B. Keister, Aurora; First 
Lieutenant, Matthew B. Mason, Aurora; Second Lieutenant, 
Henry F. Wright, Aurora. 

Company K— Captain, William S. McClure, Madison; 



41 REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

First Lieutenant, George W. Thompson, Madison; Second 
Lieutenant, Abner L.Shannon, Madison. 

Company F. — Captain, Patrick Carland, Connersville; 
First Lieutenant, Oliver M. Powers, Connersville; Second 
Lieutenant, Thomas "W. Moffett, Connersville. 

Company G. — Captain, Felix W. Graham, Johnson county; 
First Lieutenant, Geo. F. Herriott, Johnson county; Second 
Lieutenant, John S. Kephart, Johnson county. 

Company II. — Captain, Alfred Gaddis, Frankfort; First 
Lieutenant, Joseph M. Douglass, Frankfort; Second Lieu- 
tenant, Uriah Young, Frankfort. 

Company I. — Captain Will. C. Moreau, Knightstown; 
First Lieutenant, Tighlman Fish, Knightstown; Second Lieu- 
tenant, Oliver Childs, Knightstown. 

Company K. — Captain, Robert Klein, Switzerland county; 
First Lieutenant, Christopher Roll, Switzerland county; Sec- 
ond Lieutenant, George Klein, Switzerland county. 

Company L. — Captain, Oliver M. Powers, Connersville; 
First Lieutenant, George J. Langsdale, Indianapolis; Second 
Lieutenant^ Simeon J. Mitchell, Indianapolis. 

Company M. — Captain, Charles U. Patton; First Lieuten- 
ant, James W. Haymond, Greensburgh ; Second Lieutenant, 
James W. Stephens, Corydon. 

The Third regiment of Indiana cavalry (Forty-Fifth of 
volunteers) was formed in October, 1861, by a transfer of 'six 
companies of the First Indiana cavalry, (A, B, C, D, E, and 
F) then in Hooker's division of the Army of the Potomac, 
under command of Lieut. Col. Scott Carter. Lieut. CoL 
Carter was promoted to the Colonelcy of the regiment, and 
Geo. H. Chapman, of Indiauapolis, who was then holding a 
position in the clerk's office of the lower house of Congress, 
was appointed Major, and joined that portion of the regi- 
ment, in the Army of the Potomac, about the first of Novem- 
ber. It was understood, from the outset, that the Lieutenant 
Colonelcy would be most likely filled by a selection from 
among the Captains of the first six companies; and in the 
spring of 1862, Captain J. S. Buchanan, of Co. A, was pro- 
moted to that place, with commission dating from the 
fifteenth of December, 1861. Four new companies were 



REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 411 

added, (G, H, I, and K) which were in Indianapolis in camp, 
and were hurried to Kentucky under the pressure of troops 
occasioned by the concentration of Johnston'- army at Bowl- 
ing Green, and have since remained attached to the Army of 
the Cumberland. 

As before stated, the first six companies formed a part of 
Gen. Hooker's division, which was then stationed on the 
Maryland side of the Potomac, south of Washington, with 
headquarters near Budds' ferry. Gn the eighth of December, 
Major Chapman was ordered to take two companies — B, 
Capt. Gresham, and F, Capt. Garland. — and proceed into St. 
Mary's county for the purpose of breaking up the contraband 
travel and trade, there being carried on to some extent 
between Baltimore and Virginia. This detachment was 
increased in a few days by the addition of Co. A, Capt. 
Buchanan, and remained on duty there about four months, 
until the withdrawal of the troops from that locality. While 
there they captured several small cargoes of contraband 
goods, took a number of prisoners, succeeded in effectually 
breaking up communication with the disloyal States by that 
route, and received the commendation of the General com- 
manding for the efficient manner in which they had dis- 
charged the duty assigned them. During the same period, 
Co. E, Capt. McClure, was doing detached duty along the 
river, in the vicinity of Maryland Point and Port Tobacco, 
having duty assigned to it similar to that assigned the detach- 
ment under Major Chapman. 

When the Army of the Potomac embarked for the Penin- 
sula, Gen. Hooker was ordered to leave the Third Indiana 
behind, because of the limited means of transportation, and 
the small field for the operations of cavalry before York- 
town. The General expressed his regret that the regiment 
should be separated from his command, and the men and 
officers of the regiment parted with the General with much 
reluctance, as he was a favorite with all, and endeared to 
them by long association. The command remained on duty 
in southern Maryland until May, when orders were received 
to proceed to Washington, which city it reached on the 
twelfth, and went into camp on its northern suburbs. Vari- 



412 REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

ous conjectures were indulged in as to what was to become 
of the command ; and, among others, one was quite prevalent 
with the men, that it was to be paid off and mustered out of 
the service. But it was not realized. In a day or two a part 
of the command — four companies — were ordered on provost 
duty in the city, under command of Major Chapman, and 
were directed to go into quarters designated. That portion 
of the command which was not so detailed were several 
times called out to quell insubordination in other commands, 
lying in and about the city, which they succeeded in doing 
in each instance without resorting to bloodshed. The men 
of those companies detailed on provost duty were set to 
work cleaning up the quarters assigned to them; but before 
the work was completed, there came the report of Jackson's 
advance down the Valley of the Shenandoah; and on the 
twenty-fourth day of May the command was ordered to pro- 
ceed early next morning, marching light and rapidly to rein- 
force Gen. Geary in Thoroughfare Gap. Early next morn- 
ing it was in motion, and on the morning of the twenty- 
sixth reached its destination. The command followed the 
fortunes of this officer for about three weeks, when it was 
ordered to report to Gen. Shields at Luray; and did so in 
time to join his movement back to Front Royal, and from 
thence, after a few days, to Bristow Station, on the Orange 
and Alexandria railroad. Gen. Shields was relieved in a few 
days afterwards, his division broken up, and otherwise 
assigned — a considerable portion going to the Peninsula. 
The Third Indiana remained at Bristow until the seventh of 
July, when it was ordered to report to Gen. King, at Fal- 
mouth, and marched for that point. The regiment remained 
at Falmouth until the evacuation of the place by Gen. Burn- 
side on the last of August; and during that time was engaged 
in scouting the country to the south of Fredericksburgh, and 
had several skirmishes with the enemy's cavalry. On the 
twenty-third of July, a cavalry detachment, consisting of Co. 
A, Capt. "Wm. Patton, and Co. B, Capt. Gresham, of the 
Third Indiana, under command of Major Chapman, and a 
part of the Harris Light cavalry — the whole under command 
of Lieut. Col. Kilpatrick, of the Harris Light — proceeded to 



REGIMENTAL HISTORY 413 

Anderson Turnout, on the Virginia Central railroad, within 
ahout twenty miles of Eichmond; and, after a brief engage- 
ment, dispersed a squadron of rebel cavalry encamped at 
that point, destroying their tents and other property, and 
capturing several prisoners. It was the nearest approach 
made to Richmond, from the direction of Fredericksburgh, 
during the summer of 1862, and took the rebels somewhat 
by surprise. Afterwards, a squadron of the regiment — com- 
panies C and D — took part in a reconnoissance made by Gen. 
Gibbon to the neighborhood of Orange Court House, and 
won most flattering commendations from that officer. 

After the evacuation of Fredericksburgh the Third Indiana 
proceeded by transports from Aqnia creek to Washington, 
joined the army of the Potomac, and during the Maryland 
campaign, which ended with the battle of Antietam, formed 
a part of Gen. Pleasanton's command. The regiment was 
engaged in a number of cavalry skirmishes commencing with 
Poolesville and ending with Martinsburgh, and also in the 
battles of South Mountain and Antietam, and always so con- 
ducted itself as to win golden opinions from the General 
Commanding. It was during this campaign that the regi- 
ment became associated with the Eighth Illinois cavalry, 
which association has continued to the present writing, and 
throughout the army of the Potomac the "Eighth Illinois 
and Third Indiana" are coupled together as two of the best, 
if not very best, cavalry regiments in the army. 

On the twenty-fifth of October, 1862, Lieut. Col. Buchanan 
resigned on account of ill health, and Major Chapman was 
promoted to fill the vacancy thus occasioned. In July Capt. 
Robert Klein had been commissioned as Major for the bat- 
talion in the army of the Cumberland, and during the sum- 
mer two new companies (L and M) had been raised, but were 
retained on service in Indiana, where they still remain. There 
being a vacant Majority by virtue of the promotions before 
named, Capt. William S. McClure, of Company E, was pro- 
moted, dating from October twenty-fifth, 1862. Lieut. Geo. 
H. Thompson, Adjutant of the regiment, was promoted to 
the Captaincy of Co. E, and Sergt. Gam. S. Taylor, of Com- 
pany E, appointed and commissioned Adjutant, 



414 REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

On the eleventh of March, 1863, Col. Carter tendered his 
resignation on account of physical disability. He was hon- 
orably discharged, and Lieut. Col. Chapman was promoted 
to fill the vacancy thus occasioned, and Major Robert Klein 
to the Lieut. Colonelcy. Subsequently Capt. Charles Lem- 
mon and Capt. William Patton were promoted to the rank 
of Major. 

The regiment, or to speak with more precision, the battal- 
ion to which this account mainly refers, has formed a part 
of the Army of the Potomac since the commencement of 
the first Maryland campaign, and shared in all the movements 
of that army. At the battle of Fredericksburgh in Decem- 
ber, 1862, the command, though drawn up on the nights 
immediately opposite the city of Fredericksburgh and ready 
for action during the entire engagement, was not called upon 
to place itself under fire, there being no field for cavalry ope- 
tions. When Gen. Stoneman started out early in April, 
1863, with the cavalry, for the purpose of making a "raid" 
in the rear of Lee's army, but one brigade of Pleasanton's 
division was taken, that being the first, to which the Third 
Indiana belonged. Heavy rains prevented the expedition 
from crossing the Rappahannock until the twenty-ninth of 
April, though several attempts were made; and after crossing, 
the force was divided into columns, one being under com- 
mand of Cen. Averill, to which the brigade of Pleasanton's 
division was assigned. Gen. Stoneman accompanied the other 
column which crossed the Rapidan and made what is known 
as " Stoneman's raid." The column under Gen. Averill was 
also to have crossed the Rapidan higher up, and effected a 
junction with Gen. Stoneman below Gordonsville. He pro- 
ceeded to Rapidan ford, where the enemy's cavalry were 
found holding the south bank of the river, and skirmished 
one day without accomplishing any result. The next day 
orders came from Gen. Hooker to return to the army, and 
the command entered the lines on the day succeeding the 
battle of Chancellorsville, and before the army had recrossed 
the river. 

Upon Gen. Pleasanton succeeding Gen. Stoneman in com- 
mand of the cavalry corps, Gen. John Buford was assigned 



REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 415 

the command of the first division, which assignment was 
made only a short time previous to the second invasion of 
Maryland by Lee's army. The cavalry corps took up their 
line of march for the purpose of heading Lee's cavalry, who 
were preparing to start on a raid at Culpepper Court House. 
At Warrenton Junction the corps was divided into two col- 
umns. One under Gen. Gregg, which proceeded to Brandy 
Station via Kelly's ford; the other, under General Buford, 
crossed the Rappahannock at Beverly ford, near which cross- 
ing one of the severest cavalry battles took place that had 
occurred during the war, and in which the Third Indiana 
bore no mean part ; on the contrary, it sustained nobly the 
already enviable reputation enjoyed by the command. On 
the twenty-first of June, 1863, occurred the cavalry battle 
at Upper ville, between the cavalry corps of the army of the 
Potomac and " Stuart's cavalry," resulting in a complete 
success for the Union army. The Third Indiana bore an 
honorable part in that engagement, and, together with the 
Eighth Illinois, and a detachment of the Twelfth Illinois, met 
ft rebel brigade at close quarters, and drove them back with 
heavy loss. A few days afterwards the army crossed the 
Potomac in pursuit of Lee, and Gen. Buford's division of 
cavalry was ordered to proceed along the South and North 
Mountain as far as Gettysburgh. 

On the morning of the thirtieth of July his division entered 
Gettysburgh as the advance of the army of the Potomac, and 
passing through the town, the first brigade, of which the 
Third Indiana formed a part, encamped about a mile out of 
town on the Chambersburgh pike. The next morning, July 
first, about half past seven o'clock, our pickets reported the 
enemy advancing in force. Dispositions were soon made to 
meet them, and for two hours, until the arrival of the advance 
of the first army corps, the cavalry held the enemy in check, 
Thus opened the first days fight of the battle of Gettysburgh. 
So soon as the infantry came up the cavalry were withdrawn 
from the immediate front, but still remained on the field. 
About the close of the first days fighting, and whilst our 
troops were falling back through the town, hard pressed by 
the enemy, the Third Indiana and Eighth ~New York cavalry 



416 REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

were sent forward to check a heavy flanking force of rebel 
infantry, until our troops could get into position on the hills 
behind the town. The position was a hazardous one for cav- 
alry, but the regiments went to the work with alaerit}^ and 
succeeded in checking the rebels until our infantry had retired 
through the town. It was here Major Lcmmon fell mortally 
wounded, while gallantly urging the men to hold their posi- 
tion against the advancing foe. Major Lemmon had risen 
from the rank of First Lieutenant to that of Major, and was 
a most efficient and zealous officer, and his loss was deeply 
felt and sincerely mourned. He was extensively known 
throughout the army as an excellent cavalry officer — one who 
had but few equals. 

It would hardly be possible, within reasonable limits, to 
mention in detail each engagement and skirmish, in which 
the Third Indiana has taken part, but it has been of the 
advance of almost every move of the Army of the Potomac, 
and has achieved a reputation for gallantry and bravery of 
which it is justly proud. Up till the present time, it has been 
in over forty engagements with the enemy, and has won the 
confidence of its commanding officers and been mentioned by 
them in most flattering terms. 

The battallion has participated in the following engage- 
ments and skirmishes, up till August fourth, 1863: Four 
picket fights, sixteen cavalry fights, and twenty-two skir- 
mishes. It is yet in. the Army of the Potomac, and always 
in the front, under Col. Chapman. 

Skirmish, companies A and B, Anderson Turnout, Virginia 
Central railroad, July twenty-three, 18G2. 

Skirmish, Matta river, August fifth and sixth, 1862. 

Engagement, Cos. A and B, Poolsville, Sept. eighth, 1862. 

Skirmish, Barnsville, September ninth, 1862. 

Engagement, Kittoctan Mountain, Sept. thirteenth, 1862. 

Engagement, Middleburgh, September thirteenth, 1862. 

Skirmish, South Mountain, September thirteenth, 1862. 

Engagement, South Mountain, September fourteenth, 1862. 

Engagement, Antietam, September seventeenth, 1862. 

Skirmish, Shepherdstown ford, September nineteenth, 1862. 

Skirmish, Shepherdstown ford, September twentieth, 1862. 



REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 417 

Skirmish, Shepherdstown ford, Sept. twenty-eighth, 1862. 
Skirmish, Shepherdstown ford, Sept. twenty-ninth, 1862. 
Engagement, Martinsburgh, October first, 1862. 
Skirmish, mouth of Monocacy, October twelfth, 1862. 
Eeconnoissance, Charlestown, Va., Oct. seventeenth, 1862. 
Skirmish, Philemont, November first, 1862. 
Engagement, Union, November second, 1862. 
Engagement, Upperville, November third, 1862. 
Engagement, Barber's Cross Roads, November fifth, 1862. 
Engagement, Little "Washington, November eighth, 1862. 
Skirmish, companies A and B, Jefferson, Nov. tenth, 1862. 
Skirmish, Cos. A and B, Jefferson, Nov. eleventh, 1862. 
Skirmish, Cos. A and B, Jefferson, Nov. thirteenth, 1862. 
Engagement, Corbin's Cross Roads, Nov. eleventh, 1862. 
Engagement, Fredericksburgh, December thirteenth, 1862. 
Skirmish, Beverly Ford, April fifteenth, 1863. 
Skirmish, Kelly's Ford, April twenty-ninth, 1863. 
Skirmish, Rapidan Ford, May first, 1863. 
Engagement, Beverly Ford, June ninth, 1863. 
Skirmish, Philemont, June eighteenth, 1863. 
Engagement, Upperville, June twenty-first, 1863. 
Engagement, Gettysburgh, July first, 1863. 
Engagement, Williamsport, July sixth, 1863. 
Engagement, Boonsborough, July eighth, 1863. 
Skirmish, Beaver Creek, July ninth, 1863. 
Engagement, Funkstown, July tenth, 1863. 
Skirmish, Falling Waters, July fourteenth, 1863. 
Skirmish, Chester Gap, July twenty-first, 1863. 
Skirmish, Chester Gap, July twenty-second, 1863. 
Engagement, Brandy Station, August first, 1863. 
Skirmish, Rappahannock, August fourth, 1863. 

SIXTEENTH BATTERY. 

Formerly called Meigs', now known as Deming's, was 
organized at Indianapolis on the eighth of February, 1862, 
under the superintendence of Capt. Charles A. Naylor, with 
the following officers : 

Captain, Charles A. Naylor, Lafayette; First Lieutenant, 
Vol. I.— 27. 



418 REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

Henry F. Jennings; First Lieutenant, Charles E. Deming; 
Second Lieutenant, Claudius Dutiel; Second Lieutenant, 
Frederick Sturm. 

Being the only Indiana battery with the Army of the 
Potomac, much interest attaches to its history. It left for 
Washington on the first of June, and went into camp on 
Capitol Hill. On the twenty-sixth it was attached to the 
second division of Banks' corps, Army of Virginia, then 
under command of Gen. Pope, and took part in the series of 
battles which ensued. It took part in the battle of Slaughter 
Mountain, on the ninth of August, performing its duty gal- 
lantly. 

Immediately after followed the battles along the line of the 
Eappahannock river. Each ford had to be defended against 
the threatened advance of the enemy, and as the fighting was 
chiefly with artillery, the various batteries in the Army of 
Virginia were kept busy, night and day, in hopes to check 
the enemy long enough to enable the army of the Potomac 
to form a junction with Pope's command. The fighting 
lasted from August twenty-second, until September first, 
ending with the battle of Chantilly, when the entire army 
fell back on "Washington. 

A short sketch of the part this battery took in the numer- 
ous artillery fights, which followed each other so rapidly, will 
be of interest. 

At daylight, on the twenty-second, a shell from the section 
of the battery, commanded by Lieut. Deming, upon the left, 
announced the battle begun. For two days and nights the 
thunder of a hundred cannon reverberated along the banks 
of the river. The firing was almost incessant, mingled occa- 
sionally with musketry, as our skirmishers became engaged. 
During the first day's fight two guns were dismounted by the 
enemy's fire, and eleven horses killed. At midnight the bat- 
tery was ordered to advance and take position within six 
hundred yards of the enemy. The enemy had batteries 
numbering sixteen guns, bearing on our position; yet our 
men had brave hearts, and with ready will they began their 
dangerous advance. So quietly and admirably was the move- 



REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 419 

merit executed, that a good position was secured without 
attracting the attention of the enemy. 

The battle of August twenty-third was opened at daylight 
by Lieut. Deming's two guns, who occupied the center. 
Lieuts. Dutiel and Sturm quickly followed, and soon the 
entire front line of batteries was engaged. The battery had 
only four effective guns, yet for nine hours it withstood the 
concentric fire of sixteen guns from the enemy. It was sta- 
tioned in a small clump of pine trees. So savage was the 
enemy's fire, so terrible the showers of grape, canister and 
shell, which swept like a simoon through the trees, that the 
little clump of pines was entirely stript of its fibre-leaves, 
and the tops clipped off as if by a scythe. At four, p. m., the 
rebel batteries were silenced and withdrawn from the fight, 
leaving on the field two disabled guns, the remnants of three 
caissons, several of their dead and a number of horses killed. 
The battery was supported by the Fourteenth E"ew York 
regiment, which lost thirteen killed and many wounded. 
These two days fighting was very trying on the men ; yet 
they endured all hardships without a murmur. Gen. Hatch, 
commanding the division, complimented them for their 
bravery and endurance. 

On the morning of the twenty-sixth the whole army fell 
back from the line of the Eappahannock. A skirmish took 
place near Sulphur Springs, in which the enemy were handled 
so roughly as to abandon two guns, after having loaded them 
to the muzzle, with the expectation that they would explode 
when discharged. Our men drew the charges, however, and 
attached the guns to the Sixteenth battery. 

In the battles of Manassas Plains this battery took an 
active part. On the night of the twenty-eighth, at the battle 
of Groveton, the rebel twelve gun battery, styled the "Wash- 
ington Light Artillery," attacked the Union lines upon the 
right, capturing the guns of two Pennsylvania batteries. 
The Sixteenth battery was immediately thrown forward, and 
by their courage and determination saved two regiments of 
Union troops from annihilation. The gallant conduct of the 
men on this occasion was commended by the commanding 
General. 



420 REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

The battery was with Gen. McClellan at South Mountain 
and Antietam, and shortly after, Lieut. Deniing was appointed 
Chief of Artillery, second division. 

In October, 1862, Lieut. Deming proceeded to Washington 
and drew two sections of three inch guns complete, in charge 
of which he left for Warrenton, Ya., by the way of Harper's 
Ferry, Leesburgh, and Snicker's Gap, for the purpose of 
joining the corps of Gen. Reynolds. Near Snicker's Gap, 
on the eleventh of November, he was attacked by about 
three hundred of Mosby's and "White's rebel cavalry. Having 
no cannoneers, and nothing but drivers, he was compelled to 
retire, managing the guns himself, and after a fighting retreat 
of twenty-eight miles, crossed the Potomac at Berlin, saving 
his guns, and losing four men killed and three wounded. 

This battery has been pronounced equal to any regular 
battery in the service. 



SHENANDOAH VALLEY. 



CHAPTER XIV. 



Early in January, 1862, Gen. Lander, well known as one 
of the brave veterans of the Western Virginia campaign, took 
command of a force to protect the Baltimore and Ohio rail- 
road from the inroads of the enemy. 

As the history of the operations in the Shenandoah Val- 
ley is intimately connected with the subsequent movements 
of the army of the Potomac, it will be necessary to enter 
into a detail of the various battles and maneuvers which had 
so great a bearing on the future action of that army, and of 
the Union cause. 

Gen. Lander inaugurated his campaign by a series of rapid 
movements against the redoubtable "Stonewall" Jackson, 
who was then infesting the valley. By a bold dash he drove 
Jackson from Bloomery Gap, and kept the enemy con- 
stantly watching him. He also occupied Romney, and upon 
the advance of Jackson, with an overwhelming force, fell 
back, leaving nothing but a naked, frozen country, for the 
enemy to subsist upon. For his vigilance and energy he was 
publicly thanked by Secretary of War Stanton. His gallant 
campaign was brief, for he died on the second of March from 
wounds received in October, while engaged in a skirmish. 

On the ninth of March Gen. Shields took command, and 
with that impetuosity which always characterized his move- 
ments, commenced a series of reconnoissances down the 
valley. Moving towards Strasburgh he encountered the 

421 



422 SHENANDOAH VALLEY. 

enemy, who retreated before his advance. During the night 
of March twenty-second the enemy attacked his column, but 
was repulsed. Gen. Shields had his arm fractured by a shell. 
This bold movement of Gen. Shields brought on the battle 
of Winchester. The forces at this battle w T ere under com- 
mand of Col. Nathan Kimball of the Fourteenth Indiana, 
Gen. Shields being too severely wounded to be on the field. 

Winchester is approached from the south by three roads; 
the Cedar creek road, the Valley turnpike, and the Front 
Royal road. On the Valley turnpike, about three miles from 
Winchester, is a small village called Kernstown. About half 
a mile north of this village is a ridge of high hills, com- 
manding the approach by the road and part of the country 
in the immediate vicinity. This ridge was the key point of 
our position ; here Col. Kimball took his station^ Along 
this ridge three Union batteries, supported by infantry, were 
posted. 

The main body of the enemy was in order of battle about 
half a mile beyond Kernstown ; his line extended about two 
miles, from the Cedar creek road on his left to a ravine near 
the Front Royal road on his right. He had so skillfully 
selected his ground that, while it gave him facilities for 
manuevering, he was completely masked by wooded grounds 
in front. 

BATTLE OF WINCHESTER. 

At an early hour on March twenty-third Gen. Jackson's 
forces appeared in our front, and opened the battle. It com- 
menced with artillery, the enemy occupying the hights on 
the Kernstown road, along which they advanced. The Eighth 
Ohio, Col. Carroll, was thrown forward to meet him. At 
first he attempted to turn our left, but was soon repulsed. 
His attack on the left w T as only a feint to draw our forces 
from the right. Col. Kimball anticipated this movement and 
reinforced his right with all his available force. Meanwhile 
the enemy was heavily reinforced, and moved with his left 
wing on our right. The third brigade, under Col. E. B. 
Tyler of the Seventh Ohio, consisting of the Seventh and 



SHENANDOAH VALLEY. 423 

Twenty-Ninth Ohio, Seventh Indiana, First Virginia, and 
One Hundred and Tenth Pennsylvania, were sent to support 
our right. They fought the overwhelming numbers of the 
enemy at short musketry range. The fire was terrible and 
deadly. The Eighth Ohio and Forty-Eighth Pennsylvania 
came to their support. The second brigade, commanded by 
Col. Sullivan, of the Thirteenth Indiana, consisting of the 
Thirteenth Indiana, Fifth Ohio, Sixty-Second Ohio, and 
Thirty-Seventh Illinois, which had supported Davis' and 
Robinson's batteries on our left, and did good service, were 
sent forward to support Tyler's brigade. Each brigade 
moved forward gallantly, sustaining a heavy fire from the 
enemy. Soon all the regiments were sharply engaged. The 
fire w^as destructive. Our line wavered. The Thirteenth and 
Fourteenth Indiana came up to decide the 'battle. These two 
brave regiments fought most gallantly. Four times during 
that bloody charge their colors went down, only to rise again. 
Lieut. Col. Foster led the Thirteenth and Lieut. Col. Harrow 
the Fourteenth. As they gained the crest of the hill they 
gave a Hoosier yell, then poured forth a terrible volley, and 
charged boldly upon the swarming masses of the rebels, 
who then broke and fled. The enemy were posted in woods, 
to reach which the Thirteenth Indiana had to pass through 
an open field, exposed to a sharp fire; but they met the 
scathing fire, charged gallantly across the field and drove the 
enemy from the woods. The column still pressed forward, 
and amid a shower of grape and canister from the enemy's 
batteries drove them from every new position. 

Col. Kimball's forces numbered five thousand seven hun- 
dred and fifty men. Gen. Jackson had nine thousand six 
hundred. It was a glorious victory for the Union army, and 
reflects great credit upon Col. Kimball and the gallant men 
nnder his command. The headlong, impetuous charge of 
the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Indiana broke the enemy's 
line and routed him. 

The gallant Col. Murray, of the Eighty-Fourth Pennsyl- 
vania regiment, fell while leading forward his men amid a 
fearful storm of shot and shell. Col. Tyler was active and 
brave, and Carroll, Harrow, Foster, Yoris, Patrick and Sulli- 



424 SHENANDOAH VALLEY. 

van all fought bravely. The Fifth Ohio, Sixty-Second Ohio 
and Thirty-Ninth Illinois, were on the left supporting Car- 
roll's skirmishers, and Davis' and Robinson's batteries, and 
prevented an attempt to turn that flank. Our forces retained 
possession of the field of battle and bivouaced for the night. 
Our loss was one hundred and three killed and four hundred 
and forty-one wounded. That of the enemy was about 
twelve hundred. 

The rebel army fled towards Strasburgh. Our forces rap- 
idly pursued. Ashby, with his cavalry, and two brass how- 
itzers, covered their retreat. The people living on the route 
were so frightened that they fled to the woods, carrying with 
them much of their household effects. Gen. Banks, the day 
after the battle, took command of the forces, and the pursuit 
was continued to Mt. Jackson. Part of our forces advanced 
up the valley to 2sTew Market, the enemy, all the time, 
obstructing their progress,^ 

The Thirteenth Indiana regiment, Col. Foster, made a 
reconnoissance towards Somerville, and, on the seventh of 
May, had a sharp fight with three rebel regiments of infantry 
and three companies of cavalry, losing twenty-nine men 
killed, wounded and missing. 

About this time Garfield's division, formerly Gen. Shields', 
was ordered to join the command of Gen. McDowell, then 
stationed near Fredericksburgh, in order to join Gen. Mc- 
Clellan in his advance upon Richmond. They performed 
the long march, but only arrived in time to find that the 
movement had been abandoned on account of the daring 
raid of "Stonewall" Jackson upon the weak forces of Gen. 
Banks. Then followed the battle of Front Royal, and 
retreat of Gen. Banks down the Shenandoah Valley. 

BATTLE OF FRONT ROYAL. 

The First Maryland regiment, Col. J. K. Kenly, two com- 
panies of the Twenty-Seventh Pennsylvania, two companies 
of the Fifth New York cavalry, one company of Captain 
Mape's pioneers, and a section of Knapp's battery were sta- 
tioned at Front Royal, to protect the railroad and bridges 



SHENANDOAH VALLEY. 425 

between that town and Strasburgh. One company of the 
Second Massachusetts, one company of the Third Wisconsin 
and one company of the Twenty-Seventh Indiana were also 
posted along the road. These forces were under the com- 
mand of Col. Kenly, when, on the twenty-third of May, the 
enemy, numbering about fifteen thousand, under command 
of Gen. Jackson, were discovered moving down the Valley 
of the Shenandoah, between the Massanutten mountain and 
the Blue Ridge, in close proximity to the town.- 

Front Eoyal is not easily defended except by a large force. 
Two mountain valleys debouch suddenly upon the town from 
the south, commanding it by almost inaccessible hills. The 
town is exposed to flank movements by other mountain val- 
leys, by the way of Strasburgh on the east, and Chester Gap 
on the west. 

The little band, eleven hundred strong, found itself instantly 
compelled to choose between an immediate retreat, or a con- 
test with the enemy against overwhelming numbers. Col. 
Kenly was not the man to hesitate. He at once drew up his 
troops in the same order he had contemplated provided he 
was attacked by an equal number. The infantry was drawn 
up in line about half a mile in rear of the town. Five com- 
panies were detailed to support the artillery on the crest of a 
hill commanding a meadow, over which the enemy must pass 
to reach the bridge. The companies left to guard the town 
were soon driven back by the rebels. The battery on the 
hill opened fire on the enemy, and did much damage. The 
position was held for an hour, then our whole force retreated 
across the river, having destroyed the camp and stores. On 
the opposite side, our battery, Lieut. Atwell commanding, 
again took position, and opened fire on the enemy while 
fording the river ; but their numbers were overwhelming, 
and the command was ordered to fall back on the Winchester 
road. It proceeded about two miles and was overtaken by 
the rebel cavalry, when a fearful conflict ensued, resulting in 
the disorganization of the whole command. Col. Kenly was 
wounded and taken prisoner, and the entire train and one 
gun captured. We lost about forty killed and wounded. 
Seven hundred of our men were taken prisoners. 



426 SHENANDOAH VALLEY. 

RETREAT OF GEN. BANKS. 

Gen. Banks at once collected his forces and prepared to 
cover the movement of his trains. His command amounted 
only to five thousand. It would have been madness to fight 
a battle with the overpowering columns of the enemy. He 
determined to fall back upon Winchester. The race between 
the two armies was for Winchester, then supposed to be the 
key of the valley, and to our army a place of safety. 

At nine o'clock, on the morning of the twenty-fourth, the 
column left Strasburgh. Col. Donelly was in front; Col. 
Gordon in the center, and Gen. Hatch in the rear. The col- 
umn had passed Cedar Creek, about three miles from Stras- 
burgh, when the enemy suddenly attacked the train near 
Middletown, directly in our front, and took possession of the 
road by which our column must march to reach Winchester. 
They had moved rapidly from Front Royal by a cross-road 
and cut off our retreat. The troops were sent to the head of 
the column, and the trains to the rear, and the command pre- 
pared to cut its way through. 

The head of the column encountered the enemy near 
Middletown, thirteen miles from Winchester, and about four 
miles from Strasburgh. The Forty-Sixth Pennsylvania, Col. 
Knipe, penetrated the woods on our right and discovered 
five companies of rebel cavalry in an open field in rear of the 
woods. Cochran's battery opened fire on them. They soon 
fell back, pursued by our skirmishers. The Twenty-Eighth 
New York, Lieut. Col. Brown, then advanced in support, 
under a heavy fire of the enemy's artillery and infantry, 
and drove the rebels back two miles from the road. The 
contest lasted nearly an hour. Had the rebels attacked in 
force, they would have captured or demoralized the entire 
command. During the fight, Col. Brodhead, of the First 
Michigan cavalry, cut his way through to Winchester, and, 
coming back, reported the road unoccupied by the enemy. 

The column moved on to Kernstown, five miles from Win- 
chester. Here a halt was ordered. But the rebels were hov- 
ering on our flanks, and soon opened a fire from the dark 
woods on our men in the road. The column moved slowly 



SHENANDOAH VALLEY. 427 

on to Winchester, fighting all the way, and halted for the 
night outside of town. At daylight all were called to arms. 
Ool. Donnelly's brigade was on the left of the road south of 
Winchester. Col. Gordon's was on a ridge on the right. A 
little ravine was in front. On higher ground, in their rear, 
the artillery was posted. Here these two brigades, for three 
hours and a half withstood the assault of twenty-eight rebel 
regiments, and repulsed them. As the rebel troops, in heavy 
masses, were moving to flank our right, the Twenty-Seventh 
Indiana, Twenty-Ninth Pennsylvania, and Second Massa- 
chusetts, rushed forward with cheers, and, firing terrible vol- 
leys, checked for a while their advance. But the rebel force 
was too formidable, and our men fell steadily back. Win- 
chester was entered, the enemy in hot pursuit. The com- 
mand fell back in good order; the Second Massachusetts in 
column of companies, moving by the flank; the Third Wis- 
consin, in line of battle, moving to the rear. On every side, 
above the surrounding crest, surged the rebel fire. Sharp 
and withering volleys came from the enemy on the crest on 
our center, left, and right. The yells of a pursuing, victorious, 
and merciless foe, sounded above the din of battle. But the 
command was not dismayed. Steadly, they halted, returned 
the fire, reformed their ranks, covered the passage of the 
trains, and then pushed on. 

Then came the march through Winchester. The rear 
guard suffered terribly from the rebel cavalry. Brig. Gen. 
Gordon asserts in his official report that a spirit of murder 
was evinced by the enemy's cavalry, who struck down and 
butchered, with pistol and saber, the wounded and helpless 
soldier, sinking from fatigue, unheeding his cries for mercy, 
indifferent to his rights as a prisoner of war. And Gen. 
Banks in his report states that " officers whose word lean 
not doubt, have stated as the result of their observation, 
that men were fired upon from private dwellings in passing 
through Winchester." At last our forbearance ceased. 
Houses were stormed, and the assassins bayoneted. We 
fired store houses, and blew up the powder magazine. Then 
the guerrilla war ended. 

Still against our rear the rebel cavalry pressed ; but pressed 



428 SHENANDOAH VALLEY. 

in vain. Shot and shell could not break our defiant column, 
and, a few miles out of Winchester, Gen. Banks halted his 
men, and reformed his lines. 

The column moved towards Martinsburgh, hoping there to 
meet with reinforcements. The troops moved in three par- 
allel columns, each protected by a strong rear guard. The 
enemy pursued promptly and vigorously, but our movements 
were rapid, and we repulsed his successive attacks. The 
whistle of the locomotive, heard in the direction of Martins- 
burgh, inspired us with the hope of reinforcements, and 
stirred up the spirits of the men. 

Presently two squadrons of cavalry, with wild hurrahs, 
came dashing down the road. They were supposed to be the 
advance of the expected support, and were received with 
deafening cheers. Hearing the firing they had hastened 
forward to take part in the fight. They proved to be the 
First Maryland cavalry, sent out by Lieut. Col. Wetsehky 
in the morning as a train guard. Advantage was taken of 
this stirring incident to reorganize the column, and the men 
pressed on with renewed ardor. 

At Martinsburgh the forces halted for about three hours, 
and arrived at the Potomac at sundown. It was a march of 
fifty-four miles, thirty-five of which was performed in one 
day. 

A wagon train of five hundred wagons, nearly six miles 
long, was brought this distance, and only fifty wagons were 
lost. Our loss was killed thirty-eight; wounded one hun- 
dred and five; missing seven hundred and eleven. 

Let us sum up the result, and see how admirably the 
retreat was conducted by Gen. Banks : A retreat of fifty- 
four miles was made by five thousand men, closely pursued 
by an enemy numbering fifteen thousand, with a perfect 
knowledge of the country, and the sympathy of the inhab- 
itants; Gen. Banks with his advance interrupted, and the 
enemy pressing upon his flanks and rear, fought this over- 
whelming force for three hours and a half, and yet lost only 
thirty-eight killed, one hundred and five wounded, and seven 
hundred and eleven prisoners. 

The scene at night, upon the lovely banks of the Potomac, 



SHENANDOAH VALLEY. 429 

when the rear guard arrived, was beautiful beyond descrip- 
tion. A thousand camp fires burned upon the hill sides and 
sparkled in the waters. Five hundred wagons crowded the 
banks of the river; while the splashing of horses and tramp- 
ing of men, showed the eagerness of our troops to reach the 
opposite shore, for rest and safety. 

On the twenty-sixth of May the crossing of the Potomac 
was effected at Williamsport, Md., by the command of Gen. 
Banks. The ford was deep, and there was but one ferry 
boat. By good management, however, all the sick and 
wounded, and all the teams, artillery and troops were safely 
conveyed across the river. Five thousand weary men lay 
down that night on the north bank of the Potomac, thankful 
that they were within reach of reinforcements. They were 
grateful for rest; and confident in the wisdom of the com- 
mander who had so skillfully saved his small army. 

The troops hurried from all directions. The streets of 
Baltimore were filled with excited men. The line of the 
Baltimore and ' Ohio railroad was thronged with moving 
troops. Secessionists in Maryland were exultant, predicting 
the speedy arrival, in Baltimore, of the redoubtable " Stone- 
wall" Jackson. Shield's veteran troops, who had joined Mc- 
Dowell at Fredericksburgh, tired and footsore, were ordered 
to retrace their steps to intercept the enemy, while the fresh 
troops of McDowell quietly staid behind. 

Gen. Fremont, who had conducted a successful campaign 
in the Mountain Department and had defeated the enemy at 
Lewisburgh, McDowell, and elsewhere, was ordered, with his 
entire command, to join Gen. Banks at Williamsport, and 
drive Jackson out of the Valley. 

The occupation of Front Royal by the enemy was brief. 
They captured it on the twenty-fourth of May, and were 
driven out of it by Gen. Kimball' s brigade on the thirtieth. 
This movement of the enemy was the commencement of the 
evacuation of the Valley. Then followed the splendid retreat 
of Jackson, and the rapid pursuit of Fremont. 









480 shenandoah valley. 

Fremont's pursuit of jackson. 

| 

Gen. Fremont was at Franklin, Va., when the order 
reached him to join Banks at Williamsport, Md. His troops 
were exhausted by previous marches to relieve Milroy and 
Schenck, who had been fighting in the mountains. Rapidly 
gathering the main body of his command, he started over the 
mountains. The first day the army marched fifteen miles - r 
the next it reached Petersburgh, thirty miles from Franklin. 
Here the roads were almost impassable for teams. About 
the same time Jackson left Winchester. 

Knapsacks, tents and baggage were left behind, and our 
army marched to Moorefield. Thence it marched to Ward- 
ensville, twenty miles distant. 

On the thirty-first of May the last of the mountain ranges 
was crossed, and the western barrier of the Shenandoah Val- 
ley alone remained to be traversed. Our army was now 
pushing for Strasburgh. The troops marched twelve miles 
through the rain, halting at night at the forks of the Win- 
chester and Strasburgh roads. 

The advance moved early the next morning and encoun- 
tered the advance of the enemy about five miles from Stras- 
burgh, on the Winchester road. Col. Cluseret's brigade were 
the first engaged. Four companies of the Sixtieth Ohio, and 
two of the Eighth Virginia, advanced as skirmishers, and the 
contest was sharp.. An effort of the enemy to flank our 
position was repulsed. It was soon ascertained that we were 
lighting the rear guard of Jackson, his main force pushing 
rapidly through Strasburgh, toward Woodstock, during the 
fight. Jackson reached Strasburgh in time to slip between 
McDowell's troops on one side, and Fremont's on the other. 
McDowell's troops entered Strasburgh twelve hours too late- 
Col. Cluseret entered Strasburgh that night, June first, 
in the midst of a heavy thunder storm. The advance 
marched through the town, and when four miles beyond 
Strasburgh, was stopped by an ambush. It was dark, the 
storm was terrible, and the column halted for the night. 

The next morning the pursuit of Jackson was continued. 
The First New Jersey cavalry, Stewart's Indiana cavalry, 



SHENANDOAH VALLEY. 431 

and the Sixth Ohio cavalry, with BuelPs and Schirmer's bat- 
teries, under command of Gen. Bayard, hurried on. The 
morning was clear and pleasant. The troops moved with 
alacrity in the pursuit. Cavalry and flying artillery pressed 
onward. Presently the sound of artillery told that the 
enemy had made another stand. Col. Pillson brought up his 
batteries, and soon drove the rebels from position. A second 
stand was made by the enemy's rear guard, but with no 
better success. Our cavalry and artillery forced them to give 
way. A third time, under Gen. Ewell, they halted and 
opened fire. Conspicuous among the enemy was Col. Ashby, 
with fifteen hundred cavalry. At every halt he brought his 
howitzers to bear, and made dashing charges upon our 
advance. But nothing could stand before our men. Our 
cavalry drove their rear guard before them, and our artillery 
silenced their batteries. The enemy fell back and our pursuit 
continued. By this time we had taken several hundred 
prisoners. The enemy passed through "Woodstock without 
halting. Our column reached there the next day. 

Through "Woodstock, Mt. Jackson and New Market, our 
forces pressed in rapid pursuit. The enemy's rear guard 
made a stand at every favorable point, drove back our 
advance cavalry, but retired upon the approach of our artil- 
lery and infantry. Thus the pursuit continued through the 
Shenandoah Valley, without any striking incident, until the 
sixth of June, when, upon reaching Harrisonburgh the ene- 
my was found to be in force. The entrance to the town was 
not disputed. Our advance cavalry passed rapidly through 
the main street, and, turning to the left, advanced through 
open fields to the summit of a hill overlooking an open 
valley. E"o enemy was in sight. The cavalry halted, and 
skirmishers were thrown out. They returned without hav- 
ing seen the enemy. 

Col. Windham determined to advance. He had proceeded 
with his regiment, the First New Jersey cavalry, about two 
miles, when the enemy's cavalry were suddenly discovered 
in front, drawn up across the road, their line extending into 
the woods on either side. On the left of the road were 
woods; on the right, was a field of wheat. In this field was 



432 SHENANDOAH VALLEY. 

concealed a strong body of the enemy's infantry. Col. 
"Windham, ignorant of the force on his flank, charged up 
the hill. So soon as the first squadron was within the line 
of flanking fire, the enemy in the wheat field poured in a 
volley, which threw the squadron into confusion. Col. 
Windham's horse was shot under him, and he was taken 
prisoner. Gallant efforts were made, but in vain, by the 
other officers to rally our troops. They fell back with a loss 
of thirty-six killed and wounded. 

As our troops were falling back, Gen. Bayard, with four 
companies of the Bucktail Rifles, the First Pennsylvania 
cavalry, and Col. Cluseret, with his brigade, comprising the 
Sixtieth Ohio and Eighth Virginia regiments, advanced to 
the rescue. A severe fight ensued. The enemy were driven 
back, losing a portion of their camp equipage. It was 
almost dark ; Gen. Bayard ordered Col. Kane of the Bucktail 
Rifles, to penetrate the pine woods on the left. The brave 
band at once advanced; in proceeding through the woods 
they received a heavy fire from the concealed foe. They 
fought gallantly, but were overpowered by superior numbers, 
and compelled to retire, with a loss of six killed, thirty-six 
wounded, and ten missing. The loss among our other troops 
was eighteen killed, forty wounded, and thirty missing. In 
this fight Gen. Ashby, the fearless, dashing and gallant com- 
mander of the rebel cavalry, was killed. Under cover of 
night our troops were withdrawn. 

BATTLE OF CROSS KEYS. 

The next day, June eighth, our column again advanced. 
Upon reaching Cross Keys, seven miles from Harrisonburgh, 
the enemy was discovered advantageously posted in timber, 
and on commanding hills. 

The country being hilly and heavily timbered was not 
favorable for open fighting. The enemy's troops were in a 
small circle, and formed en masse. Gen. Stahl, with his 
brigade, advanced on the left, driving the enemy's pickets 
through a belt of woods and over an open wheat field into a 
heavy piece of woods. While crossing this wheat field the 



SHENANDOAH VALLEY. 433 

Eighth New York suffered much loss. The enemy, ambushed 
in the wheat, on the edge of the field, suddenly opened a ter- 
rible fire decimating the two companies in the advance. The 
rebels gave way as Stahl advanced. They suddenly rallied. 
Stahl's brigade and batteries were nearly surrounded. The 
enemy rushed forward with yells to capture his guns, but the 
brave troops of Stahl held him at bay and fell back in good 
order. 

Gen. Milroy, who held the center, pressed steadily forward, 
Planting his guns each time nearer and nearer the enemy's 
batteries, he delivered his fire with great accuracy. His 
infantry deployed through the woods, taking advantage of a 
deep gulley to cross a wheat field, where they were exposed, 
and charged up a hill where one of the enemy's batteries was 
posted. The enemy withdrew their guns in time to prevent 
their capture. Milroy's men made the hill too hot for the 
enemy again to take position. 

Gen. Schenck was on the right to support Milroy and Col. 
Cluseret, — the latter having the extreme right and the 
advance. Our right wing was not engaged. Col. Cluseret's 
brigade, however, had a sharp brush with the enemy. Stein- 
way was in command of our reserve, supported by Bayard. 

The fight ended about four o'clock. The enemy made a 
stand only to hold our forces in check while his trains crossed 
the Shenandoah at Port Republic, for he commenced crossing 
it during the engagement. Our loss was very heavy. Noth- 
ing but the superiority of our artillery, and the fact that 
Jackson's progress was threatened by Shields' advance on 
the south side of the river, prevented our total destruction. 
Our loss was about five hundred killed and wounded. That 
of the enemy about three hundred. 

The next day the pursuit was continued ; the enemy retired 
leisurely taking his trains and wounded with him. Jackson's 
force greatly outnumbered that of Fremont. Why he did 
not take time to crush Fremont can be accounted for only 
on the supposition that he feared being intercepted by Mc- 
Dowell's corps, or that he had something greater to accom- 
plish in front of Richmond. 

The army of Fremont reached the bridge at Port Republic 
Vol. I.— 28. 



434 SHENANDOAH VALLEY. 

only to find its charred and smoking ruins. Jackson had 
safely crossed with his whole command. While Fremont's 
guns were thundering on his rear, his advance was fighting 
Col. Carroll's brigade of Shields' division, which had been 
sent forward, unsupported, to check the advance of a hostile 
column of twenty-five thousand men. This brought on 
another disastrous battle for the Union army. 

BATTLE OF PORT REPUBLIC. 

On the seventh of June Colonel Carroll, the advance of 
Shields' division, with one thousand infantry, one hundred 
and fifty cavalry, and one battery of six guns, left Conrad's 
store with orders to intercept the retreat of Jackson at Port 
Eepublic, and save the bridge at that place. Halting six 
miles before reaching Port Eepublic, Col. Carroll sent out 
scouts, who returned with the information that Jackson's 
train was parked near Port Eepublic, guarded by three hun- 
dred cavalry. Col. Carroll at once pushed forward with his 
cavalry and two guns, drove the enemy from the town and 
took possession of the bridge. Before he had occupied it 
twenty minutes, and before the remainder of his force could 
come up, he was attacked by three regiments of rebel infantry 
and a large force of cavalry, and driven at once from his 
position. Eetiring from the town two miles, he was rein- 
forced by Gen. Tyler's brigade, numbering about two thou- 
sand. It was deemed injudicious to make an attack at that 
time, and our forces bivouaced for the night. 

At six o'clock in the morning the battle commenced. The 
enemy, with twenty pieces of artillery, opened on our advanced 
brigade, commanded by Carroll, consisting of the Eighth 
and Tenth Pennsylvania and Seventh Indiana. Meantime 
we replied from a section of two guns on our right, and 
another on our left. Col. Gavin, with the Seventh Indiana, 
was sent to the extreme right to support a battery. The 
enemy made a desperate effort to take this battery. Three 
rebel regiments, creeping stealthily through a wheat field until 
they were within two hundred yards of our line, sprung up 
with a yell and charged unon the battery. They were met 



SHENANDOAH VALLEY. 435 

by a withering volley from the Seventh Indiana and held in 
check for half an hour, when the heavy artillery fire of the 
enemy compelled the regiment to fall back. The Twenty- 
Ninth Ohio came to their support, and the engagement 
became very warm. The Seventh Ohio advanced to support 
Clark's guns, and the Fifth Ohio to support Huntington's 
battery. Well did these gallant regiments do their duty. 
The First Virginia regiment was sent to the right, and rushed 
to the front with loud shouts. 

The whole of Gen. Tyler's force was now in position. On 
his right was the Seventh Indiana, Twenty-Ninth Ohio, 
Seventh Ohio, Fifth Ohio, First Virginia, with sections of 
Capts. Clark and Huntington's batteries. On his left — the 
key of the position — was a company of the Fifth Ohio, and 
one of the Sixty-Sixth Ohio, deployed in the woods as skir- 
mishers. The Eighty-Fourth and One Hundred and Sixteenth 
Pennsylvania regiments were in the woods. The Sixty-Sixth 
Ohio was directly in the rear of the battery, composed of 
three guns of Clark's, three of Huntington's, and one of 
Robinson's battery, under Lieut. Col. Hayward, and upon 
him and his gallant band rested the fate of the command at 
this critical moment. Their duty was well and gallantly 
executed. Had they given way all would have been lost. 
The left wing of the Sixty-Sixth Ohio was extended into the 
woods, and close in the rear of the battery, which position 
it held until ordered to fall back. 

During the fight on the right the enemy threw a heavy 
force into the woods, and pressed down on our left, capturing 
one of our batteries. The Seventh and Fifth Ohio made a 
desperate charge upon the enemy, driving him from his posi- 
tion, and retaking the battery. Owing to the horses having 
been killed, the enemy afterwards captured two guns. For 
a short time the heroism of our troops rendered the conflict 
doubtful. The enemy had given way along his whole line. But 
heavy reinforcements for the enemy were seen approaching 
from the town, and Gen. Tyler ordered his command to fall 
back until they should meet the reinforcements approaching 
under Gens. Kimball and Ferry. 

Col. Carroll covered the retreat, which was effected in good 



436 SHENANDOAH VALLEY. 

order, the Fifth Ohio being the extreme rear guard. The 
column fell back until the advance of Shield's division was 
met, the enemy pursuing. Upon receiving reinforcements 
our column faced the enemy, who at once fled. Our loss was 
about one hundred killed, four hundred wounded, and five 
hundred missing. That of the enemy was about five hundred 
killed and wounded. It was a disastrous battle to us. The 
Seventh Indiana, which went into the fight with three hun- 
dred and fifty men, lost eighteen killed, one hundred and 
twenty-three wounded, and thirty-two missing. The Fifth 
Ohio lost heavily, as did also some of the other regiments. 

After this engagement Gen. Jackson deliberately retreated 
toward Staunton, and from thence marched to Richmond, 
taking with him the prestige of having eluded or defeated all 
our forces. He afterwards participated in the terrible Seven 
Days Fight against McClellan's army. 

The armies of McDowell, Fremont and Banks, were con- 
solidated by the President into one command called the Army 
of Virginia, and the command given to Major General John 
Pope. Fremont's troops constituted the first army corps; 
Banks' the second; McDowell's the third. Gen. Fremont 
did not- wish to serve under Gen. Pope, therefore he was 
allowed to withdraw by permission of the Secretary of War. 

Thus ended Gen. Fremont's campaign in the Valley of the 
Shenandoah. 



MISSOURI CAMPAIGN. 



CHAPTER XV. 

After the startling events in Charleston harbor, the public 
mind at the North became uneasy in reference to the position 
which the border slaveholding States might assume in the 
inevitable contest which those events inaugurated. None of 
these States attracted more attention than Missouri. Her 
geographical position, her commercial and social relations to 
the seceded States, and the recognition of slavery by her 
laws, rendered it almost certain that many of her people 
would place themselves in sympathy with the secessionists. 
Her Governor and a majority of the legislature, with many 
of her influential politicians were known to favor separate 
State action, and it was feared the whole weight of this 
influence would be thrown in favor of secession. 

Although the people were known to be divided on the 
question of secession, yet it was believed a large portion, if 
not a majority, of the voters of Missouri were so strongly 
attached to the Union, that no arguments could induce them 
to oppose the national government, A knowledge of this 
fact deterred the secession leaders from attempting to precip- 
itate the State out of the Union. They contented themselves 
with efforts to gain time, and with secret preparations, until 
they could obtain the requisite strength and power to accom- 
plish their designs. 

The Governor, Caleb F. Jackson, answered the call of the 
President upon the State for four regiments of the seventy- 

437 



438 MISSOURI CAMPAIGN. 

five thousand volunteers of three month's men, by the defiant 
assertion that the requisition was "illegal, unconstitutional, 
revolutionary, inhuman and diabolical," and could not be 
complied with. Other acts which plainly indicated the 
designs of the secessionists, followed this refusal. The 
United States Arsenal at Liberty, in Clay county, near the 
Kansas border, containing twelve hundred stand of arms, ten 
or twelve pieces of cannon, and a large quantity of ammuni- 
tion, was attacked by a mob on the twentieth of April, and 
garrisoned by the insurgents. 

This open resistance to the authority of the Federal gov- 
ernment and seizure of its property, naturally created some 
alarm for the safety of the St. Louis arsenal, where the mate- 
rials of war were abundant, and immediate steps were taken 
for the removal of so much of the property as could be taken 
away without causing unnecessary alarm. The undertaking 
was hazardous, for the city was full of secession spies, who 
kept close watch upon the arsenal, and no movement having 
a tendency to attract notice could be made without being 
reported to secession headquarters. 

The perilous attempt however, was undertaken by Capt. 
James H. Stokes, of Chicago, formerly an officer of the reg- 
ular army, in whose hands was placed the requisition of the 
Secretary of War in favor of the Governor of Illinois for ten 
thousand muskets. With the aid of Captain (afterwards 
General) Lyon, who commanded at the arsenal, the arms, 
during the night of the twenty-fourth of April, were, in the 
presence of a mob, placed on board a steamer and conveyed 
to Alton. This was accomplished by first placing a num- 
ber of boxes of Kentucky flint lock muskets, which had 
been sent there to be altered, on a small steamer to cover the 
real movement. The secessionists at once seized these and 
carried them away amid shouts of exultation from a jubilant 
mob. A large portion of the outside crowd left the arsenal 
when this movement was executed, and those who remained 
behind were, at once, arrested and locked up in the guard 
house by Capt. Lyon. The arms called for by the requisition 
were placed on board the steamer City of Alton, and the 
arsenal was emptied of all it contained except seven thousand 



MISSOURI CAMPAIGN. 439 

muskets, which were retained for the St. Louis volunteers. 
The steamer then moved off up the river, passed the batteries 
previously erected by the secessionists, and arrived at Alton 
at five o'clock in the morning. From that point the arms 
were transferred to cars, and sent to Springfield, Illinois, the 
citizens of Alton turned out en masse, at the ringing of fire 
bells, to assist in removing the valuable freight. 

When the Governor refused to meet the requisition of the 
President for troops to sustain the national flag, prominent 
citizens of the State replied, on their own personal responsi- 
bility, that the quota of four regiments should be raised, 
without either the aid or consent of the Governor. To give 
character and legality to their proceedings, and to guard 
against the power of the State rulers, Capt. Nathaniel Lyon 
of the U. S. Army, commanding the arsenal at Saint Louis, 
was directed by the Secretary of War, on the thirtieth of 
April, to enroll in the military service of the United States, 
from loyal citizens of the city and vicinity, ten thousand men, 
to protect the peaceable inhabitants of Missouri, and to guard 
against any attempt on the part of secessionists to gain mili- 
tary possession of the city of St. Louis. His instructions 
were to disband the force when the emergency ceased to exist. 
Eecruiting offices were opened, and on the second of May 
four regiments were reported as organized, equipped and 
mustered into service. Detachments of these volunteers 
having been quartered in buildings outside of those belong- 
ing to the government, the Police Commissioners, who were 
avowed secessionists, made a formal demand of Capt. Lyon 
for the removal of all United States troops from all places 
outside the arsenal grounds, alleging that such occupancy 
was in derogation of the constitution and laws of the United 
States. Capt. Lyon declining compliance with the demand, 
the Commissioners made no attempt to enforce it, but con- 
tented themselves by referring the matter to the Governor 
and the Legislature. 

On the third of May Governor Jackson communicated his 
message to the Legislature, then in special session. He 
charged the President with having committed an illegal and 
unconstitutional act in calling out troops to oppose the seces- 



440 MISSOURI CAMPAIGN. 

sion movement, and proceeded to defend and justify the right 
of secession. The interests of Missouri, he contended, were 
identical with those of the other slaveholding States : and the 
similarity of their social and political institutions, their indus- 
trial interests, and their territorial contiguity, clearly demon* 
strated that it was the duty of Missouri, at the proper time, 
to follow their example. He concluded by recommending 
the Legislature to make such appropriations as would enable 
the State authorities to place the State, at the earliest practi- 
cable moment, in a complete state of defense against the aggres- 
sions of all assailants. This message was the commencement 
and cause of the long series of desperate and bloody events 
which afterwards transpired in Missouri in connection with 
the rebellion. 

In obedience to orders from Governor Jackson, who had 
directed the different military districts to go into encamp- 
ment, with the view of acquiring a greater degree of profi- 
ciency in military drill, a camp of instruction, called Camp 
Jackson, was, on the fourth of May, formed at Lindell's 
Grove, on the western outskirts of St. Louis, and placed in 
command of General D. M. Frost, of the State militia. The 
main avenue of this camp had the name of " Davis," and a 
principal street that of "Beauregard." On the ninth of May 
a company organized to advance the interests of the seces- 
sionists arrived from the interior and marched into Camp 
Jackson, with the secession flag flying. The dress and badge, 
distinguishing the army of the so-called Southern Confede- 
racy, w T ere openly worn by many members of this newly 
arrived company. On the same day the steamer J. C. Swon, 
from New Orleans, came into port with the rebel flag hoisted, 
having on board in boxes marked " marble," four field pieces, 
two howitzers, and rifles for a regiment. These arms had 
been taken from the United States arsenal at Baton Rouge 
and shipped in accordance with an understanding between 
the Southern conspirators and Governor Jackson, and were 
taken out to Camp Jackson immediately on the arrival of 
the steamer. 



MISSOURI CAMPAIGN. 441 

CAPTURE OF CAMP JACKSON. 

These facts left no doubt respecting the character and ulti- 
mate object of the encampment. Capt. Lyon determined to 
break it up. The arsenal garrison and the United States 
troops in and about St. Louis, including the home guard 
organizations, were, accordingly, ordered to assemble quietly 
as possible, at noon, on the tenth of April, and, about two 
o'clock in the afternoon, Captain Lyon marched out from 
the arsenal with a force of about seven thousand men and 
twenty pieces of artillery. The troops marched quickly 
through the streets, and, on arriving at Camp Jackson, rap- 
idly surrounded it, planting batteries upon all the hights 
overlooking the camp. Long files of men were stationed at 
various points ; and a picket guard, covering an area of two 
hundred yards, was established. The guards, with fixed 
bayonets and muskets at half-cock, were instructed to allow 
no one to pass or repass within the limits thus occupied. 

The news of the approach of the United States troops was 
received by General Frost with astonishment. The rumors 
of such a movement, which had been prevalent for a few days 
before, he pretended not to believe. They had become so- 
frequent that, in order to satisfy his brother officers., he had 
that morning addressed a note to Captain Lyon inquiring 
whether he contemplated an attack upon his camp, and 
expressing the belief, that nothing could justify such an inter- 
ference with the rights of citizens of the United States, who 
had assembled in camp in the lawful performance of duties 
devolving upon them under the constitution, in organizing 
and instructing the militia of the State and in obedience to 
her laws. He assured Capt. Lyon that no hostility was 
intended towards the United States, or its property or repre- 
sentatives, by any portion of his command. 

Capt. Lyon refused to receive this communication, but for- 
warded to Gen. Frost about the time of the surrounding of 
his camp a note, stating that his (Frost's) command was 
regarded as hostile towards the government of the United 
States; that it was mostly made up of secessionists who had 
openly avowed their hostility to the Federal government, and 



442 MISSOURI CAMPAIGN. 

who had been plotting the seizure of its property and the 
overthrow of its authority; that it was in open communica- 
tion with the so-called Southern Confederacy, then at war 
with the United States, and was receiving at Camp Jackson 
from said Confederacy, and under its flag, large supplies of 
the materials of war, most of which was known to be the 
property of the United States. Capt. Lyon declared that 
these preparations plainly indicated hostilities to the General 
Government and co-operation with its enemies. In view of 
these considerations, and the failure of the troops composing 
this camp to disperse in obedience to the President's procla- 
mation, and of the eminent necessities of State policy and 
welfare, and the obligations imposed upon him by instructions 
from "Washington, Capt. Lyon declared it to be his duty to 
demand of Gen. Frost an immediate surrender of his com- 
mand, with no other conditions than that all persons surren- 
dering should be humanely and kindly treated. Believing 
himself prepared to enforce this demand, half an hour's time 
was allowed Gen. Frost for compliance therewith. 

On receiving this communication Gen. Frost held a consul- 
tation with his ofiicers, who advised a surrender. It was 
made in the following singularly worded letter : 

" Camp Jackson, Mo., May 10, 1861. 
"Captain N. Lyon, Commanding U. S. Troops — Sir:—- 
I never for a moment having conceived the idea that so ille- 
gal and unconstitutional a demand as I have just received 
from you, could be made by an officer of the United States 
army. I am wholly unprepared to defend my command, and 
shall therefore be forced to comply with your demand. 
"I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

"D. M.Frost, 
"Brig. Gen. M. V. M., 
" Commanding Camp Jackson." 

The State troops were then made prisoners of war. An 
offer of release, on condition of taking an oath to support the 
Constitution of the United States and not to take up arms 
against the Government, was made and accepted by only 



MISSOURI CAMPAIGN. 443 

eight or ten; the others, about eight hundred, preferring, 
under the circumstances, to become prisoners, stating that 
they had already sworn allegiance to the United States, and 
to defend the Government, and to repeat it would be to admit 
that they had been in rebellion, which they would not concede. 
The preparations for the surrender and the marching of the 
prisoners, under military escort, occupied nearly two hours. 
In the meantime, an immense crowd of people had assembled 
in the vicinity. Hundreds of women and children, attracted 
by motives of curiosity, had stationed themselves with the 
throng upon the surrounding hills, and, as they supposed, out 
of danger. About half past five the prisoners left the grove 
and entered the road, the escort enclosing them by a single 
file, stretched along each side of the line. A halt was now 
ordered, and the troops remained standing in the position 
into which they had been deployed on the road. The head 
of the column rested opposite a small hill on the left. The 
rear was on a line with the entrance to the grove. Suddenly 
the sharp reports of firearms were heard from the front of 
the column, and the spectators, who lined the adjacent hill, 
were seen flying in the greatest dismay and terror. Several 
members of one of the German companies, on being pressed 
by the crowd, and receiving some blows from them, turned 
and discharged their pieces. Fortunately no one was injured, 
and the soldiers who committed the act were at once placed 
under arrest. Hardly, however, had tranquility been restored, 
when volley after volley of rifle reports was heard from the 
extreme rear ranks, and men, women and children wildly 
and frantically ran away from the scene. The number killed 
and injured was about twenty-five. The secession rowdies, 
of whom there were many in the crowd, had pressed closely 
to the German soldiers of Boernstein's regiment, subjecting 
them to the most exasperating insults. Men deliberately 
gathered handfuls of sand, and threw them into the eyes 
of the soldiers, while others threw brickbats. In order to 
intimidate the mob, the soldiers were ordered to level their 
loaded rifles, with fixed bayonets, at their assailants. This 
had but a momentary effect. Persons in the crowd com- 
menced firing pistols. One of these shots wounded the cap- 



444 MISSOURI CAMPAIGN. 

tain of the company most exposed. As he fell he gave his 
men the order to fire. It was obeyed immediately, causing 
death and injury to many innocent persons; for most of those 
exposed to this fire were citizens, who with their wives and 
children, were spectators of, and not participants in, the 
mob. The moment Capt. Lyon heard the firing, he dashed 
in between the company that had fired, and the people, 
instantly checking the firing. 

No further attack was made upon the soldiers. The pris- 
oners were promptly marched to the arsenal. The camp and 
its equipage, with the captured arms, were placed in charge 
of a strong guard of United States troops. 

On the following evening, Gen. Frost's brigade was released 
from the arsenal. The officers were paroled, and the men 
took an oath not to bear arms against the Government 
during the present war. 

The excitement in the city was most intense during the 
night following the scenes at Camp Jackson. The unfortu- 
nate firing upon citizens was magnified, and made the occa- 
sion for imprecations and threats against the Home Guards, 
and especially against the Germans. An indignation meet- 
ing was held, at which speeches were made, which were not 
adapted to allay the feeling. The activity of the police pre- 
vented a general riot. "With the exception of a few personal 
encounters, and attempts to break into gunsmith shops to 
obtain arms, no serious demonstrations were made. 

The news of the surrender of Camp Jackson created great 
excitement at Jefferson City. The Legislature, alarmed by 
the vigorous measures on the part of the Government, passed, 
the same afternoon, a "Military Bill," authorizing the Gov- 
ernor to call out, arm, and equip, the State militia, appropria- 
ting all the available funds of the State, including the School 
Fund, and the money belonging to the Lunatic Asylum, and 
levying special taxes for military purposes. In addition, 
authority was given the Governor to borrow Rve hundred 
thousand dollars from the State banks and individuals, and 
to issue bonds to the amount of one million of dollars. The 
bill authorizing this loan gave the Governor supreme author- 
ity in all military matters, and subjected all able bodied men 



MISSOURI CAMPAIGN. 445 

to such authority under a penalt} T of one hundred and fifty 
dollars fine. The telegraph was seized, and the bridge over 
the Osage river, on the Pacific railroad, was destroyed by 
order of Gov. Jackson, in consequence of a report that Fed- 
eral troops had started for the capital, from St. Louis, to 
arrest the conspirators. 

Another riot between the citizens and Home Guards of 
St. Louis occurred on the eleventh of May. A company of 
the latter, while marching through the streets, were first 
annoyed, and then fired upon by an unruly mob of citizens. 
The fire was returned by the exasperated Guards, who were 
thrown into such confusion that many of them fired down 
their own line, killing and wounding almost as many soldiers 
as citizens. The Mayor and police interfered, and the riot 
was soon quelled. The excitement which followed was so 
intense, that other scenes of bloodshed would have followed 
but for the arrival, that evening, of Gen. William S. Harney, 
of the regular army, and a citizen of St. Louis, who assumed 
the command of the military department, and immediately 
issued a proclamation, expressing deep regret at what had 
happened, and pledging himeslf to do all in his power to pre- 
serve the peace. He trusted that, with the aid of the people, 
and of the local authorities, he would have no occasion to 
resort to martial law. This proclamation had a good effect, 
and order once more reigned in the city. 

On the fourteenth of May General Harney issued an 
address to the people of Missouri, reviewing the conduct of 
the Governor and Legislature, and calling special attention to 
the odious features of the Military Bill, which, he said, could 
only be regarded in the light of an indirect ordinance of 
secession. Its most material provisions were in conflict with 
the Constitution and laws of the United States, and to that 
extent were a nullity, and should not be upheld or regarded 
by good citizens. Missouri must share the destinies of the 
Union, and, in his opinion, the whole power of the Govern- 
ment, if necessary, would be exerted to maintain Missouri in 
her present position in the Union. He fully justified the 
seizure of Camp Jackson, and declared, that within the field 
and scope of his command and authority, the supreme law 



446 MISSOURI CAMPAIGN. 

of the land must and should be maintained; and that no sub- 
terfuges, whether in the forms of legislative acts or otherwise, 
could be permitted to harrass or oppress the good and law- 
abiding people of Missouri. All unlawful combinations of 
men, whether formed under pretext of military organization, 
or otherwise, would be suppressed, and the persons and prop- 
erty of the law-abiding protected from violations of every 
kind, at all hazards. 

Complaints having been made of persecutions of Union 
men in the town of Potosi, Washington county, Gen. Lyon, 
who had been commissioned Brigadier General of volunteers, 
dispatched a force to that section, consisting of one hundred 
and fifty men, commanded by Capt. Cole, of the Fifth Mis- 
souri, which, after reaching Potosi, surrounded the place 
before day, and made all the inhabitants prisoners. From 
these the Union men were separated, and unconditionally 
released. Mne leading secessionists were taken to the mili- 
tary prison at St. Louis, and sixty others released on taking 
an oath not to bear arms against the Government. A seces- 
sion lead factory was seized, and its owner, John Dean, made 
prisoner. The expedition, on its return, broke up a rebel 
militia muster at De Soto, carrying off, as a trophy, a large 
secession flag. 

After the adjournment of the Legislature on the fifteenth 
of May, Gen. Sterling Price, commanding the State militia, 
entered into an arrangement with Gen. Harney, professedly 
designed to "allay excitement," and "restore peace," but 
which practically tied the hands of the latter officer to such 
an extent, that the General Government, to free Gen. Harney 
from his embarrassments, and release him *from his obliga- 
tions to Gen. Price, relieved him from the command of the 
department, and appointed Gen. Lyon his successor. 

When Gen. Lyon assumed command, he was appealed to 
by Gov. Jackson and Gen. Price, to continue the arrange- 
ment, which had so embarrassed his predecessor. An inter- 
view was solicited and granted. Gov. Jackson proposed, as 
terms of agreement, to disband and disarm the State Guard, 
to allow no arms or munitions of war to be brought into the 
State, and to attempt no organization of the militia under 



MISSOURI CAMPAIGN. 447 

the Military Bill, provided Gen. Lyon would disband the 
Home Guards, and withdraw the United States troops from 
Missouri. The proposition was promptly rejected, and the 
secession leaders left for Jefferson City to prepare for imme- 
diate hostile demonstrations. 

On the twelfth of June, Gen. Jackson issued an address, in 
which he threw off all disguises, and boldly took the side of 
the rebels. He called for fifty thousand volunteers, and 
appointed Sterling Price, Major General, and Gens. Parsons, 
M. L. Clark, John B. Clark, Slack, Harris, Stein, Rains, 
McBride and Jeff. Thompson, Brigadier Generals, to whom 
orders were issued to organize their forces rapidly as possible, 
and send them forward to Booneville and Lexington. 

Gen. Lyon now determined to take active measures to 
arrest the operations of the conspirators. He started up the 
Missouri river with such force as was at his command, and 
reached Jefferson City on *the fifteenth, to find that Gov. 
Jackson and his troops had fled to Booneville, taking with 
him the State records. Leaving Col. Boernstein and three 
companies to hold the capital, Gen. Lyon proceeded to the 
foot of an island eight miles below Booneville. Opposite 
the upper end of the island, the south bank of the river 
rises to a high bluff. Below this bluff*, and opposite the lower 
end of the island, the hills recede, leaving a river bottom of 
nearly a mile and half in width. The Booneville road runs 
through this bottom land, and parallel to the river. The 
rebels had collected their forces in the vicinity of the bluff, 
and planted a battery thereon, commanding both the river 
and the road. 

Leaving two companies in charge of the steamers, Gen. 
Lyon landed the remainder of his force below the island, and 
commenced the march up the river road. On reaching the 
foot of the bluff, the enemy was discovered well posted on 
one of the small hills which formed the bluff, at a point 
where a lane ran from the road to the river. In a brick 
house .on the right of where the lane and road intersected* 
and in a grove on the left, the rebels were stationed, as they 
supposed, in perfect security. Gen. Price was not in com- 
mand, but had left for his home at Brunswick, on account, 



448 MISSOURI CAMPAIGN. 

as was said, of severe illness, leaving the troops in command 
of Col. J. S. Marmaduke, a graduate of West Point. 

Gen. Lyon placed himself at the head of his command, 
and advanced firmly upon the intrenched rebels. The battle 
opened with much vigor, by artillery and volleys of musketry. 
Two shells were thrown with great precision, by Capt. Tot- 
ten's regular artillery, directly into the brick house, causing 
the occupants to retreat rapidly from their cover. A well 
directed lire of bullets, round shot and shell, was then poured 
into the grove. The rebels, owing to the protection afforded 
by the trees, were enabled to defend this point for nearly 
half an hour; but the lire becoming too hot for them, they 
fell back in confusion to the battery on the summit of the 
bluff, where they were again rallied and formed into line, 
only to be routed by an impetuous and resistless charge of 
the Union troops, led in person by the brave Lyon. The 
enemy now beat a rapid retreat, leaving Gen. Lyon in pos- 
session of their deserted camp, and its ammunition and 
supplies. 

The troops which took part in this first battle on Missouri 
6oil, were Lieut. Col. Schaeffer's German infantry, Capt. 
Totten's regular artillery, Gen. Lyon's old company of regu- 
lars, and a portion of Col. Frank P. Blair's regiment, num- 
bering in all two thousand men. The Union loss was two 
killed and nine wounded, while the rebels admitted a loss of 
three killed and twenty-five wounded, and thirty prisoners. 
A rebel historian thus explains the defeat: "The Mis- 
Bourians [rebels] had but about eight hundred men, armed 
with ordinary rifles and shot guns, without a piece of artil- 
lery, and with but little ammunition. Under the impression 
that the forces against him were inconsiderable, Marmaduke 
determined to give them battle; but upon ascertaining their 
actual strength, after he had formed his line, he told his men 
they could not reasonably hope to defend the position, and 
ordered them to retreat. This order they refused to obey, 
declaring they would not leave the ground until they 
exchanged shots with the enemy. The men remained on 
the field, commanded by their captains and Lieut. Col. 



MISSOURI CAMPAIGN. 449 

Horace Brand, and fought stubbornly until overpowered by 
numbers, when they retreated in safety, if not in order." 

The Unionists throughout the State now entered zealously 
upon the work of organizing themselves into home guard 
companies for defense, and troops were stationed by the mili- 
tary authorities at points along the line of the principal rail- 
roads in sufficient numbers to protect them. 

After the battle of Booneville nearly three hundred of the 
defeated rebels took up their line of march for the south- 
western portion of the State, under the direction of Governor 
Jackson. Gen. Lyon had taken measures to intercept their 
flight by placing eight hundred men at Cole Camp, under 
command of Capt. Cook. During the night of the eighteenth 
of June, however, Capt. Cook's men were surprised by a 
body of three hundred and fifty rebels who had marched 
from Warsaw. The attack was made at midnight while the 
Union forces were asleep. The enemy surprised and routed 
them, killing twenty-five, wounding fifty-two and capturing 
twenty-three. The rebel loss was forty-five killed and forty 
wounded. The greater portion of the garrison effected their 
escape in the darkness of the night. The rebel commander 
in this affair was Lieut. Col. Walter S. O'Kane, a native of 
Indiana, and for some years a resident of Indianapolis. 

Jackson's forces, having nothing to oppose them, in the 
front, rapidly retreated to the south-west and were joined on 
the march by a column of two thousand five hundred men 
from Lexington, under Gen. Rains, and by Gen. Price with 
such followers as he could rally upon the march. On the 
fourth of July the rebel army of Missouri was organized 
near Carthage, in Jasper county, and numbered thirty-six 
hundred, many of whom were unarmed, while those who 
were armed were provided with shot guns and squirrel rifles. 

Gen. Lyon left Booneville on the third of July in pursuit, 
with two thousand men. Before he could overtake them 
they had come in conflict with another portion of the Union 
force which had been sent out from Springfield by General 
Sweeney, commanding at that point. These troops were com- 
manded by Col. Franz Sigel, of the Third Missouri volun- 
teers, who had reached Springfield, from the ]^orth, on the 
Vol. L— 29. 



450 MISSOURI CAMPAIGN. 

twenty-third of June. Hearing that the rebel troops under 
Jackson were making their way southward, through Cedar 
county, he proceeded with his command, numbering about 
twelve hundred men and two field batteries, towards Mount 
Vernon, for the purpose of intercepting him. Reaching 
Sarcoxie, twenty-two miles from Neosho, on Friday the 
twenty-eighth, Col. Sigel learned that a body of troops 
under Gen. Price, numbering eight hundred, were encamped 
near Pool's Prairie, six miles south of Neosho, and that Jack- 
son's troops, commanded by Gen. Parsons, had encamped the 
day before fifteen miles south of Lamar. Gen. Rains' troops 
were reported to be only one day's march behind Jackson's. 
Col. Sigel at once resolved to march upon the body of rebels 
at Pool's Prairie, and then, turning north, to attack Parsons 
and Rains, and open a line of communication with Gen. 
Lyon, of whose approach from the north he had been advised. 
On the twenty-ninth news reached Sigel that the camp at 
Pool's Prairie had that morning been broken up. Price 
retreated to Elk Mills, thirty miles south of Neosho, not far 
distant from the south-western extremity of the State. Sigel 
now abandoned the idea of pursuing him, and directed his 
whole attention to the hostile forces north. Leaving a com- 
pany in Neosho to afford protection to the Union citizens 
there, he moved in the direction of Carthage, and, on the 
evening of the fourth of July, after a march of twenty-two 
miles, encamped south-east of that place, near Spring river. 
Reliable information was here received that Jackson, Rains 
and Parsons, with three thousand six hundred men, were nine 
miles distant, marching toward Sigel's camp. 

BATTLE OF CARTHAGE. 

On the morning of the fifth, at five o'clock, a scouting 
party sent out by Col. Sigel, encountered, about two miles from 
Carthage, a picket guard of rebels, who were attacked and 
three taken prisoners. With all dispatch Sigel prepared to 
go forward expecting to meet the rebels west of Carthage. 
With nine companies of the Third Missouri — five hundred and 
fifty men — seven companies of Col. Salomon's Fifth Missouri, 



MISSOURI CAMPAIGN. 451 

numbering four hundred men, and two batteries of artillery, 
each consisting of four field pieces, Sigel slowly advanced 
upon the enemy, his skirmishers chasing before them numer- 
ous bands of mounted riflemen. The baggage train followed 
three miles in the rear. After passing Dry Fork Creek, six 
miles beyond Carthage, and advancing three miles further 
the enemy was found drawn up in battle array, on an eleva- 
tion which rises by gradual ascents from the creek a mile 
and a half distant. The front of the enemy consisted of 
three regiments, deployed into line and stationed at proper 
intervals. '/; Two of these, consisting of cavalry, formed the 
wings, while the center was composed of infantry, cavalry and 
two field pieces. Other pieces were posted at the right and 
left wings. The whole number of troops thus menacing the 
Union forces was not less than twenty-five hundred, not 
including a heavy reserve kept in the rear. 

Col. Sigel disposed his forces by sending two cannon, with 
two companies of the Third Missouri as a support, to the 
rear guard, which was already engaged, and by placing 
another cannon with a company of the same regiment behind 
the creek so as to afford protection to the baggage and the 
troops in the rear against the movements of cavalry. The 
remainder of troops were formed in line of battle as follows: 
On the left, a battalion of the Third Missouri in solid column 
with four cannon. In the center, the Fifth Missouri, in two 
separate battalions. On the right, three cannon were placed 
supported by another battalion of the Third Missouri. 

After advancing a few hundred yards the seven field pieces 
opened fire upon the enemy, which was promptly answered 
by their shots, which went over the heads of the Union 
troops, falling in the open prairie beyond. The two mounted 
rebel regiments now endeavored to execute a flank movement 
by describing a wide semi-circle to the right and left. In 
this effort a large interval of space was left between them 
and the center, of which Sigel took immediate advantage by 
ordering the whole fire of his artillery to be directed against 
the right center of the enemy, which had the effect, in a short 
time, of weakening the fire of the rebels at that point. Lines 
of skirmishers were then formed between the cannon, and two 



452 MISSOURI CAMPAIGN. 

pieces were brought from the right to the left wing, with the 
intention of gaining the hight by advancing with the left wing 
and taking position on the right flank of the enemy's center. 
At this critical moment one of the battery commanders 
reported that he could not advance for want of ammunition. 
No time was to be lost, as part of the troops were already 
engaged with the rebel cavalry at the extreme right and left, 
and Col. Sigel deeming it to be a question of very doubtful 
expediency whether to advance with the remainder without 
the support of artillery, reluctantly ordered a retreat. The 
hostile cavalry struck terror into his rear guard, although the 
real danger was not great. These considerations and the 
threatening loss of the entire baggage train prompted him to 
retire. Word was sent back for the wagons to advance 
rapidly as possible, so that a junction with the main body 
could be more readily made. By keeping up the fire with 
the infantry, and bringing the artillery in range whenever 
practicable, Sigel managed to retard the progress of the ene- 
my's cavalry, and eventually fell back to the baggage train, 
three miles from the scene of the first engagement. By a 
skillful movement, the wagons were placed in the center of the 
column in such manner that artillery and infantry forces were 
both in front and rear. The retreat was conducted without 
serious casuality until our forces reached Dry Fork Creek, 
where the road passes between bluffs on either side. Here 
the rebel cavalry were concentrated on the opposite side of 
the creek to cut off Sigel's retreat. The safety of his little 
army depended upon passing the creek and clearing the road 
to Carthage, as he could not risk being surrounded by an 
army of such numerical superiority by remaining where he 
was or by retreating. To deceive the enemy he ordered his 
artillery to oblique two pieces to the right and two pieces to 
the left, following the movement with part of his infantry. 
The enemy supposing it to be Sigel's intention to escape by 
cutting a road at their extreme sides, immediately left the 
road leading over the bluff and advanced to the right and 
left to prevent the crossing of their line. Scarcely had they 
advanced within four hundred yards of our troops, when our 
artillery suddenly wheeled round and poured a most terrific 



MISSOURI CAMPAIGN. 453 

volley of canister on the rebel cavalry from both sides. 
Simultaneously the Union infantry was ordered to advance, 
at double-quick across the bridge, and in a few minutes the 
whole body of rebels were flying in all directions. ~No resist- 
ance was made. Eighty-one horses, sixty-five double-barrel 
shot guns, and many revolvers fell into the hands of our 
troops, and forty prisoners were taken. The baggage train 
now crossed the creek undisturbed and ascended the hights 
which command Carthage from the north near Spring river. 

Here the enemy again took position. His center slowly 
advanced, while his cavalry came upon our troops with great 
rapidity, designing to circumvent Sigel's two wings and gain 
the Springfield road. Deeming it of the utmost importance 
to keep open his communication with Mount Yernon, Col. 
Sigel ordered Lieut. Col. Wolff, with two pieces of artillery, 
to pass through Carthage and occupy the eastern hights on 
the Sarcoxie road. Two more companies followed him to 
protect the western part of the town against any movement 
in that direction. The rear portion of Sigel's army then took 
possession of Carthage, in order to give the remainder of 
the troops time for rest, as they had marched twenty-two 
miles on the fourth, and eighteen miles more during the day, 
exposed to a burning sun, and almost without any food to 
eat or water to drink. The enemy in the meantime derived 
great advantage from his cavalry being able to cross Spring 
river at various places, and to harrass our troops almost 
incessantly. A retreat was, therefore, ordered towards Sar- 
coxie, under cover of both artillery and infantry. 

A position was first taken on the hights beyond Carthage, 
and next at the entrance of the Sarcoxie road into the 
woods, about two and a half miles south-east of Carthage. 
The enemy knowing that if Sigel could get his forces into 
the heavy woods which bordered the Sarcoxie road his cav- 
alry could not follow, made a desperate resistance at that 
point, disputing Sigel's advance. The conflict was severe, 
the infantry on both sides were for the first time engaged. 
Our troops fought splendidly and the rebels stoutly resisted, 
but their arms were defective and their cavalry could not be 
used to advantage. The fight raged for two hours, and was 



454 MISSOURI CAMPAIGN. 

the most hotly contested encounter of the day. When the 
enemy retreated to Carthage, Col. Sigel with his troops had 
reached the woods where they were secure from further 
attack. From this point they advanced unmolested to Sar- 
coxie. 

The Union loss during the day was thirteen killed and 
thirty-one wounded, while the rebels admitted a loss of fifty 
killed and one hundred and fifty wounded. The probabilty 
is that their loss was much greater. One of their field pieces 
was dismounted and another exploded. 

The officers and men of Sigel's command fought with the 
greatest skill and bravery, and received the commendations 
of their able, experienced and gallant commander. 

Capt. Conrad, who had been left behind at Neosho with a 
company of ninety-four men, was surprised by the rebels, 
and his whole command made prisoners. 

BATTLE AT MONROE STATION. 

On the morning of the tenth of July, Col. Robert Smith, 
with six hundred men of the Sixteenth Illinois volunteers, 
while encamped near Monroe Station, thirty miles west of 
Hannibal, was attacked before daylight by sixteen hundred 
rebels, under Gen. Harris. After a successful skirmish with 
the enemy, Col. Smith retired to the academy buildings for 
greater security. Here he was attacked by an increased 
force, and again succeeded in repulsing the rebels. Deter- 
mined to keep them at bay, he sent messengers to Hannibal 
and other places for reinforcements. Three companies, with 
two cannon, arriving from Hannibal, Col. S. immediately 
assumed the offensive. Towards evening a body of cavalry, 
under command of Gov. "Wood, of Illinois, arrived, and fell 
upon the rear of the enemy, who were soon routed, with a 
loss of thirty killed and wounded, and seventy-five prisoners. 
Of the Union troops four or five were wounded — none killed. 

The disorganized condition of society was such in the State, 
that numerous bands of guerrillas were formed by secession- 
ists, who, to an alarming extent, committed depredations 



MISSOURI CAMPAIGN. 455 

upon the persons and property of Union citizens. The rules 
of civilized war were disregarded, and the lives of the inno- 
cent were often at the mercy of an ignorant and lawless 
rabble.^ Skirmishes became frequent between guerrillas and 
home guards, and a perfect reign of terror prevailed in many 
neighborhoods. 

Brig. Gen. John Pope was assigned to a command in 
Northern Missouri. He appointed Gen. S. A. Hurlbut to 
guard the Hannibal and St. Joseph railroad. Citizens were 
appointed district superintendents, and when depredations 
were committed, the damages were assessed upon, and col- 
lected from, the people living in the districts where they 
occurred. Col. Ulysses S. Grant was stationed at Mexico, on 
the North Missouri railroad, with his Illinois regiment, and 
Cols. Palmer and Boss, of the Illinois volunteers, were posted 
at other points. The enforcement of this policy prevented 
further injuries to the railroads, and troops were transported, 
in safety, to points where they were needed. 

On the twenty-third of July, Major Van Horn's command 
of one hundred and seventy United States reserve home 
guards, while on the march from Kansas City to reinforce 
Major Dean at Westport, who was holding that place with a 
small force, was attacked near Harrisonville by five hundred 
rebels, under Capt. Duncan. The attack was bravely met, 
and a severe fight, lasting four hours, ensued. Towards 
evening the rebels withdrew, leaving the Union troops in 
possession of the field. The rebel loss was fourteen killed 
and several wounded. Yan Horn's loss was one killed. 

Maj. Gen. John C. Fremont arrived at St. Louis on the 
twenty-fifth of July, and assumed command of the Western 
Department. * 

On the thirtieth of the same month, Gen. Sweeny's forces 
dispersed a band of one hundred and fifty rebels, stationed at 
Forsythe, near the foot of the Ozark Mountains, and took 
possession of the town. Five rebels were killed and several 
wounded. Three of the Union troops were slightly wounded. 
A large amount of commissary stores, blankets and clothing, 
valued at twenty thousand dollars, which had been collected 
at this point, fell into the hands of Gen. Sweenv. 



456 MISSOURI CAMPAIGN. 

The Missouri State Convention, which assembled at Jeffer- 
son City on the last day of July, issued a strong Union 
address, established a Provisional Government for the State, 
and elected Hamilton P. Gamble Governor, Willard P. Hall, 
Lieutenant Governor, and Mordecai Oliver, Secretary of 
State. On the same day the Governor and Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor were inaugurated, and the Convention adjourned to 
meet in December. 

While these events were transpiring, Gen. Lyon concen- 
trated his troops at Springfield. Believing his numbers 
insufficient to successfully meet the enemy, who was known 
to be marching against him, with more than double his force. 
Gen. Lyon appealed to Gen. Fremont to reinforce him. This 
Gen. Fremont declined to do, giving as a reason, that his best 
regiments had been withdrawn to Washington and Cairo, 
and to important points in the vicinity of St. Louis, and the 
district under Gen. Pope, which required to be guarded. 
Gen. Lyon and his brave little army were thus left to meet 
the fast accumulating forces of Price and McCulloch, who 
were bent on forcing Lyon either to an engagement, or to an 
abandonment of the Southwest. 

SKIRMISH AT DUG SPRINGS. 

Gen. Lyon determined to march upon the advancing foe 
with his small force, rather than retreat and leave a large dis- 
trict of country exposed to secession ravages. To meet the 
enemy on an open field, he marched his army south to Crane 
creek, ten miles below Springfield, at which point he encamped 
at ten o'clock on the night of the first of August. The 
weather was intensely hot, and the country almost destitute 
of water. All the streams were dried up, and the springs were 
nearly exhausted. The march was slow and most fatiguing. 
The next morning, under a burning sun, it was resumed. 
Slight skirmishing occurred during the day ; but the shells 
of Capt. Totten's battery caused a hasty retreat of all oppo- 
sing forces, until the army reached Dug Springs. Here the 
skirmishing was renewed with much animation, a brisk fire 
being maintained by our skirmishers against the retreating 



MISSOURI CAMPAIGN. 457 

pickets. Capt. Steele's regular infantry, supported by a com- 
pany of cavalry, occupied the left; the rest of the column 
were in the rear. A- regiment of rebel infantry soon 
approached from the woods with the design of cutting off 
the Union forces. Capt. Stanley drew up his cavalry against 
more than five times their number, and opened upon them 
with Sharpe's carbines. The rebel infantry responded, and 
kept up the firing for some minutes. An enthusiastic Lieu- 
tenant gave the order to " charge." Twenty-five of the cavalry 
pushed impetuously forward upon the enemy's lines, and, 
dashing aside the bayonets of the rebels, hewed down the 
ranks with fearful slaughter. Capt. Stanley, who was 
amazed at the temerity of the little band, was obliged to sus- 
tain the order ; but before he could reach his comrades, they 
had broken the ranks of the enemy, who fell back in con- 
fusion. The ground, strewn with arms, was left in possession 
of the Union troops. "While the men were engaged in secur- 
ing the enemy's horses and mules, a large force of the enemy's 
cavalry suddenly appeared. Capt. Totten threw a few shells 
at the advancing horsemen, who immediately vanished from 
view. The Union loss was four killed and five wounded. 
That of the rebels was forty killed and nearly one hundred 
wounded. 

Having routed the enemy, Gen. Lyon continued his march 
until he reached Curran, in Stone county, twenty-six miles 
from Springfield, where he encamped, in order to avail him- 
self of a choice position. Here a consultation was had by 
Gen. Lyon with his officers, when it was determined to retire 
towards Springfield. The enemy, in largely superior num- 
bers, threatened a flank movement. The necessity of keep- 
ing communication open with Springfield was apparent to all 
the officers. Another important consideration, which influ- 
enced them in deciding upon a retrogade movement, was that 
the men were exhausted with the excessive labors and priva- 
tions of the campaign, and provisions had to be transported 
one hundred miles, the depot being at Rolla. 

On the fifth of August, the army encamped near Spring- 
field, and there awaited the movements of the enemy, fully 
determined to fight so long as there was any hope of success- 
ful resistance. 



458 MISSOURI CAMPAIGN. 

OCCUPATION OF BIRD'S POINT. 

About the time the last named engagement was in progress, 
Gen. Fremont and staff, and a fleet of eight steamers, with 
four regiments of infantry, and two companies of light artil- 
lery, sailed from St. Louis to Cairo, where they arrived on 
the third of August. The troops were immediately landed at 
Bird's Point, on the Missouri side of the Mississippi river, 
opposite Cairo, where fortifications were soon constructed, 
and the place put in a defensive condition. Gen. Pillow was 
at New Madrid with several thousand troops, with which he 
threatened to march northward. To check this movement, 
Gen. Fremont had stationed this force at Bird's Point, where 
they could easily keep up a blockade of the river, and, in 
case of emergency, move into the interior to meet any for- 
ward movement of the enemy from below. 

SKIRMISH AT ATHENS. 

On the fifth of August, a skirmish took place between four 
hundred Union home guards, stationed at Athens, on the 
Desmoines river, near the Iowa line, twenty-five miles south 
of Keokuk, commanded by Col. Moore, and twelve hundred 
rebels, under Col. Martin Green, who made the attack at six 
o'clock in the morning. An irregular and indecisive fight 
followed, lasting an hour and a half, when Col. Moore led 
the center of his line to a charge, which routed the enemy. 
Col. Moore and his soldiers were left undisputed masters of 
the field, with a loss of ten killed and ten wounded. The 
rebel loss was fourteen killed, forty wounded, and eighteen 
prisoners. 

battle op wilson's creek. 

On returning to Springfield, after his expedition to Curran, 
Gen. Lyon found himself called upon to decide whether he 
should, with an inferior force, give battle to the enemy, now 
closely pressing upon him, or attempt to retreat to Eolla, 
encumbered with heavy trains of baggage, and exposing 



MISSOURI CAMPAIGN. 459 

himself to an attack at any point on the route where the 
enemy might see fit to attack him. With a large cavalry 
force, they could, by celerity of movement, cut off his com- 
munication, and flank him wherever disposed. His appeals 
for reinforcements had not been heeded, yet he daily indulged 
the hope that a sufficient force would reach him to justify an 
offensive movement against the enemy, with a reasonable 
prospect of success. But this hope was not realized; and the 
rebels were so close upon him, that he was compelled either 
to retreat, and leave a large region of country unprotected, 
or make an attempt to expel the foe, even at the risk of sac- 
rificing his army. On the afternoon of Friday, the ninth of 
August, after a consultation with his officers, it was deemed 
advisable to attack McCulloch's camp at Wilson's Creek, 
nine miles southeast of Springfield, where the enemy's tents 
were pitched, extending a mile east and south of the Cassville 
road, and two miles west and north of the same, the creek 
running nearly in the shape of a horizontal ui. The plan 
agreed upon was to attack the enemy, simultaneously by two 
columns, at daybreak on the following morning, Saturday, 
the tenth ; the first column under command of Gen. Lyon, and 
the second under Gen. Sigel. 

Strange to say, on the same day orders were issued by Gen. 
McCulloch to the rebel troops to prepare to take up the 
line of march to Springfield by nine o'clock on that night, 
with the purpose of attacking Gen. Lyon at different points 
at daylight the next morning. But when the hour arrived 
to march the order was countermanded in consequence of 
the threatening appearance of the weather, and the want of 
cartridge boxes to protect the ammunition of the men. But 
for this change of orders, it is highly probable the two armies 
would have come in conflict with each other during the night, 
while each was marchig to surprise the other. 

At half past six o'clock on Friday evening General Sigel 
moved southward with six pieces of artillery, the Third and 
Fifth Missouri, and two companies of regular cavalry. The 
column marched all night and arrived at daybreak within a 
mile of the enemy's outposts, and on the right and rear of 
the rebel camp. 



460 MISSOURI CAMPAIGN. 

Gen. Lyon, at the head of the main body, marched from 
Springfield at five o'clock in the afternoon, making a detour 
to the right, and at one o'clock in the morning reached a 
point on the right of the rebel camp, in full view of the ene- 
my's guard-fires. Here the column halted and lay on their 
arms until the dawn of day, when it again moved forward. 
A south-easterly direction was taken, with a view to strike 
the extreme northern point of the enemy's camp. Reaching 
this position a line of battle was formed, closely followed by 
Totten's battery, supported by a strong reserve, and in this 
order the Union troops advanced, with skirmishers in front, 
until the first outpost of the rebels was encountered and 
driven in. Then the column was halted and a disposition of 
the forces made, by which Capt. Plummer's battalion of regu- 
lar infantry, with a company of mounted home guards, were 
to cross Wilson's creek and move towards the front, keeping 
pace with the advance on the opposite bank, for the purpose 
of protecting the left flank against any attempt to turn it. 
After crossing a ravine and ascending a high ridge near the 
northern end of the valley, through which the creek ran, 
Gen. Lyon's advance came in full view of the enemy's skir- 
mishers. Major Osterhaus' battalion of two companies of 
the Second Missouri volunteers, was at once deployed to the 
right, and two companies of the First Missouri were deployed 
to the left as skirmishers. The firing now became very 
severe. It was evident our troops were approaching the 
rebel stronghold, where they intended to give battle. A few 
shell's from Totten's battery assisted the skirmishers in clear- 
ing the ground in front. The infantry regiments were now 
posted in front upon the crest of a small elevated plateau, 
with a wide ravine separating the two wings. Totten's bat- 
tery was placed opposite the interval between the infantry 
force. The extreme right rested on a ravine which turned 
abruptly to the right and rear. Dubois' battery, with a 
strong support, was stationed eighty yards to the left and 
rear of Totten's guns, so as to bear upon a powerful battery 
of the enemy, posted to the left and front on the opposite side 
of Wilson's creek, to sweep the entire plateau upon which 
our troops were formed. 



MISSOURI CAMPAIGN. 461 

The enemy now rallied in great force near the foot of the 
slope, and under cover, opposite Lyon's left wing and along 
the slope in front, and on his right toward the crest of the 
main ridge, running parallel to the creek. During this time 
Capt. Plummer, with his four companies of infantry, moved 
down a ridge about five hundred yards to the left of Lyon's 
line of battle, and separated therefrom by a deep ravine, and 
reached its abrupt terminus, where he found his further pro- 
gress arrested by a large body of rebel infantry, occupying a 
cornfield in the valley in his front. At this moment distant 
artillery firing was heard, indicating that Gen. Sigel had 
engaged the enemy to the south and rear. 

Gen. Lyon's whole line now advanced with much energy 
upon the enemy's position. The firing, which for half an 
hour had been spirited, now increased to a continuous roar. 
Capt. Totten's battery came into action and played upon the 
enemy's lines with great effect. After a fierce engagement, 
which continued for half an hour, the enemy gave way in the 
utmost confusion, and left our troops in possession of the 
position. 

Capt. Plummer, meeting with overpowering resistance from 
the large mass of infantry in the corn field in his front, and 
in the woods beyond, was compelled to fall back; but, at this 
moment, Dubois' battery, supported by Capt. Steele's battal- 
ion of regulars, opened upon the enemy in the corn field a 
fire of shell, with such marked effect as to drive him in the 
utmost disorder, and with great slaughter, from the field. 

A momentary cessation of fire followed along nearly the 
whole line, except the extreme right, where the First Mis- 
souri was still engaged with a superior force of the enemy, 
attempting to turn the right flank, but the timely arrival of 
the Second Kansas to its support prevented the destruction 
of the Missourians by the overwhelming forces against which 
they were unflinchingly holding their position. 

The enemy again appeared in large force along the entire 
front, and moved towards each flank. The engagement at 
once became general and exceedingly fierce; the enemy 
approached in three or four ranks, lying down, kneeling, and 
standing; the lines often approaching to within thirty or forty 



462 MISSOURI CAMPAIGN. 

yards of each other, as the enemy charged upon Totten's 
battery, and were driven back. Every available battalion 
was now brought into action, and the battle raged with una- 
bated fury for more than an hour; the scales seeming all the 
time to be equally balanced, our troops sometimes gaining a 
little ground and again giving way a few yards to rally again. 

DEATH OF GEN. LYON. 

Early in this engagement, while Gen. Lyon was leading 
his horse along the line on the left of Totten's battery, and 
endeavoring to rally our troops, which were at this time in 
considerable disorder, his horse was killed, and he received a 
wound in the leg and another in the head. He walked slowly 
a few paces to the rear, and said, "I fear the day is lost." 
Another horse being furnished him by Major Sturgis, the Gen- 
eral mounted, and swinging his hat in the air, called to the 
troops nearest him to follow. The Second Kansas gallantly 
rallied around him, headed by the brave Col. Mitchell. In a 
few moments the Colonel fell severely wounded. A fatal ball 
lodged in Gen. Lyon's breast, and he was carried from the 
field — a corpse. Thus gloriously fell a soldier, brave as ever 
drew a sword — a noble patriot who willingly sacrificed his 
life for the welfare of his country. 

The death of Gen. Lyon was not generally known among 
the troops until the battle was ended. After his fall the com- 
mand devolved on Major Samuel D. Sturgis, who gave atten- 
tion at once to the disordered line on the left, which was 
again rallied and pressed against the enemy with great vigor 
and coolness. This hot encounter lasted half an hour ; then the 
enemy fled and abandoned the field. The brave little army, 
which had thus far successfully resisted the rebels, was scat- 
tered and broken; a largely superior force was still in its 
front. The men had drank no water since the evening before, 
and could hope for none nearer than Springfield. If they 
should go forward their own success might in the end prove 
their certain defeat. If they retreated, disaster stared them 
in the face. Their ammunition was well nigh exhausted, and 



MISSOURI CAMPAIGN. 463 

should the enemy make this discovery total discomfiture was 
all they could expect. ISTo news had been received from 
Sigel. He might have been defeated and forced to retreat. 
If he were safe and could make a vigorous attack on the 
enemy's right flank or rear, then Sturgis could go forward 
with some hope of success. If he had retreated there was 
nothing left for the other division but to follow. In this 
perplexing condition, Sturgis summoned his officers together 
for counsel. The consultation was brought to a sudden close 
by the advance of a heavy column of infantry from the hill 
where Sigel's guns had been heard early in the morning. 
Thinking they were Sigel's men, a line was formed for an 
advance, with the hope of forming a junction with him. 
These troops wore a dress much resembling that of Sigel's 
brigade, and carried the American flag. They were, there- 
fore, permitted to move down the hill within short range of 
Dubois' battery, until they reached the covered position at the 
foot of the ridge, on which Sturgis' men were posted, and 
from which they had before been fiercely assailed. Suddenly 
a battery was planted on the hill in front and began to pour 
upon our line shrapnell and canister — a species of shot not 
before fired by the enemy. At this moment the enemy 
showed his true colors, and, at once, commenced along our 
entire line the fiercest and most bloody engagement of the 
day. Dubois' battery, supported by Osterhaus' battalion and 
the scattered fragments of the First Missouri, soon silenced 
the enemy's battery on the hill, and repulsed the right wing 
of his infantry. Capt. Totten's battery in the center, sup- 
ported by the Lrwa First, and the regulars, was the main 
point of attack. The enemy were frequently seen within 
twenty feet of Totten's guns. Now, for the first time during 
the day, our entire line maintained its position with perfect 
firmness. Not the slightest disposition to waver was mani- 
fested at any point. The contending lines at one time were 
almost muzzle to muzzle. Capt. Gordon Granger, Assistant 
Adjutant General, at this critical period, rushed to the rear, 
quickly brought up the supports of Dubois' battery, and fell 
upon the enemy's right flank, pouring into it a murderous 
volley, killing or wounding nearly every man within sixty or 



464 MISSOURI CAMPAIGN. 

seventy yards. From this moment a complete rout took 
place along the rebel front, while our's on the right flank con- 
tinued to pour a galling lire into their disorganized masses. 
The enemy then fled from the field. 

The order to retreat was given soon after the enemy gave 
way. The whole column slowly moved to the high open 
prairie, about two miles from the battle ground, carrying off 
all the wounded. About this time news reached Major Stur- 
gis that Sigel had been completely routed and was on his 
way back to Springfield. After making a short halt on the 
prairie, the march was continued to Springfield. The enemy 
made no attempt at pursuit, and the column reached its point 
of destination about five o'clock in the afternoon. 



THE DISASTER TO SIGEL'S COLUMN. 



During Sigel's march, early in the morning, he cut off about 
forty of the enemy who were coming from the camp in squads 
to obtain water and provisions. This prevented news reach- 
ing the rebel camp of the advance. On approaching within 
view of the enemy's tents four pieces of artillery were planted 
on a little hill, while the infantry advanced to a point where 
the Fayetteville road crosses Wilson's creek, and the two 
cavalry companies were extended to the right and left to 
guard the flanks. At the crossing of this road the hills on 
each side of the stream are about two hundred feet high, 
sloping gently towards the north, and abrupt towards the 
south side. The valley is about half a mile wide. At half 
past iive o'clock musketry firing from the north-west was 
heard. This was the signal for commencing the attack. Sigel 
ordered the artillery to open upon the enemy's camp; the 
fire was so destructive that the rebels were forced to retire in 
haste towards the north-east end of the valley. Meanwhile 
the infantry quickly advanced, passed the creek, and travers- 
ing the camp, formed almost in the center of it. The enemy 
soon rallied in large numbers in front. The artillery was 
brought forward from the hill and formed, in battery, across 
the valley, with the infantry to the left and the cavalry to 
the right. After an effectual fire of half an hour, the enemy 



MISSOURI CAMPAIGN. 465 

retired in confusion into the woods and up the adjoining 
hills. The firing to the north-west now became more distinct, 
and increased until it was evident to Sigel that Lyon had 
engaged the enemy along the whole line. To give him all 
possible assistance, Sigel abandoned his position in the camp, 
and moved towards the north-west to attack the enemy's 
line of battle in the rear. 

Marching forward, they soon struck the Fayetteville road; 
and making their way through a large number of cattle and 
horses, they reached an eminence known as Sharp's farm. 
On the route about one hundred prisoners were taken. Here 
rebel soldiers were met. Sigel, suspecting that the enemy 
would follow these stragglers, formed his troops across the 
road, by planting his artillery on the plateau, and the two 
infantry regiments on the right and left. The cavalry pro- 
tected the flanks. Soon the firing, which had been heard in 
the direction of the northwest for an hour previous, almost 
entirely ceased, Sigel was now impressed with the belief 
that Lyon's attack had been successful, and that his troops 
were in pursuit of the enemy, who moved in large numbers 
toward the ridge of a hill, about seven hundred yards oppo- 
site Sigel's right. At half-past eight o'clock the report 
came in from skirmishers, that Lyon's men were coming up 
the road, whereupon the commanding officers of the infantry 
notified their regiments not to fire upon the troops coming 
from that direction. Sigel gave the same word of caution to 
the artillery. Our troops anxiously expected the approach 
of their friends, and were waving the flag as a signal to their 
supposed comrades, when suddenly two batteries, one in 
front, on the Fayetteville roacl, and the other upon the hill 
upon which it was supposed Lyon's forces were in pursuit of 
the enemy, opened their fire on the deceived men, whilst a 
strong column of infantry, supposed to be the Iowa regiment, 
advanced from the Fayetteville road, and attacked the right 
of Sigel's line. The consternation was indescribable, and 
the confusion frightful. The cry, "Lyon's men are firing 
against us!" was heard along the ranks; the artillerymen 
were now ordered to fire by Sigel himself, but could hardly 
be brought forward to serve their pieces; the infantry would' 
Yol. L— 30. 



466 MISSOURI CAMPAIGN. 

not level their arms upon their supposed friends, until it was 
too late. The enemy marched within ten paces of the muz- 
zles of our cannon, killed the horses, turned the flanks of the 
infantry, and forced them, panic-stricken, to fly in all direc- 
tions. The troops rushed into the bushes and by-roads, 
retreating to Springfield, followed by large bodies of Arkan- 
sas and Texas cavalry. In this retreat five cannon were lost. 
The total loss in Sigel's command amounted to fifteen killed, 
twenty wounded, and two hundred and thirty-five missing. 
The loss in the main column was two hundred and eight 
killed, seven hundred and one wounded, and fifty-seven miss- 
ing, which, added to Sigel's loss, made the entire casualities 
two hundred and twenty-three killed, seven hundred and 
twenty-one wounded, and two hundred and ninety-two miss- 
ing. The effective troops of the enemy consisted of five 
thousand three hundred infantry, fifteen pieces of artillery, 
and six thousand horsemen, armed with flint-lock muskets, 
rifles and- shot-guns. Besides these, there were large num- 
bers of unarmed horsemen. Gen. Price admitted the loss in 
his division to be one hundred and fifty-six killed, and five 
hundred and seventeen wounded, while Gen. McCulloch, the 
chief commander, stated the entire loss at two hundred and 
sixty-five killed, eight hundred wounded, and thirty missing. 
Major Sturgis, in his official report of this battle, says: 
" That three thousand seven hundred men, after a fatiguing 
night march, attacked the enemy, numbering twenty-three 
thousand, on their own ground, and, after a bloody conflict 
of six hours, withdrew at their leisure, to return to their pro- 
visions and their water, is the best eulogium I can pass on 
their conduct that day." 

The death of Gen. Lyon was deplored throughout the 
North and West. Countless were the tributes to his memory, 
and deep the sorrow when his body was borne to his home 
in Connecticut. The death of this true patriot was the occa- 
sion of much rejoicing by the secessionists of Missouri. The 
battle of Wilson's Creek, or Oak Hills, as the rebels term it, 
was magnified, and claimed as an important rebel victory. 
The loss of a Union General, and the defeat of Sigel, were 
spoken of incessantly; while their defeat, by Lyon's and 



MISSOURI CAMPAIGN. 467 

Sturgis' columns, was seemingly forgotten by the secession 
agitators. In this way the rebellious spirit was increased 
among the people of Missouri, and thousands of recruits for 
the rebel army were raised in a few weeks. 

MORE AID FOR MISSOURI, 

The Government now saw the necessity for sending large 
numbers of troops into Missouri from the surrounding loyal 
States. Among the first of those to respond to the call, was 
Indiana. On the seventeenth of August, the Twenty-Third 
Indiana, Col. William L. Sanderson, left for St. Louis by the 
Ohio and Mississippi railroad; the same day, the Twenty- 
Second Indiana, Col. Jeff. C. Davis, left on the Terre Haute 
railroad ; on the following day, the Eighteenth Indiana, Col. 
Thomas Pattison, departed by the way of Lafayette and 
Springfield; on the nineteenth, f .he Twenty-Fourth Indiana, 
Col. Alvin P. Hovey, left; and on the twenty-first, Col. Con- 
rad Baker followed, with eight companies of the First 
Indiana cavalry (Twenty-Eighth regiment). The Eighth, 
Col. ¥m, P. Benton ; Twenty-Fifth, Col. James C. Veatch, 
and Twenty-Sixth, Col. Wm. M. Wheatley, and the First, 
Second and Third Indiana batteries, commanded, respec- 
tively, by Captains Martin Klauss, John W. Rabb, and Watt 
W. Frybarger, soon after joined these regiments at St. Louis, 
where they were quartered for a few days, and then sent into 
the interior, along the lines of the several railroads, and 
posted at different points, to take the places of the three 
months' troops, whose time had expired. Other Western 
States contributed their share of volunteers for the campaign 
in Missouri. 

On the nineteenth of August, two hundred and fifty men 
of the Twenty-Second Illinois, under Col. Dougherty and 
Lieut. Col. Ransom, of the Eleventh Illinois, defeated three 
hundred rebels of Jeff. Thompson's army at Charleston. 
Twenty rebels were killed and wounded, and seventeen pris- 
oners taken. The Union loss was one killed and six wounded. 

On the twelfth of September, a skirmish occurred at Black 
river, twelve or fifteen miles southwest of Ironton, between 



468 MISSOURI CAMPAIGN. 

three companies of the First Indiana cavalry, under Major 
J. Smith Gavitt, and a body of secessionists, under Ben. 
Talbott, in which five of the rebels were killed, and four 
taken prisoners, and thirty-five horses and a quantity of arms 
captured. The rest scattered in all directions, and being 
familiar with the country, eluded capture. 

DEFENSE OF LEXINGTON. 

On the first of September, Col. James A. Mulligan, com- 
manding the Chicago Irish battalion, of eight hundred men, 
received orders to march to the relief of Lexington, one hun- 
dred and twenty miles west of Jefferson City, (where his reg- 
iment was stationed,) and which was then threatened by the 
enemy. Col. Mulligan reached Lexington on the ninth, and 
found the place occupied by a part of the Eighth Missouri, 
the First Illinois cavalry, and four hundred home guards, 
The Irish battalion swelled the force to about three thousand 
five hundred. Col. Mulligan, being the senior officer, took 
command. On the tenth a letter was received from Col. 
Peabody, of the Thirteenth Missouri, stating that he was 
retreating from Warrensburgh, twenty -five miles distant, and 
that Price was pursuing him with ten thousand men. A few 
hours after, Col. Peabody entered Lexington with his regiment. 

On the twelfth, Price's advance force of three thousand 
men, under Gen. Harris, approached Lexington from the 
south, when the First Illinois cavalry, and the Thirteenth 
Missouri, were ordered out to meet them. A sharp and 
decisive action occurred in the evening, two miles south of 
the city, near the Fair ground, which resulted in considerable 
loss to the rebels, they having fallen into an ambuscade pre- 
pared for them by the Missouri regiment. The Union loss 
was four killed and a small number wounded. 

From this time till Wednesday, the eighteenth, the fight- 
ing was confined to skirmishing between the hostile pickets. 
The aspect was now changed by the arrival of immense rein- 
forcements to the rebels, by which their three thousand were 
increased to twenty thousand, with thirteen pieces of artillery. 
In the meantime, Mulligan had not been idle. To the north- 



MISSOURI CAMPAIGN. 469 

east of Lexington, within its limits, are a large college and 
grounds, including an area of fifty acres. Fortifications were 
constructed around the college, and earthworks, three or four 
feet high, were thrown up. The outer line of intrenchments 
extended to a seminary, fifty yards from the college, and 
almost to the brick dwelling of Col. Anderson, occupied as a 
hospital by the garrison, which stood between the seminary 
and the river. They also approached closely to the ravines 
and deep gullies between the grounds and the river on the 
west, and extended through the wooded banks of the river, 
which bound the college grounds on the north. 

On Wednesday morning the pickets were driven in by the 
overwhelming forces of the enemy, who planted two batteries 
in front, one on the left, one on the right, and one in the 
rear. From these, at a given signal, a terrific fire was opened, 
which was promptly answered. About noon the hospital 
was taken, and filled by rebel sharpshooters, who poured a 
deadly fire upon the Union troops. The hospital contained 
the Chaplain and one hundred and twenty sick and wounded 
men. Towards evening, the Montgomery G-uards, Capt. 
C-leason, of the Irish battalion, was brought out, and ordered 
to charge upon the hospital, and retake it. They charged 
up the slope to the house, took it, and drove the enemy, in 
wild confusion, clown the hill. During the day, some of the 
outer works were taken by the beseiging force. Our troops 
retired in good order to an inner line, where they obtained 
shelter. 

The next morning the fire was resumed, and continued all 
day, but with comparatively little loss on either side. The 
weather was intensely hot, and the garrison could only obtain 
its water from the river; to reach which, was almost certain 
death, so constant was the firing from the rebels both day 
and night. During Thursday night two wells were dug. 

On Friday morning a brisk cannonading was opened, and 
the fusilade of small arms was begun, and kept up incessantly 
till the afternoon. The rebels had constructed movable 
breastworks of hemp bales, rolled them up the hill, and 
advanced their batteries so as to command the fortifications: 
Hot shot were fired at them, but without effect, they having 



470 MISSOURI CAMPAIGN. 

been thoroughly water-soaked. The outer breastworks were 
eoou carried by the enemy. The Union lines were broken, 
and the rebels rushed in. The Union troops, however, 
repulsed them at every point; but the cartridges giving out, 
it became evident that the struggle could not be protracted. 
Suddenly the rebel fire ceased, when it was ascertained a 
Major of the home guards had, on his own responsibility, 
hoisted a white flag. It was taken down, but again raised 
by the same person. Affairs now reached such a condition, 
that Col. Mulligan, notwithstanding his unwillingness to sur- 
render, decided to take the advice of a council of his officers, 
and capitulate. Capt. McDermott went out to the enemy's 
lines, with a hankerchief tied to a ramrod, when a parley 
took place. The terms were soon arranged and made known - r 
the officers were to be retained as prisoners of war, the men 
to be paroled. The surrender took place at four, p. m., on 
Friday, the twentieth, after fifty-two hours of continuous 
firing. 

At the capitulation Col. Mulligan shed tears. Some of 
the horses of Col. Marshall's cavalry died during the seige.. 
A few privates of his regiment, unwilling that their horses 
should fall into the enemy's hands, shot them dead on the 
spot. 

The privates, on taking the oath not to serve against the 
Confederate States, were put across the river, and marched 
to Eichmond, whence they marched to Hamilton, on the 
Hannibal and St. Joseph railroad, where they were declared 
free to go where they pleased. 

The rebel loss is believed to have been equal to, if not 
greater than, Col. Mulligan's, which was two hundred killed 
and wounded. Gen. Price admits only a loss of twenty-five 
killed and seventy-five wounded. 

Gen. Fremont, in accounting for the failure to reinforce the 
beseiged garrison, telegraphed the War Department, three 
days after the surrender, that Gen. Sturgis could not cross 
the river with four thousand men, because of the capture of 
the ferry boats by the rebels ; that Lane's force, from the- 
southwest, and Davis' force, from the southeast, upwards of 
eleven thousand in all, could not get there in time. 



MISSOURI CAMPAIGN. 471 

SKIRMISHES AND GUERRILLA OPERATIONS. 

Two engagements with the enemy occurred at Blue Mills 
Landing, near Libert}', on the eighteenth of September, the 
first between fi.ve hundred of the Third Iowa regiment,' with 
one piece of artillery, under Lieut. Col. Scott, and about four 
thousand rebels under Gen. Atchison. After a desperate 
struggle of an hour's duration, in which Scott lost one hun- 
dred and twenty killed and wounded, and all his artillery 
horses, he retreated slowly half a mile, dragging his cannon, 
by hand. He subsequently took a position with his howitzer 
on an eminence, and waited for the enemy to renew the 
attack. But he was not pursued. is"ot long afterward Col. 
Smith's Sixteenth Illinois regiment, with four cannon,, 
approached Blue Mills by another road and engaged and 
routed the rebels as they were crossing the Missouri river. 

The steamer "War Eagle, in company with the, steamers 
White Cloud and Des Moines, left Jefferson City on the 
eighteenth of September, on an expedition up the Missouri 
river. The W r ar Eagle had on board six companies of the 
Twenty-Second and a portion of the Eighteenth Indiana 
regiments, under command of Lieut. Col. Hendricks of the 
Twenty-Second; on board the other two steamers were the 
Twenty- Sixth Indiana, under command of Col. Wheatley. 
Arriving at Booneville the troops of the Eighteenth Indiana 
were transferred to the steamer Iatan, and the remainder of 
the Twenty-Second Indiana, (which had marched across the 
country, in command of Major Tanner,) were taken on board 
the War Eagle. The Iatan received the rest of the Eighteenth 
Indiana. The expedition again started up the river; the 
troops on board the War Eagle and Iatan were under command 
of Lieut. Col. Hendricks, w'hile those on the White Cloud 
and Des Moines were under command of Col. Wheatley. 
The former were destined for Glasgow and Cambridge, and 
were to reconnoiter about the neighborhood of those places 
for bands of rebels reported to be in those localities. Col. 
Wheatley's forces were bound for Lexington. Late in the 
evening of the nineteenth Col. Hendricks' forces landed five 
miles below Glasgow. Three companies were detached from. 



472 MISSOURI CAMPAIGN. 

one steamer and three from the other, under command of 
Major Gordon Tanner, of the Twenty-Second Indiana, as a 
scouting party to go to Glasgow and surround the place. At 
the same time, and unknown to Col. Hendricks, a picket guard 
of sixty men was sent out by Col. Wheatley, who had tied up 
his boats for the night near where Col. Hendricks had landed. 
The consequence was the parties met in the woods, a short 
distance from the boats. Mistaking each other for enemies 
they commenced firing, which for a few minutes was inces- 
sant. Before the mistake was discovered three of the Eigh- 
teenth and one of the Twenty-Second were killed and seven or 
eight wounded. Among the latter was Major Tanner, who 
received a mortal wound from which he afterwards died at 
Jefferson City. The expedition returned the next day, with- 
out accomplishing the object of its mission. 

BATTLE OF FREDERICKTOWN. 

Intelligence having reached Col. Carlin, commanding the 
forces at Pilot Knob, that Gen. Jeff. Thompson, with a large 
rebel force, was in the vicinity of Fredericktown, he ordered 
Capt. Hawkins, of the Missouri cavalry, to proceed with a 
detachment of forty men to reconnoiter in that direction. On 
Tuesday, the sixteenth of October, when within five miles of 
Fredericktown, his advance guard was suddenly attacked and 
two of his men taken prisoners. Capt. Hawkins succeeded 
in driving the rebels within their lines, and then sent for rein- 
forcements. While awaiting their arrival he was thrice 
attacked, but each time repulsed the enemy. Late on 
Wednesday evening reinforcements arrived, consisting of six 
companies of the First Indiana cavalry, under Maj. J. Smith 
Gavitt, and the Twenty-First Illinois infantry, Col. Alexander 
commanding. Thursday morning, while on the march, the 
advance guard came in contact with the rebels, when a skir- 
mish followed. The main force now came up and engaged 
and routed the enemy. Apprehending the approach of a 
larger force of rebels, the Union troops at night fell back on 
Pilot Knob. 

On the Sunday following the troops stationed at Pilot Knob 



MISSOURI CA11PAIGN. 473 

marched to Fredericktown to attack Thompson's force, 
reported to be four thousand strong and intrenched. On 
Monday morni-ng they arrived at Fredericktown to find that 
the enemy had evacuated it the day before. Col. Carlin's 
force was composed of the First Indiana cavalry, Col. Conrad 
Baker, the Twenty-First, Thirty-Third and Thirty-Eighth 
Illinois, the Eighth Wisconsin, and a battery of six pieces, 
under command of Major Schofield, making in all three thou- 
sand five hundred men. At noon these were joined by fifteen 
hundred men — the Seventeenth and Twentieth Illinois, the 
Eleventh Missouri, a section of Taylor's battery, and two 
companies of Illinois cavalry — under command of Col. J. B. 
Plummer, of the Eleventh Missouri. This force had been dis- 
patched from Cape Girardeau, by Gen. Grant, to co-operate 
with Col. Carlin. The latter gave Col. Plummer a part of 
his command and he immediately started in pursuit of Thomp- 
son, who was found occupying a position one mile out of 
town on the Greenville road. An immediate attack followed. 
The rebel artillery consisted of four pieces, masked, upon the 
slope of a hill about six hundred yards distant. The princi- 
pal body of their infantry, under Col. Lowe, was posted in a 
corn field to the left of the road. Taylor's battery opened 
fire, and by its effectiveness soon caused the enemy to respond. 
The Seventeenth Illinois then engaged the rebel infantry in the 
corn field, while the other regiments deployed to the right 
and left. The Thirty-Eighth Illinois was now ordered for- 
ward from the town, and promptly came upon the field, 
leaving as a reserve the Eighth Wisconsin and one section of 
Schofield's battery. Two sections of the latter were at once 
ordered into action, and the line of battle was formed, and 
a steady advance made upon the enemy's lines. The infantry 
firing of the Seventeenth and Twentieth Illinois, and Elev- 
enth Missouri, on the left, was so deadly that the enemy 
were forced to fall back. Their retreat soon became a rout, 
the rebels flying in every direction, pursued by the Union 
troops. At this time the enemy's infantry on the right of the 
road, where Thompson commanded in person, beat a retreat, 
when the First Indiana cavalry was ordered to charge and 
pursue them. Thompson, however, had rallied a portion of 



474 MISSOURI CAMPAIGN. 

his troops about half a mile in the rear of his first position, 
and brought one gun into battery on the road, supported by 
infantry on either side. The cavalry, led by the gallant Col. 
Baker, charged and took the gun, while exposed to a deadly 
fire from the enemy's infantry. A column, which had been 
ordered forward to the support of the cavalry, failing to 
reach the point in time, the enemy recaptured and carried 
the piece from the field. It was here two of Indiana's noblest 
and bravest sons fell — Major Gavitt and Capt. Highman. 

The rout now became general. The enemy were pursued 
by the victorious troops for several miles, until the approach 
of night prompted their recall to town. Captain Stewart's 
squadron of Illinois cavalry followed them until late in the 
night, and brought in several prisoners. One field piece was 
taken by Col. Ross' Seventeenth Illinois. 

On the following morning the enemy was pursued by the 
greater portion of our forces for ten miles, but finding that 
he could not be overtaken, the Union troops were ordered 
back to Fredericktown. 

Our forces engaged in this battle were commanded by Col. 
J. B. Plummer, who was afterwards specially commended, in 
general orders, by Gen. Grant. There were taken upon the 
field eighty prisoners, of whom thirty-eight were wounded; 
The Federal loss was six killed, and sixty wounded. The 
rebel forces numbered about four thousand, of whom one 
hundred and fifty-eight were buried on the field. 

Fremont's pursuit of price. 

On the twenty-seventh of September Gen. Fremont left St. 
Louis, with fifteen steamers and fifteen thousand men, and 
sailed up the Missouri to Jefferson City, where he halted 
several days to collect additional material necessary for a 
march into the interior. Gen. Price, hearing of this formida- 
ble movement, evacuated Lexington, leaving only a small 
force behind to guard it. 

On the sixteenth the garrison at Lexington was surprised 
by Major White, with one hundred and fifty men, and the 
place and all the sick and wounded recaptured. Sixty pris- 



MISSOURI CAMPAIGN. 475 

oners were taken. JSTot having sufficient force to hold Lex- 
ington, Major "White abandoned it, after first placing the 
hospital patients on board a steamer and dispatching it to 
St. Louis. 

Gen. Fremont, who had collected a large army at Sedalia, 
now began a forward movement to the south-west. This was 
the commencement of that long and tedious march to Spring- 
field, which was remarkable for its severity and privations. 
But little transportation was used. The soldiers were com- 
pelled to lie upon the ground, in the rain and snow, without 
tents. Hundreds were left to sicken and die on the road. 
Springfield was reached on the first of November, and 
found deserted. "While at this place Gen. Fremont, on the 
second of November, received a peremptory order from the 
War Department relieving him from his command, and desig- 
nating as his successor, Gen. David Hunter; who reported 
for duty the next day, and, almost immediately, withdrew 
the Federal army from south-west Missouri. 

The causes assigned for Fremont's removal were: neglecting 
to reinforce Lyon and Mulligan; issuing a proclamation con- 
fiscating rebel property in a manner not in conformity with 
the act of Congress of August sixth, which confiscated only 
property used in rebellion, which proclamation the President 
afterwards compelled him to modify; extravagant expendi- 
tures in constructing fortifications in and around St. Louis; 
and the corrupt manner in which Quartermasters' supplies 
were furnished and accounted for in his department. 

GENERAL HALLECK'S ADMINISTRATION. 

In December Major General Henry "W". Halleck, lately of 
California, was assigned to the command of the Military 
Department of the West, which included Missouri. He at 
once entered upon active duty, having his headquarters at 
St. Louis. His first act was to issue and enforce a series of 
" General Orders," which had the effect to stop all further 
attempts of the secessionists of St. Louis to stir up strife, and 
to place them in complete subjection to military rule. All 
found in arms against the Government, or who gave aid and 



476 MISSOURI CAMPAIGN. 

comfort to the rebels, in any portion of the State, were con- 
fined and held as prisoners of war; while